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Book part
Publication date: 21 July 2004

Kwang-Hyun Chung

Acquisition is one of key corporate strategic decisions for firmsgrowth and competitive advantage. Firms: (1) diversify through acquisition to balance cash flows and…

Abstract

Acquisition is one of key corporate strategic decisions for firmsgrowth and competitive advantage. Firms: (1) diversify through acquisition to balance cash flows and spread the business risks; and (2) eliminate their competitors through acquisition by acquiring new technology, new operating capabilities, process innovations, specialized managerial expertise, and market position. Thus, firms acquire either unrelated or related business based on their strategic motivations, such as diversifying their business lines or improving market power in the same business line. These different motivations may be related to their assessment of market growth, firms’ competitive position, and top management’s compensation. Thus, it is hypothesized that firms’ acquisition decisions may be related to their industry growth potential, post-acquisition firm growth, market share change, and CEO’s compensation composition between cash and equity. In addition, for the two alternative acquisition accounting methods allowed until recently, a test is made if the type of acquisition is related to the choice of accounting methods. This study classifies firms’ acquisitions as related or unrelated, based on the standard industrial classification (SIC) codes for both acquiring and target firms. The empirical tests are, first, based on all the acquisition cases regardless of the firm membership, and then, deal with the firms acquiring only related businesses or unrelated businesses exclusively.

The type of acquisitions was more likely related to industry growth opportunities, indicating that the unrelated acquisition cases are more likely to be followed by higher industry growth rate than the related acquisition cases. While there were a substantially larger number of acquisition cases using the purchase method, the related acquisition cases used the pooling-of-interest method more frequently than in the unrelated acquisition cases. The firm-level analysis shows that the type of acquisition decisions was still related to acquiring firms’ industry growth rate. However, the post-acquisition performance measures, using firm’s growth and change in market share, could support prior studies in that the exclusive-related acquisitions helped firms grow more and get more market share than the exclusive-unrelated acquisitions. CEO’s compensation composition ratio was not related to the types of acquisition.

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Advances in Management Accounting
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-118-7

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Article
Publication date: 11 March 2014

Wen-Cheng Lu and Ruo-Ling Jhuang

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of financial constraints on firm growth considering six types of ownership structure. According to the theory of…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of financial constraints on firm growth considering six types of ownership structure. According to the theory of financial management and asymmetric information theory, external funds are costly for small firms. However, some ownership structures may alleviate cash flow-growth sensitivity. The paper considers different types of ownership structure to study cash flow-growth relation and its sensitivity.

Design/methodology/approach

Results are drawn from a dynamic panel data model under the two specific empirical models. Those designs can capture important empirical meanings.

Findings

The sensitivity of growth to cash flow decreases significantly when managers control larger proportions of a firm's stock and when a firm belongs to a conglomerate. The findings also show that small and young firms grow faster. R&D and advertising expenditures also motivate a firm's growth, as do profitability and abundant cash flow.

Originality/value

This paper uses a dynamic panel data model to investigate the effect of cash flow on firms' growth under six types of ownership structure. The sensitivity analysis of growth to cash flow provides new results for traditional literature. In fact, different ownership structures lead to distinct cash flow-growth sensitivity.

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Journal of Modelling in Management, vol. 9 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5664

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1998

Keith Glancey

Using accounts data for a sample of 38 small manufacturing firms located in Tayside Region, this paper investigates the relationship between company characteristics…

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7738

Abstract

Using accounts data for a sample of 38 small manufacturing firms located in Tayside Region, this paper investigates the relationship between company characteristics including size, age, location and industry group, and profitability and growth. The trade‐off between the possibly conflicting objectives of profit and growth is considered primarily from the entrepreneurial rather than the managerial standpoint which previous econometric studies of small firm performance have concentrated on. Motivations for undertaking entrepreneurial activity and their possible relationships with profitability and growth are discussed and a number of hypotheses developed. From this perspective it is argued that a firm size measure based on employment is more appropriate than one based on sales or assets which previous studies have used. Firm characteristics are found to be of limited value in explaining profitability. However, larger firms are found to grow faster than smaller, and younger firms are found to grow faster than older. This is also some evidence that growth is stronger in urban than in suburban or rural locations. It is possible that entrepreneurial motivations are an important factor in this regard and it is suggested that future econometric studies of small firm performance take these into account.

