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Article
Publication date: 9 August 2011

Erik Rasmussen, Jan Møller Jensen and Per Servais

The primary focus of this paper is to examine the international (import and export) activities of the firm and the impact on the firms' criteria for choice of location and…

2367

Abstract

Purpose

The primary focus of this paper is to examine the international (import and export) activities of the firm and the impact on the firms' criteria for choice of location and the propensity for relocation.

Design/methodology/approach

A web survey was carried out among small and medium‐sized Danish firms. Data used in the present study are based on responses from 622 firms. The analysis is conducted in two sub‐sections. The first section focuses on how export/import intensity is related to the location motives of the firm and the propensity to relocate the firm to another national location or abroad. Pearson's correlation with corresponding test of significance is used to explore the possible relationships between the international engagement and the firm's criteria for choice of location. In the second section the responding firms are classified into one of four categories, as suggested in a local/global typology. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) is conducted in order to assess whether there exist any significant differences between the four types of firms with regard to the location motives and relocation propensity for the firms.

Findings

The study shows that the international engagement of the firm influences the need for better location with regard to infrastructure (especially airport and highways) and to a lesser degree other types of infrastructure (railways and harbours). Interestingly, firms put less emphasis on the direct economic factors (infrastructure) compared with access to customers/suppliers, local network and, above all, access to research institutions. The study shows that international firms put significantly more emphasis on the relationship with research institutions than more local firms. The study also indicates that a higher international engagement increases the firm's intention to relocate abroad, which could be one of the unwanted sides of firms' internationalisation.

Originality/value

Guided by insights from location and relocation theory and international entrepreneurship theory, the connection between firms' export and import engagement and the reasons for location and propensity for relocation are explored. The paper also suggests an internationalisation typology of firms that can be used in future research on the internationalisation of the firm.

Details

Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. 18 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 29 January 2021

Xiang Feng, Ben Derudder, Fei Wang and Rui Shao

This study aims to analyse the major geographical dimensions of the location strategies of multinational tourism firms.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to analyse the major geographical dimensions of the location strategies of multinational tourism firms.

Design/methodology/approach

Conceptually, this paper is situated at the intersection of two distinct and evolving bodies of research literature on the global geographies of the tourism industry and the production of economic globalization from a set of strategic locations. Empirically, principal component analysis is applied to explore the main geographical configurations within a location matrix of 102 tourism firms across 547 cities.

Findings

The results identify strong geographical organizing patterns in the location strategies of multinational tourism firms, above all articulated in countries/regions that themselves have large domestic and/or international tourism markets. However, there is also a global component in terms of firm/location composition, while the national/regional components are hybrid and porous in practice.

Originality/value

This study contributes to a new way of looking at a globalizing tourism sector. The findings can be used to reflect on possible wider implications for the tourism geographies literature and reveal some avenues for further research.

跨国旅游公司的地理位置和选址:全球化战略

目的

本研究旨在分析跨国旅游企业区位战略的主要地理维度。

设计/研究方法/方案

在理论研究层面, 本文基于两个截然不同和不断发展的研究交叉点: (1)全球经济地理中的旅游产业研究; (2)战略区位选择上的经济全球化研究。在实证研究层面, 本文将主成分分析法应用于547个城市的102家旅游企业的区位矩阵研究中。

研究结果

研究结果显示, 跨国旅游企业的区位选择具有很强的地理规律, 这点在本身拥有庞大国内和/或国际旅游市场的国家/地区内尤为明显。此外, 跨国旅游企业/地点的区位组成也具有明显的全球属性, 在单个国家/区域内的表现则很多元化, 有很大的不同。

原创性/价值

这项研究有助于以新的视角来看待全球化的旅游产业。本文的研究成果可以用来反思旅游地理文献可能存在的更广泛的意义, 并探讨进一步的研究可能。

La geografía y la localización de selección de las empresas multinacionales de turismo: estrategias Para la globalización

Objeto

Este estudio tiene como objetivo analizar las principales dimensiones geográficas de las estrategias de localización de las empresas multinacionales de turismo.

Diseño/metodología/enfoque

Conceptualmente, este documento se sitúa en la intersección de dos bibliografías de investigación distintas y en evolución: (1) sobre las geografías globales de la industria del turismo y (2) sobre la producción de la globalización económica desde un conjunto de ubicaciones estratégicas. Empíricamente, el análisis de componentes principales se aplica para explorar las principales configuraciones geográficas dentro de una matriz de ubicación de 102 empresas de turismo en 547 ciudades.

