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Book part
Publication date: 24 February 2011

Douglas H. Constance and M. Kirk Jentoft

This chapter combines a global value chain methodology with the case of the development of the farmed Atlantic salmon industry in Chile to inform discussions regarding the…

Abstract

This chapter combines a global value chain methodology with the case of the development of the farmed Atlantic salmon industry in Chile to inform discussions regarding the globalization of economy and society. The research documents the shifting structure of the value chain from the north to the south as Chile replaced northern Europe as the locus of production and the major world supplier of farmed Atlantic salmon. Farmed salmon was supported by the Chilean state as part of its export-oriented industrialization model that attracted foreign direct investment (FDI) from northern TNCs. Chile's low costs of production combined with growing environmental problems in the north and global retailers' demand for large quantities of low-cost product resulted in the restructuring of the farmed Atlantic-salmon value chain as northern capital sourced the south as a lucrative production platform to service northern consumers. A detailed investigation of the rise in dominance of the firm Marine Harvest is provided to illustrate the process of industry concentration the Chilean farmed-salmon industry. This model has generated a legitimation crisis related to environmental degradation and labor abuses resulting in social movement organization both nationally and internationally. The chapter concludes with a discussion of the implications of the Wal-Mart Effect on the agrifood industry in particular and in the farmed-salmon industry in particular.

Details

Globalization and the Time–Space Reorganization
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-318-8

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Article
Publication date: 8 February 2013

Anne Katrin Schlag and Kaja Ystgaard

Fish is considered a healthy and pure food. However, modern aquaculture introduced a range of potentially controversial issues, which may impact public perceptions. The…

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1487

Abstract

Purpose

Fish is considered a healthy and pure food. However, modern aquaculture introduced a range of potentially controversial issues, which may impact public perceptions. The purpose of this paper is to compare consumer perceptions of the production and consumption of wild and farmed fish in Europe.

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 28 focus groups were conducted in the capitals of seven European countries: France, Italy, Germany, Greece, Norway, Spain and the UK, between January‐March 2009. Data were analyzed with the qualitative software Atlas/ti.

Findings

Focus group discussions centre on a broad range of themes: economic risks and benefits, environmental concerns, human health issues, trust and nature. Europeans weigh up the scientific risks and benefits of farmed versus wild fish. However, when considering non‐scientific concerns, such as trust and nature, consumers prefer wild to farmed fish. Respondents have less trust in the production and consumption of farmed fish than in their wild counterparts, as the former are perceived as unnatural and unfamiliar.

Originality/value

Results have implications for the development of public communication strategies. The predicted growth of aquaculture highlights the importance of communicating the risks and benefits of farmed fish and fish farming effectively. The authors' findings show that a communication needs to incorporate moral and ethical risk dimensions, as these are the distinguishing areas leading to consumer preference of wild over farmed fish.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 115 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Book part
Publication date: 18 July 2007

Frank Messner, Hagen Koch and Michael Kaltofen

In this chapter it is shown how economic evaluation algorithms of water use can be integrated into a long-term water management model such that surface-water availability…

Abstract

In this chapter it is shown how economic evaluation algorithms of water use can be integrated into a long-term water management model such that surface-water availability and economic evaluation of various levels of water availability to different uses can be modeled simultaneously. This approach makes it possible to include essential features of economic analyses of water use into water resource modeling and thus improves the capability of such models to support decision making in water management. This is especially relevant for the implementation of the Water Framework Directive, which requires economic analyses to be included in the decision process about future water management strategies.

The water management simulation model WBalMo is presented and the integration of economic-evaluation algorithms is demonstrated for the examples of surface-water use for fish farming and for filling open-cast mining pits in order to achieve acceptable water-quality levels in the emerging pit lakes. Results of applying this integrated evaluation approach are shown for different water management scenarios under conditions of global change in the East German Spree and Schwarze Elster river basins, where water scarcity is an urgent issue. Among the lessons which are drawn by the authors one lesson reads that integrating economic evaluation algorithms into a pre-existing model might bring enormous problems. Therefore, such model approaches should be developed together by water engineers and economists in an interdisciplinary endeavor right from the start.

Details

Ecological Economics of Sustainable Watershed Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-507-9

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Article
Publication date: 13 June 2016

Morten H. Abrahamsen and Håkan Håkansson

The purpose of this paper is to analyse how different policy perspectives or logics regarding industry organising affect network interaction, with particular focus on how…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyse how different policy perspectives or logics regarding industry organising affect network interaction, with particular focus on how the availability of resources is organised.

