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Article
Publication date: 13 April 2015

Yasemin Soydas and Torgeir Aleti

The purpose of this paper is to examine the key differences between first- and second-generation immigrant entrepreneurs in their path to entrepreneurship. The aim of the…

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1791

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the key differences between first- and second-generation immigrant entrepreneurs in their path to entrepreneurship. The aim of the study is to better understand entrepreneurial motivations amongst immigrants by comparing first- and second-generation entrepreneurs in their motivation for business entry, reliance on co-ethnic market, use of social and financial capital, business planning and marketing practices.

Design/methodology/approach

Using an interpretivist approach and a qualitative design, this study comprises 20 in-depth interviews with first- and second-generation Turkish entrepreneurs (TEs) in Melbourne, Australia. Turks in Australia were chosen because of their high level of entrepreneurial activity. In order to uncover deep-seeded motivations, participants were interviewed in a face-to-face format guided by a semi-structured interview guide.

Findings

The second-generation TEs were distinctively different from their first-generation counterparts in motivation for business entry, business establishment and use of ethnicity. The analysis shows that although the generations differ in their approach to business establishment, they both appear to be drawn to entrepreneurship based on “pull factors”. This is in contrast with previous literature suggesting that first-generation immigrant entrepreneurs were motivated by “push factors”.

Originality/value

This paper suggests that both first- and second-generation immigrant entrepreneurs are “pulled” into entrepreneurship voluntarily. While the first-generation entrepreneurs seem to be motivated/pulled by financial reasons, the second generation are motivated by opportunity recognition, status and ambition. Nevertheless, a lack of trust in government support agency is found within both generations. Thus, outreach activities towards entrepreneurial immigrant communities may have positive effects for the economy as well as in the integration of ethnic enclaves.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 21 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

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Article
Publication date: 6 July 2015

Adriana Di Liberto

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the gap in reading literacy of young immigrant children in Italy and examine if this gap is significantly influenced by pupils…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the gap in reading literacy of young immigrant children in Italy and examine if this gap is significantly influenced by pupils’ length of stay in Italy and country of origin.

Design/methodology/approach

The author estimate a standard education production function where student test performance in language is modelled as a function of the native vs immigrant first- and second-generation status and a set of additional variables that control for students, schools and catchment area characteristics. In the analysis the author use the 2010-2011 school-year data for four stages of schooling: second and fifth grade/year of primary school, sixth grade of lower secondary school and tenth grade upper secondary school.

Findings

Results confirm the presence of a significant gap between natives and immigrants students in school outcomes for all grades, with first-generation immigrants showing the largest gap. Further, comparing the results between first- and second-generation immigrant students suggests that the average significant gap observed in the first generation is mainly due to the negative performance of immigrant children newly arrived in Italy. That is, for first-generation students, closing the gap with second-generation ones seems to be, for the most part, a matter of time. At the same time, the gap between natives and second-generation immigrants remains significant in all grades. Finally, when the author compare the results across the different years, it turns out that interventions at younger ages are likely to be more effective.

Research limitations/implications

Despite the availability of a rich set of controls, endogeneity issues may play a role in the analysis.

Practical implications

Results suggest that if the foreign children’s late arrival is the result of national migration policies on family reunification, the authorities need to carefully compare the possible benefit of delaying immigrant family reunification against the possible costs of students’ lower school performance.

Originality/value

Among economist, only few recent studies address the important question of whether the age at arrival and the length of stay in the host country matters for immigrants’ educational achievements. Moreover, while according to PISA 2009 results, Italy has some of the largest native-immigrant school performance gaps among OECD countries there are no studies that investigate this issue.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 36 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 14 October 2020

Giovanni Busetta, Maria Gabriella Campolo and Demetrio Panarello

This article deals with the impact of ethnic origin on individual employability, focussing on the first stage of the hiring process. Deeply, the authors’ goal is to fathom…

Abstract

Purpose

This article deals with the impact of ethnic origin on individual employability, focussing on the first stage of the hiring process. Deeply, the authors’ goal is to fathom whether there is a preference for native job candidates over immigrants, decomposing the discrimination against minority groups into its statistical and taste-based components by means of a new approach.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors built up a data set by means of an ad hoc field experiment, conducted by sending equivalent fictitious CVs in response to 1000 real online job openings in Italy. The authors developed the discrimination decomposition index using first- and second-generation immigrants.

Findings

The authors’ main result is that both first- and second-generation immigrants are discriminated compared to Italians. In between the two categories, second-generation candidates are discriminated especially if their ethnicities are morphologically different from those of natives (i.e. Chinese and Moroccans). This last finding is a clear symptom of discrimination connected to taste-based reasons. On the other hand, first-generation immigrants of all nationalities but Germans are preferred for hard-work jobs.

