Search results

1 – 10 of over 4000
To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 June 1993

Hilary Groom

Looks at the evidence and summarizes the reasons behind theencouragements to consume more oil‐rich fish in relation to its benefitsin coronary heart disease and other…

Abstract

Looks at the evidence and summarizes the reasons behind the encouragements to consume more oil‐rich fish in relation to its benefits in coronary heart disease and other diseases, together with early development. The type of fatty acids, the long chain n‐3 polyunsaturate fatty acids, almost exclusively found in oil‐rich fish, show beneficial effects on the metabolism of biologically active substances called eicosanoids which regulate many processes in the human body. This is the most likely mechanism for the positive effects of oil‐rich fish on various disease processes.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 93 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 9 February 2015

Yasamin Soleimanian, Mohammad A. Sahari and Mohsen Barzegar

The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficiency of low temperature fractional crystallization to increase polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) content of fish oil

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficiency of low temperature fractional crystallization to increase polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) content of fish oil. Effects of temperature, stages of crystallization, rate of cooling, agitation and addition of primary nucleus on separation efficiency were evaluated. Low temperature crystallization of triacylglycerols (TAGs) was used to increase PUFA content of fish oil (initial PUFA content ∼30 g/100 g oil).

Design/methodology/approach

To optimize the fractionation process, the effect of fractionation temperature (7, 5, 0 and −5°C), crystallization procedures, cooling rate, agitation and addition of primary nucleus on PUFA content was evaluated.

Findings

The best relationship between PUFA concentration (45.8 g/100 g oil) and PUFA yield (51.5 per cent) was attained by performing two-stage crystallization of TAGs at the final temperatures of 5 and 0°C under slow cooling rate (3°C h−1 for first fractionation procedure and 0.7°C h−1 for second stage, until the final fractionation temperature, 0°C, was reached) and slow agitation (3 rpm) and in the presence of primary nucleus, which resulted in 50 per cent increase in PUFA content over the original fish oil.

Practical implications

Determination of iodine and saponification values, refractive index, solid fat content, melting point, cholesterol content of original oil and final fractionated product with the highest PUFA ratio showed that fractionation significantly alters physical and chemical properties of the fraction.

Originality/value

Comparison of iodine value, saponification value, refractive index, solid fat content, melting point and cholesterol content of original oil and the final fractionated product (with the highest PUFA ratio) showed that the fractionation process significantly alters mentioned properties of the initial oil.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 45 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 April 1995

David A. Hughes

Fish oil contains uniquely high amounts of n‐3 (or omega‐3)polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). N‐3 PUFA‐rich diets are associatedwith suppression of the immune system…

Abstract

Fish oil contains uniquely high amounts of n‐3 (or omega‐3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). N‐3 PUFA‐rich diets are associated with suppression of the immune system, and populations which have high dietary intakes of fish, such as Greenland Eskimos, have a low incidence of inflammatory and autoimmune disorders. These observations have led to a growing interest in the potential use of n‐3 PUFAs as a nutritionally‐based approach to the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis and other inflammatory disorders. Although fish oils may not be as effective as either steroidal or non‐steroidal anti‐inflammatory medications, they may prove useful in reducing the dosage (and associated side‐effects) of these medications required to bring about clinical benefit. A greater understanding of the mechanisms by which fish oil affects immune function should aid in improving its efficacy in the treatment of over‐reactive immune disorders.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 95 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 June 1981

At the commencement of this decade, leaving behind the “striking seventies”, we christened it the “anxious eighties”, for there was a profound disquiet and uncertainty…

Abstract

At the commencement of this decade, leaving behind the “striking seventies”, we christened it the “anxious eighties”, for there was a profound disquiet and uncertainty among most of the population, a fear that things were going to get worse, but they could have hardly expected the catastrophic events of the year 1981. The criteria of quality of life are its richness, grace, elegance; by the promise it contains; inspiration and purpose, hope, determination (to survive, to make certain that the evildoer is not permitted to succeed), love of one's country — pro patria, of other days.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 83 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 30 March 2010

Hedieh Alavi Talab, Mehdi Ardjmand, Abbasali Motallebi and Reza Pourgholam

Extraction and purification of Hypophthalmichthys molitrix fish oil by urea complex formation were made at −5, +1 and +5 C, respectively. Omega‐3 polyunsaturated fatty…

Abstract

Purpose

Extraction and purification of Hypophthalmichthys molitrix fish oil by urea complex formation were made at −5, +1 and +5 C, respectively. Omega‐3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) have proved to be beneficial in atherosclerosis, arrhythmia and hypertriglyceridemia. Starting with the hypothesis that the observed low cardiovascular morality could be related to marine diet, which contains omega‐3 PUFA.