Hallazgos

Los resultados identifican fuertes ordenamientos geográficos en estas estrategias de ubicación, sobre todo articuladas en países/regiones que a su vez tienen grandes mercados turísticos nacionales y/o internacionales. Sin embargo, también hay un componente global en términos de composición empresa/ubicación, mientras que los componentes nacionales/regionales son en la práctica híbridos y porosos.

Originalidad/valor

Este estudio contribuye a una nueva forma de ver un sector turístico en globalización. Los resultados se pueden utilizar para reflexionar sobre posibles implicaciones más amplias para la literatura sobre geografías turísticas y discutir algunas vías para futuras investigaciones.

Book part
Publication date: 22 September 2009

Miguel A. Ramos and J. Myles Shaver

Choosing where to expand is an important firm strategy. We review and structure research in international location choices. First, we categorize research based on the…

Abstract

Choosing where to expand is an important firm strategy. We review and structure research in international location choices. First, we categorize research based on the motive for expansion, distinguishing market-seeking and resource-seeking explanations. Within these two categories we assess the progression of the literature toward an increased acknowledgment of strategic interaction among firms. We also evaluate work that begins to account for different modes of expansion. This emerging research explores the role of geography in acquisitions and begins to incorporate firms' often complex geographic configurations. Building on these developments, we highlight the following areas for future research: examining further the role of location in acquisitions, exploring the role of geography in postexpansion restructuring, and investigating the interaction of vertical and horizontal spillovers to entrants.

Details

Economic Institutions of Strategy
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-487-0

Article
Publication date: 6 May 2022

Mamta Mishra, Surya Prakash Singh and M. P. Gupta

The research in competitive facility location (CFL) is quite dynamic, both from a problem formulation and an algorithmic point of view. Research direction has changed…

253

Abstract

Purpose

The research in competitive facility location (CFL) is quite dynamic, both from a problem formulation and an algorithmic point of view. Research direction has changed immensely over the years to address various competitive challenges. This study aims to explore CFL literature to highlight these research trends, important issues and future research opportunities.

Design/methodology/approach

This study utilises the Scopus database to search for related CFL models and adopts a five-step systematic approach for the review process. The five steps involve (1) Article Identification and keyword selection, (2) Selection criteria, (3) Literature review, (4) Literature analysis and (5) Research studies.

Findings

The paper presents a comprehensive review of CFL modelling efforts from 1981 to 2021 to provide a depth study of the research evolution in this area. The published articles are classified based on multiple characteristics, including the type of problem, type of competition, game-theoretical approaches, customer behaviour, decision space, type of demand, number of facilities, capacity and budget limitations. The review also highlights the popular problem areas and dedicated research in the respective domain. In addition, a second classification is also provided based on solution methods adopted to solve various CFL models and real-world case studies.

Originality/value

The paper covers 40 years of CFL literature from the perspective of the problem area, CFL characteristics and the solution approach. Additionally, it introduces characteristics such as capacity limit and budget constraint for the first time for classification purposes.

Details

Benchmarking: An International Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-5771

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 May 2020

Jorge Alcaraz, Elizabeth Salamanca and Otto Regalado-Pezúa

The purpose of this study is to identify the effect of ethnic networks on firmslocation decisions using social network theory and the homophily principle.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to identify the effect of ethnic networks on firmslocation decisions using social network theory and the homophily principle.

Design/methodology/approach

A traditional gravity model is used on a sample composed of high-skilled and low-skilled ethnic networks and multinational enterprises (MNEs) from Latin America, North America and the European Union.

Findings

Contrary to findings of previous studies, ethnic networks do not appear to influence location decisions of Latin American firms expanding into countries from North America and the European Union. This might be because of weak ethnic connections among the players.

Practical implications

Managers must be aware that ethnic networks not always can be used for the strategy of the firm, at least regarding location.

Social implications

Governments and entrepreneurial and immigrant associations from home and host countries could develop initiatives addressed to strengthening the links between the members of the networks.

Originality/value

This study extends the social network theory in the sense that ethnic networks do not always positively affect firmslocation. Moreover, it is important to consider the specific context or features of the members of a network before analyzing its effects on firmslocation.