Originality/value

The authors develop the discrimination decomposition index to measure the proportion of the two kinds of discrimination (statistical and taste-based) over the total one and apply a probit model to test the statistical significance of the difference in treatment between the three groups of natives, first-generation and second-generation immigrants.

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Article
Publication date: 19 October 2015

Esra Memili, Hanqing Chevy Fang and Dianne H.B. Welsh

The purpose of this paper is to examine the generational differences among publicly traded family firms in regards to value creation and value appropriation in the…

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1552

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the generational differences among publicly traded family firms in regards to value creation and value appropriation in the innovation process by drawing upon the knowledge-based view (KBV) and family business literature with a focus on socioemotional wealth perspective.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors tests the hypotheses via longitudinal regression analyses based on 285 yearly cross-firm S & P 500 firm observations.

Findings

First, the authors found that family ownership with second or later generation’s majority exhibits lower levels of value creation capabilities compared to non-family firms, whereas there is no difference between those of the firms with family ownership with a first generation’s majority and non-family firms. Second, the authors also found that family owned firms with a first generation’s majority have higher value appropriation abilities compared to nonfamily firms, while there is no significant difference in value appropriation between the later generation family firms and non-family firms.

Research limitations/implications

The study help scholars, family business members, and investors better understand family involvement, and how it impacts firm performance through value creation and value appropriation.

Originality/value

The paper contributes to the family business, innovation, and KBV literature in several ways. While previous family business studies drawing upon resource-based view and KBV often focus on the value creation in family governance, the authors investigate both value creation and value appropriation phases of innovation process.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 53 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

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Article
Publication date: 11 January 2016

Laura Bui and David P Farrington

Studies examining immigrant generational status and violence have supported differences in the prevalence of violence between these groups. The purpose of this paper is to…

Abstract

Purpose

Studies examining immigrant generational status and violence have supported differences in the prevalence of violence between these groups. The purpose of this paper is to measure relevant risk factors for violence to focus on whether negative perceptions may contribute to understanding the between-generations differences in violence. Based on the literature, it is theorised that pro-violence attitudes would be related to and be higher in second-generation immigrants than first-generation immigrants, and that negative perceptions would mediate the relationship between pro-violence attitudes and violence.

Design/methodology/approach

Data to answer the study’s key questions were taken from the 2010-2011 UK citizenship survey, where only the main sample was analysed.

Findings

The findings reveal that first-generation immigrants have a higher prevalence of pro-violence attitudes than the native population.

Originality/value

This suggests that there is an intergenerational transmission in violent attitudes, and this is a risk factor for actual violence in second-generation immigrants.

Details

Journal of Aggression, Conflict and Peace Research, vol. 8 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-6599

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Article
Publication date: 19 September 2008

Katja Rusinovic

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the markets in which immigrant entrepreneurs are active and to examine whether these differ between firstand secondgeneration

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2076

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the markets in which immigrant entrepreneurs are active and to examine whether these differ between firstand secondgeneration immigrants.

Design/methodology/approach

Information was gathered from 252 in‐depth interviews with firstand secondgeneration immigrant entrepreneurs in The Netherlands.

Findings

The results of this paper show that the second generation are more active in mainstream markets and entrepreneurs move from one market to another by the strategic use of ethnicity.

Originality/value

The more traditional literature on immigrant entrepreneurship gives the impression that immigrant entrepreneurs are mainly active in an ethnic or a middleman market. However, the paper demonstrates that this is no longer the case for secondgeneration immigrant entrepreneurs who were born and/or raised in the receiving society. Furthermore, it reveals the dynamic character of immigrant entrepreneurship by examining the first and second generations.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 14 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2014

Michelle Morgan

Although there is an increasing body of literature looking at the postgraduate student experience, there is a lack of research and knowledge in understanding the impact of…

Abstract

Purpose

Although there is an increasing body of literature looking at the postgraduate student experience, there is a lack of research and knowledge in understanding the impact of postgraduate (taught) PGT students' learning experiences prior to their postgraduate study, and their expectations of studying at PGT level. The research undertaken in the Faculty of Science, Engineering and Computing at a post-1992 institution, which focuses on STEM disciplines (science, technology, engineering and mathematics), aims to correct this deficiency by providing valuable data and insights into this nationally and internationally largely neglected area. This paper seeks to report the notable findings of first and second-generation respondents.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected via a hard copy questionnaire that had been developed through previous research and with staff and PGT course representative input. It was distributed and completed by new taught postgraduate students during the orientation period in September 2012. It was entered into the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) and a range of tests were run on the data.

Findings

This original research highlights the similarities and differences between first and second-generation respondents' prior learning experiences and their expectations of studying at postgraduate taught level.