Design/methodology/approach

Fish oil was extracted by Bligh and Dyer method from the muscle tissue and after, the PUFA concentrates produced by urea complexation and the oil samples were stored at −70 C. The observed results show that the rate of omega‐3 extraction has been increased while saturated and long chain monosaturated fatty acids decreased during this process.

Findings

Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) has a higher tendency to form urea adducts than the other two major n‐3 PUFAs, especially at low temperatures. The optimum temperature for maximum recovery of EPA is about 1 C. The amount of extracted omega‐3 in H. molitrix oil were 20.58 per cent wt of total extracted oil and by subsequent purification increased to 68 per cent wt at 1 C, 36.82 per cent wt at +5 C and 22.53 per cent wt at −5 C of total extracted oil.

Practical implications

Omega‐3 PUFA have proved to be beneficial in atherosclerosis, arrhythmia and hypertriglyceridemia. Starting with the hypothesis that the observed low cardiovascular morality could be related to marine diet, which contains omega‐3 PUFA. In order to reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases, emphasis has now been placed on the increased consumption of fish and fish products which are rich in PUFA.

Originality/value

The amount of extracted omega‐3 in H. molitrix oil were 20.58 per cent wt of total extracted oil and by subsequent purification increased to 68 per cent wt at 1 C, 36.82 per cent wt at +5 C and 22.53 per cent wt at −5 C of total extracted oil. Due to the low price of H. molitrix in comparison to other ocean fish sources, as well as, its availability in all seasons, higher level of ω3‐fatty acids, H. molitrix species has a good potential for ω3‐fatty acids production by extraction and subsequent purification.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 40 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 April 1989

Tom Sanders

Essential fatty acid deficiency in animals is characterised by a poor rate of growth, an increased voluntary food intake and a scaly dermatitis. Linoleic acid (18:2n‐6…

Abstract

Essential fatty acid deficiency in animals is characterised by a poor rate of growth, an increased voluntary food intake and a scaly dermatitis. Linoleic acid (18:2n‐6) cures all the symptoms but ∝‐linolenic acid (18:3n&hyphen3) only restores growth. Babies fed skimmed milk develop similar symptoms which are relieved by linoleic acid. The minimum daily requirement is approximately 1% of the energy intake: for an adult that is about 2 grams of linoleic acid.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 89 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 April 1980

The lengthy review of the Food Standards Committee of this, agreed by all public analysts and enforcement officers, as the most complicated and difficult of food groups…

Abstract

The lengthy review of the Food Standards Committee of this, agreed by all public analysts and enforcement officers, as the most complicated and difficult of food groups subject to detailed legislative control, is at last complete and the Committee's findings set out in their Report. When in 1975 they were requested to investigate the workings of the legislation, the problems of control were already apparent and getting worse. The triology of Regulations of 1967 seemed comprehensive at the time, perhaps as we ventured to suggest a little too comprehensive for a rational system of control for arguments on meat contents of different products, descriptions and interpretation generally quickly appeared. The system, for all its detail, provided too many loopholes through which manufacturers drove the proverbial “carriage and pair”. As meat products have increased in range and the constantly rising price of meat, the “major ingredient”, the number of samples taken for analysis has risen and now usually constitutes about one‐quarter of the total for the year, with sausages, prepared meats (pies, pasties), and most recently, minced meat predominating. Just as serial sampling and analysis of sausages before the 1967 Regulations were pleaded in courts to establish usage in the matter of meat content, so with minced meat the same methods are being used to establish a maximum fat content usage. What concerns food law enforcement agencies is that despite the years that the standards imposed by the 1967 Regulations have been in force, the number of infringements show no sign of reduction. This should not really surprise us; there are even longer periods of failures to comply; eg., in the use of preservatives which have been controlled since 1925! What a number of public analysts have christened the “beefburger saga” took its rise post‐1967 and shows every indication of continuing into the distant future. Manufacturers appear to be trying numerous ploys to reduce the content below the Regulation 80% mainly by giving their products new names. Each year, public analysts report a flux of new names and ingenious defences; eg, “caterburgers” and similar concocted nomenclature, and the defence that because the name does not incorporate a meat, it is outside the statutory standard.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 82 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 17 July 2009