Details

Review of International Business and Strategy, vol. 30 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-6014

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 11 August 2020

Christian Falaster and Manuel Portugal Ferreira

Using an institution-based view, this study aims to conceptualize how sub-national institutional characteristics are likely to explain location choice of multinationals…

1448

Abstract

Purpose

Using an institution-based view, this study aims to conceptualize how sub-national institutional characteristics are likely to explain location choice of multinationals’ research and development (R&D) subsidiaries.

Design/methodology/approach

In a conceptual paper, this study explores specific institutional facets of the regional environments within a country that are capable of explaining, at least in part, the location choices of multinational corporations’ R&D subsidiaries.

Findings

This study thus explores the more nuanced influences of the institutional environments at a subnational level and develops propositions to explain location choices based on the differences of the institutional environments.

Originality/value

This study contributes to international business theory by incorporating a location-specific analysis that contrasts to the usual country-level observation on the determinants of firmslocation decisions.

Details

Innovation & Management Review, vol. 17 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2515-8961

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 18 May 2015

Vigdis Boasson and Emil Boasson

The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of geographic location of research-intensive firms in the ability to generate new research and products, which…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of geographic location of research-intensive firms in the ability to generate new research and products, which consequently affects firm value.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors conduct the empirical study following a three-step process. First, if pharmaceutical firms are more likely to cite the patents of other firms and other innovators that are nearby, as opposed to firms and other innovators that are far away, then location (i.e. close proximity) is likely important when it comes to the ability to learn and to use the knowledge being generated by other innovators. The authors employ a “geographic information systems” (GIS) and geo-code each pair of citing and cited patents. In addition, the authors utilize spatial statistics such as Moran’s I to analyze the spatial clustering pattern of patent citations and knowledge flows. Next, the authors measure the pharmaceutical companies’ ability to generate useful patents as a function of the amount of innovation and industrial activity that is occurring close to them. Finally, the authors test whether a firm’s location relates to its firm value. Specifically, the authors model firm value as a function of its patents quality, but the authors also allow the firm’s patents quality to be a function of its location and locational attributes. In this way, the authors establish a link between location and firm value. Using a simultaneous system of equations, the authors find that location explains patent quality, which, in turn, explains firm value. In other words, there is a positive relationship between firm value, innovation and location.

Findings

In empirical tests using pharmaceutical firms and their patents, the authors first find that firms more often cite patents of other firms that are geographically closer to them than those firms that are farther away. The authors then find that a patent’s quality is a function of the firm’s near proximity to other knowledge-intensive institutions and activities. Finally, the authors find that because patent quality is a function of a firm’s geographic location, location consequently affects firm value.

Research limitations/implications

For knowledge-intensive firms, geographic location matters. More specifically, the authors contend that research-intensive firms are better able to use and to expand on existing knowledge when they are closer to other research-intensive enterprises. The implication is that firm value maximization involves a location factor.

Practical implications

The practical implication for investors is that investors should invest in those firms that are situated in a location that is rich in geographic innovation resources because those firms are more likely to generate more and higher quality patents or innovations.

Originality/value

The study is the first to establish the linkage among spatial knowledge diffusion, geographic drivers of innovation, and market valuation of the firm. The study is unique in that the authors not only present evidence on spatial knowledge flows by geo-coding the exact longitude and latitude location coordinates of citing and cited patens, but more importantly, the authors also identify geographic drivers of innovation, and examine their impacts on citation-weighted patent counts and knowledge stock. Finally, using a series of simultaneous equations, the authors show how geographic innovation resources positively affect citation-weighted patent stock and knowledge stock and consequently affect market value of the firm. Thus, the novel approach contributes not only to the literature that measures geographic localization of knowledge flow using patent citations, but also to the literature that examines the impact of geographic sources of innovations on patent outputs and patent quality and, thus on firm value for research-intensive firms.

Details

China Finance Review International, vol. 5 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-1398

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 22 July 2020

Denada Lica, Eleonora Di Maria and Valentina De Marchi

The purpose of this paper is to analyze how important is co-location of R&D and production for firms originated from high-cost countries and to provide evidence of the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze how important is co-location of R&D and production for firms originated from high-cost countries and to provide evidence of the relationship between the different strategies of location choices and co-location.

Design/methodology/approach

In order to investigate the relationship between R&D/design-production co-location and strategies of location choices for production, this paper uses a cluster analysis of 37 Italian firms that operate in fashion industry.

Findings

This article finds that co-location results in a dominant strategy for firms under the following conditions: high level of product customization, coordination difficulties between R&D and production, rapid change in production process technologies and product complexity difficult to be coded.