Research limitations/implications

The findings from the research presented was conducted over a one-year period and the findings are based on the limitations that such a time and financially limited project can offer. The university concerned is a post-1992 institution and has a high concentration towards teaching functions. What is observed at this UK HEI could be replicable in other teaching oriented organisations thus merits further research.

Originality/value

The findings from this original piece of research offer potentially important contributions to the current PGT debate looking at developing and expanding PGT provision and ensuring its sustainability.

Details

Quality Assurance in Education, vol. 22 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0968-4883

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 30 October 2007

Abdurrahman Aydemir and Arthur Sweetman

The educational and labor market outcomes of the first, first-and-a-half (1.5), second, and third generations of immigrants to the United States (US) and Canada are…

Abstract

The educational and labor market outcomes of the first, first-and-a-half (1.5), second, and third generations of immigrants to the United States (US) and Canada are compared. These countries’ immigration policies have diverged on important dimensions since the 1960s, resulting in large differences in immigrant source country distributions and a much larger emphasis on skill requirements in Canada, making for interesting comparisons. Of particular note is the educational attainment of US immigrants which is currently lower than that in Canada and is expected to influence future second generations causing an existing education gap to grow. This will likely in turn influence earnings where, controlling only for age, the current US second generation has earnings comparable to those of the third generation, whereas the Canadian second generation has higher earnings. Importantly, the role of, and returns to, observable characteristics are significantly different between the US and Canada. Observable characteristics explain little of the difference in earnings outcomes across generations in the US but have remarkable explanatory power in Canada. Controlling for a wide array of characteristics, especially education, has little effect on the US second generation's earnings premium, but causes the Canadian premium to become negative relative to the Canadian third generation. The Canadian 1.5 and second generations’ educational advantage is of benefit in the labor market, but does not receive the same rate of return as it does for the third generation causing a very sizable gap between the current good observed outcomes, and the even better outcomes that would be expected if the 1.5 and second generation received the same rate of return to their characteristics as the third generation. Why the US differs likely follows from a combination of its lower immigration rate, its different selection mechanism, and its settlement policies and practices.

Details

Immigration
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-7623-1391-4

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Article
Publication date: 14 November 2008

Andrew Clark, Nathalie Colombier and David Masclet

It is known that the self‐employed are generally more satisfied than salaried workers. The aim of this paper is to test whether this phenomenon is particularly found for…

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688

Abstract

Purpose

It is known that the self‐employed are generally more satisfied than salaried workers. The aim of this paper is to test whether this phenomenon is particularly found for the firstgeneration self‐employed.

Design/methodology/approach

French and British panel data are analysed, which include information on various measures of job satisfaction, and the respondent's parents' occupation. Job satisfaction regressions were run in which the firstand secondgeneration self‐employed were distinguished between.

Findings

The study finds that firstgeneration self‐employed (those whose parents were not self‐employed) are more satisfied overall than are the secondgeneration self‐employed. The findings are consistent between the British and French data.

Research limitations/implications

While the results are the same in the two countries considered, further validation work should extend the analysis across countries. While the authors are fairly sure that the secondgeneration self‐employed do worse, they cannot precisely distinguish between comparison to one's parents, constrained occupational choice, and selection effects due to lower barriers to self‐employment entry.

Originality/value

The authors believe that this is one of the first papers to distinguish between types of self‐employed in terms of their higher satisfaction. The finding that parents' labour force status continues to have a significant impact on their children's job satisfaction argues for a more systematic consideration of intergenerational factors in the analysis of labour markets.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 29 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

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Article
Publication date: 7 October 2013

Izabela Koładkiewicz

The purpose of this paper is to identify the role of the first and second generations in the process of internationalization of a family business active in the SME sector…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify the role of the first and second generations in the process of internationalization of a family business active in the SME sector in Poland.

Design/methodology/approach

Conducted research was qualitative in character. The research method used was the case study. A total of six case studies were developed that demonstrate the experiences of Polish exporters – family companies in the SME sector. The primary research tool was the unstructured questionnaire-based interview. Interviews were conducted over the years 2008-2009. The group of examined respondents included both the first and second generation.

Findings

Analysis of the developed case studies indicates that it was the first generation that was responsible for making decision and undertaking operations in the first phase. With time, that generation kept only decision-related responsibilities. The second generation tends to continue tradition rather than being an agent of change.

Originality/value

The main contribution of this paper has been to make a characterization of the process of internationalization of family businesses in the SME sector in Poland – a country undergoing radical systemic transition. Its large-scale effect is the commencement of the process of creating companies, including family businesses. On the other hand, it makes possible the defining of the role of the second generation in the process of internationalization of family businesses, regardless of whether that generation is a continuator of the initiative of the first generation or is itself the initiator of changes.

Details

Journal of Technology Management in China, vol. 8 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-8779

Keywords

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