C.H.S. Ruxton and E. Derbyshire

There is strong evidence that very long chain omega‐3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC3PUFA) are beneficial. The aim of this paper is to review the role of LC3PUFA in…

Abstract

Purpose

There is strong evidence that very long chain omega‐3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC3PUFA) are beneficial. The aim of this paper is to review the role of LC3PUFA in health and put this in context with habitual intakes and international recommendations.

Design/methodology/approach

A literature review was conducted to locate and summarise relevant published studies and reports.

Findings

There is good evidence that LC3PUFA help prevent cardiovascular disease, and may ameliorate inflammatory conditions and mental health issues, as well as supporting cognitive function throughout life. UK dietary surveys show that average fish intakes are well below the recommended two portions per week. Given that the majority of consumers do not eat oily fish, it is reasonable to consider the potential contribution of dietary supplements or fortified foods, although the latter must be sufficiently high in LC3PUFA to merit consideration.

Research limitations/implications

Information on LC3PUFA intakes in the UK is lacking. Future dietary surveys should remedy this and look at the relative contribution of different food groups, including supplements, to LC3PUFA intakes.

Originality/value

This paper gives a concise, up‐to‐date overview on LC3PUFA sources, intakes, recommendations and their impact upon health.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 39 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 17 October 2016

Frans Prenkert

The purpose of this paper is to provide an account of who forms what market assets by making what market investments in a business network.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide an account of who forms what market assets by making what market investments in a business network.

Design/methodology/approach

To investigate what market investments were made by certain actors into resource interfaces as market assets, the author draws on a case network based on an investigation of the Chilean salmon production network. To this end, the author chose the fish – being the focal object resource in that network – as a point of departure. The author systematically investigates the resource interfaces that this resource has with three other specific resources: feed, fishmeal, and vaccines in a thick case study.

Findings

This study shows that market investments entail committing resources to resource interfaces which turns them into market assets. Resource interfaces as market assets have implications on how we characterize and value resource interfaces. Multilateral resource interfaces become valuable to firms as a result of continuous market investments made into them. This produces different types of resource interfaces, some of which are of mediatory character bridging between distant resources in a network.

Research limitations/implications

This study focuses on the market investments being made to create and sustain market assets. Of course such assets are linked to a firm’s internal assets which this study do not investigate. In addition, this study emphasizes the commitment of resources into existing resource interfaces, the ensuing creation of market assets, and its use and value for firms and downplays a firm’s need to account for market investments and the market investments required to create a new resource interface.

Practical implications

As resource interfaces are valuable market assets, it is important to understand the functioning of different types of resource interfaces so as to exploit their potential as efficient as possible. This paper shows that some resources act as bridging resources connecting the borders of two indirectly related resources. Controlling bridging resources becomes an essential task for managers in business networks.

Social implications

Understanding the market investments into resource interfaces enables firms to become more skilled in organizing and controlling networks. These networks can play important roles in the economic development of society and create improved societal conditions for people, organizations, and economies.

Originality/value

By combining a market investment and market asset conceptualization of investments in networks with a resource interaction approach, this paper provides an enhanced understanding of resource interfaces as market assets. Theoretical implications for our understanding of resource interfaces – its value and character – are discussed.

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 May 1952

C. GRIFFITHS

In the first article in this series, the author dealt with general classification and composition of oils, fats and waxes, and this went on to discuss the properties of…

Abstract

In the first article in this series, the author dealt with general classification and composition of oils, fats and waxes, and this went on to discuss the properties of drying and non‐drying vegetable oils. In this second part, the properties of animal and fish oils, fats and waxes will be considered.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 4 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

1 – 10 of over 4000