Design/methodology/approach

To examine this, the authors compare two cases from the Norwegian seafood industry: in the pelagic industry, the main resource (mackerel) is caught at sea by fishing vessels and trade is restricted by an auction system, whereas in the salmon industry, the main resource (farmed salmon) is an industrial product produced at fish farms and there are no such restrictions.

Findings

The results indicate that conditions under which resources are available to a network have strong effects on connected relationships: in the pelagic industry, interaction in the network becomes supplier-directed in an attempt to reduce the uncertainty created by unstable and restricted availability of resources, whereas in the salmon industry the interaction becomes customer directed as resource availability is stable and predictable. Here the actors can broaden the scope of interaction and they can direct their efforts to solve their customers’ problems, whereas this is difficult in the pelagic industry. The authors conclude that policy considerations play a major role in these effects. If the resource (fish) is seen as a commodity and the interaction is seen as a market mechanism, the policies designed to facilitate the exchange of resources will be beneficial for the actors directly involved, but may have unintended negative consequences for indirect relationships.

Originality/value

For policy makers this implies that whenever developing an industrial policy there are strong reasons to look beyond the single transaction in order to create policies that are effective and/or beneficial for all involved and connected parties.

Details

IMP Journal, vol. 10 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-1403

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Article
Publication date: 5 January 2015

Kristian Ellingsen, Kristine Grimsrud, Hanne Marie Nielsen, Cecilie Mejdell, Ingrid Olesen, Pirjo Honkanen, Ståle Navrud, Christian Gamborg and Peter Sandøe

The purpose of this paper is threefold: first, to assess how concerned Norwegians are about fish welfare; second, to investigate Norwegians’ willingness to pay for salmon…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is threefold: first, to assess how concerned Norwegians are about fish welfare; second, to investigate Norwegians’ willingness to pay for salmon filet made from welfare-assured farmed fish with high levels of welfare; and third, to examine Norwegian opinions about the appropriate way to pay for better welfare standards in fish production.

Design/methodology/approach

On the basis of two focus group sessions, a survey questionnaire was developed and distributed to a representative sample of 2,147 Norwegian households via e-mail.

Findings

Results showed that the Norwegian public is concerned about fish welfare and is willing to pay a price premium for products made from welfare-assured fish. Norwegian consumers do not, however, want to be the only ones paying for fish welfare, as the main responsibility for fish welfare lies with producers and the Government.

Research limitations/implications

In this study willingness to pay is measured using a hypothetical choice experiment. Values people express as citizens, however, may not accurately predict true consumer behaviour. This is generally referred to as “citizen-consumer duality” and may have affected the results.

Practical implications

The study shows that there is a national market for welfare-assured fish products, but education initiatives focusing on fish farming and fish welfare issues would further influence the attitudes and purchasing habits of Norwegian consumers.

Originality/value

Although concern about animal welfare is growing in the western world, very little attention has been given to the welfare of fish. This paper aims to make up for this by presenting a study of how Norwegians view the welfare of farmed salmon.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 117 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 1996

Sharron Kuznesof and Christopher Ritson

This study employs a focus group methodology to examine the factors affecting the acceptability of gene technology in food production, using genetically modified (GM…

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3906

Abstract

This study employs a focus group methodology to examine the factors affecting the acceptability of gene technology in food production, using genetically modified (GM) farmed salmon as a focus for the research. The results identified a small group of “triers” ‐ willing to try any GM food product, and a small group of “refusers” ‐ rejecting the technology and derivative products. For the middle majority of “undecided” consumers, the decision to accept or reject GM food products was based on a number of interrelated factors, associated with the food product and the benefits conferred.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 98 no. 4/5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 17 October 2016

Frans Prenkert

The purpose of this paper is to provide an account of who forms what market assets by making what market investments in a business network.

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2776

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide an account of who forms what market assets by making what market investments in a business network.

Design/methodology/approach

To investigate what market investments were made by certain actors into resource interfaces as market assets, the author draws on a case network based on an investigation of the Chilean salmon production network. To this end, the author chose the fish – being the focal object resource in that network – as a point of departure. The author systematically investigates the resource interfaces that this resource has with three other specific resources: feed, fishmeal, and vaccines in a thick case study.

Findings

This study shows that market investments entail committing resources to resource interfaces which turns them into market assets. Resource interfaces as market assets have implications on how we characterize and value resource interfaces. Multilateral resource interfaces become valuable to firms as a result of continuous market investments made into them. This produces different types of resource interfaces, some of which are of mediatory character bridging between distant resources in a network.