Research limitations/implications

This paper presents some limitations in that it focuses only on fashion industry without considering other sectors.

Practical implications

This paper has some managerial implication in that offers some insight on decision making in organization. In particular offers some insights of how important is having an internal R&D/design function rather than collaborating with external designers in order to achieve competitive advantage in terms of product quality, product design and also brand name reputation.

Originality/value

This paper suggests that the co-location of R&D and production may improve the firms' performance considering the need for constant interaction between the two units. Moreover, it suggests that the co-location of R&D and production both within and external (within the firms' region and/or within the country) to the firms might be important. Furthermore, larger firms in terms of turnover have a greater preference to locate the R&D function close to the production function.

Details

Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management: An International Journal, vol. 25 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1361-2026

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 17 February 2012

Joanne Freeman, Chris Styles and Meredith Lawley

The purpose of this research is to explore how location – regional vs metropolitan – impacts a small to medium‐sized enterprise (SME)'s access to firm resources and…

3981

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this research is to explore how location – regional vs metropolitan – impacts a small to medium‐sized enterprise (SME)'s access to firm resources and capabilities, and in turn its export performance.

Design/methodology/approach

This study involved collecting qualitative data from an expert panel of government trade advisors, as well as managers of SME exporters in Australian regional and metropolitan areas. The data were used to explore three propositions relating to the impact of location.

Findings

The data provides support for the propositions that location impacts SME exporters’ access to networks and export related infrastructure/services, and in turn export performance. Firms in metropolitan areas have an advantage over those in regional areas. However, contrary to expectations, the relatively lower level of competition in regional areas did not appear to have a negative impact on the export performance of firms located in these areas.

Research limitations/implications

The study confirms the importance of exploring the impact of location on export performance. However, the exploratory nature of the study means that results cannot necessarily be generalised beyond the setting in which the data were collected. Future research should examine the impact of location for exporters in a broader sample of countries.

Practical implications

The disadvantages for SME exporters located in regional areas that come from a lack of networks and export related infrastructure/services need to be recognized and addressed by the managers of SME exporters and their advisors. The study also highlights the importance of the location decision for these firms.

Originality/value

This study is one of the first to explicitly focus on the impact of location on the export performance of SMEs. While exploratory in nature, it highlights the need for further research to better understand this potentially critical moderating variable and both its practical and theoretical implications.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 29 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 17 September 2019

Francisco Puig, Anoop Madhok and Zhi Shen

This paper aims to analyse which firm-level characteristics drive their location decisions when investing in a foreign country. Focusing on origin clusters, the authors…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to analyse which firm-level characteristics drive their location decisions when investing in a foreign country. Focusing on origin clusters, the authors will study the potential influence of the home country context and, in particular, the impact of firm-level factors, both investor- and investment-related, underlying heterogeneity in their location choice decisions.

Design/methodology/approach

The empirical analysis draws on data gathered from mainland Chinese MNEs that have invested in Germany between 2005 and 2013 (269 firms). The authors chose a single host (Germany) and a single home (China) country for their representativeness and for methodological reasons to control for country effects. The authors used a multinomial logit model to assess the effects of the independent variables on the probability that each of the three location possibilities would be selected.

Findings

The results suggest that investors preferring co-location in origin clusters have distinct structural and strategic characteristics. From a more structural point of view, Chinese foreign direct investment (FDI) undertaken by smaller firms and those without prior experience in the EU prefer an area where there are other Chinese investors. From a more strategic perspective, these FDI flows are more likely to tap into industry agglomerations when the investors’ objective is strategic asset seeking, and they have less knowledge-intensive investments.

Practical implications

The findings may be of great practical value to practitioners and policymakers. Knowledge of the advantages and disadvantages of the types of agglomeration networks can help managers to balance the rewards and risks in their decision-making and to select a suitable development path for their FDIs. For policymakers, an understanding of the structure and formation of different groups of firms in one location and the characteristics of investors who may enter the location can help them to improve their regulatory work and to develop policies to attract investments, thereby enhancing local economic development and community stability.

Originality/value

The research shifts the emphasis of the location choice decision beyond just where to locate toward with whom to collocate. It also contributes to the growing research on emerging market multinationals by providing further insight into understanding of FDI location behavior by firms from emerging economies.

Details

Multinational Business Review, vol. 28 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1525-383X

Keywords

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