Research limitations/implications

This study focuses on the market investments being made to create and sustain market assets. Of course such assets are linked to a firm’s internal assets which this study do not investigate. In addition, this study emphasizes the commitment of resources into existing resource interfaces, the ensuing creation of market assets, and its use and value for firms and downplays a firm’s need to account for market investments and the market investments required to create a new resource interface.

Practical implications

As resource interfaces are valuable market assets, it is important to understand the functioning of different types of resource interfaces so as to exploit their potential as efficient as possible. This paper shows that some resources act as bridging resources connecting the borders of two indirectly related resources. Controlling bridging resources becomes an essential task for managers in business networks.

Social implications

Understanding the market investments into resource interfaces enables firms to become more skilled in organizing and controlling networks. These networks can play important roles in the economic development of society and create improved societal conditions for people, organizations, and economies.

Originality/value

By combining a market investment and market asset conceptualization of investments in networks with a resource interaction approach, this paper provides an enhanced understanding of resource interfaces as market assets. Theoretical implications for our understanding of resource interfaces – its value and character – are discussed.

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Book part
Publication date: 15 February 2021

Alana Mann

Abstract

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Food in a Changing Climate
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83982-725-9

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Book part
Publication date: 27 February 2009

Pekka Salmi

Purpose – This chapter focuses on ways urban – and other non-local – pressures have influenced a rural archipelago area by studying changes in fisheries-related…

Abstract

Purpose – This chapter focuses on ways urban – and other non-local – pressures have influenced a rural archipelago area by studying changes in fisheries-related livelihoods, use of natural resources and regulatory regimes.

Design/methodology/approach – The material for this chapter comprises mainly of structured and semi-structured interviews with fishers and other stakeholders in the Archipelago Sea and in the Åland Islands, SW Finland. A governance approach is used, taking into account the interactive social, economic and ecological systems embedded in institutions, social networks and cultures.

Findings – The economic importance of traditional fishing livelihood has diminished, but fishing still holds a strong position in the culture and life mode of the local people in the studied archipelago areas. In families selling fish, this income stands typically for a part of the household income and especially wage work has become an important income source in the pluriactivity. Providing services for the tourists and summer cottage dwellers is a potentially growing source of livelihood. The increased recreational use of the Finnish Archipelago Sea has changed the ownership structure of the land area, mostly due to the popular summer cottage dwelling. New public fishing rights for (often urban) recreational fishers have narrowed the scope of the local decision-making and aroused resistance among the local archipelago people.

Originality/value – Rural–urban relations and governance aspects have been rarely studied in relation to the use of natural resources. This chapter gives new insights into the multifaceted roles of new urban influences in rural settings.

Details

Beyond the Rural-Urban Divide: Cross-Continental Perspectives on the Differentiated Countryside and its Regulation
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-138-1

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 12 March 2018

Sigurd Sagen Vildåsen and Malena Ingemansson Havenvid

Most scholars acknowledge the role of firm-stakeholder relationship for enabling corporate sustainability (CS), but existing literature tends to apply a superficial…

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2303

Abstract

Purpose

Most scholars acknowledge the role of firm-stakeholder relationship for enabling corporate sustainability (CS), but existing literature tends to apply a superficial understanding of interaction. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to advance knowledge by challenging classical stakeholder theory with fundamental insights from the IMP perspective, which in turn leads to a deeper conceptualization of interactive CS.

Design/methodology/approach

A typology framework is developed through an abductive research design grounded in the concepts of actors, resources, and activities. The authors illustrate the potential of the framework through a longitudinal case study. The empirical case revolves around an initiative for recycling of plastic material in a partly beforehand established supply chain, and the study reveals three main findings.

Findings

First, recycling solutions can result in major technological challenges. For example, using recycled material can jeopardize industrial quality standards. Second, third-party stakeholders represent critical knowledge and competence that can remedy technological challenges. Finally, R&D projects are important means for developing firm-stakeholder relationships.

Research limitations/implications

The paper introduces IMP concepts to the CS debate, which can illuminate the emerging literature on tensions and paradoxes related to CS phenomena. Further research is needed on the role of non-business actors as capacity generators for social and environmental change in traditional business networks.

Practical implications

The proposed framework can be used to analyze why some stakeholders (individuals and groups) turn into contributing actors in inter-organizational relationships, while others remain latent.

Originality/value

This paper illustrates the usefulness of actor bonds, resource ties and activity links as explanatory concepts. Moreover, developed relationships in terms of collaboration and networks represent a capacity to change, which is overlooked in current CS debates.

Details

IMP Journal, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-1403

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