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International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 4 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1983

Michael R. Czinkota and Michael L. Ursic

This article reports the findings of a survey of export attitudes and behavior of small‐ and medium‐sized U.S. manufacturing firms. Companies are differentiated according…

Abstract

This article reports the findings of a survey of export attitudes and behavior of small‐ and medium‐sized U.S. manufacturing firms. Companies are differentiated according to their growth expectations and the behaviors of firms that have export growth expectations are compared to the behavior of firms that do not anticipate export growth. The authors suggest that the export growth expectations of a firm shape its behavior in terms of contact activities and its perceptions of export problems. Recommendations are made regarding the use and helpfulness of outside information sources.

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International Marketing Review, vol. 1 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

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Article
Publication date: 16 November 2021

Ahmad Rafiki, Muhammad Dharma Tuah Putra Nasution, Yossie Rossanty and Pipit Buana Sari

The purpose of this study is to examine the dimensions of organizational learning (OL), entrepreneurial orientation (EO), personal value toward the firm performance of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine the dimensions of organizational learning (OL), entrepreneurial orientation (EO), personal value toward the firm performance of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in North Sumatera, Indonesia.

Design/methodology/approach

This study used a quantitative methodology using Smart partial least squares of the structural equation model. A survey is done by distributing the questionnaires to the respondents (owner-managers) of SMEs across sectors. Using a convenient sampling technique, 128 respondents are selected. Using a cross-sectional survey design, 11 hypotheses are tested.

Findings

It is found that the innovativeness of EO and personal value both have a significant relationship with firm growth. While OL is significantly related to the innovativeness of EO, risk-taking of EO and proactiveness of EO. Then, both innovativeness of EO and proactiveness of EO significantly mediate the relationship of OL and firm growth. However, OL, proactiveness of EO and risk-taking of EO are insignificantly related to firm growth, while risk-taking of EO also insignificantly mediates the relationship of OL and firm growth.

Originality/value

EO (innovativeness, risk-taking and proactiveness) is deemed a crucial factor in running businesses by SMEs, while OL and personal value play a significant role in creating a competitive advantage that is needed for growth.

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Journal of Science and Technology Policy Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2053-4620

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Article
Publication date: 7 September 2021

Sarah R. Crane

Entrepreneurial firms contribute to economic growth, but the potential gendered nature of this contribution must be investigated as outcomes of male-owned and female-owned…

Abstract

Purpose

Entrepreneurial firms contribute to economic growth, but the potential gendered nature of this contribution must be investigated as outcomes of male-owned and female-owned firms differ. The study investigates the female underperformance hypothesis in a cross-country analysis of Schumpeterian entrepreneurs. Next, it investigates if there is a gendered dimension of Schumpeterian firm contribution to economic growth.

Design/methodology/approach

The study utilizes both nonparametric and parametric methodologies. Through nonparametric methods, the success of female-owned and male-owned firms is compared. Next, a parametric ordinary least squares regression model tests if there is a gendered nature of an entrepreneurial firm's economic contribution.

Findings

In nonparametric analyses, female-owned entrepreneurial firms in developed countries perform similarly to male-owned firms, while in developing countries male-owned firms significantly outperform female-owned firms. The author also finds strong evidence that the gender of the Schumpeterian entrepreneur does not matter in the contribution in economic growth.

Research limitations/implications

In all countries, the number of female-owned entrepreneurial firms was significantly lower than that of male-owned firms. The findings point to consistent cultural barriers for women in innovation-related fields and persistent gendered norms in entrepreneurship. Thus, removal of cultural barriers and continued support for Schumpeterian entrepreneurship will benefit women and contribute to a country's economic growth.

Originality/value

The data for this study is a unique utilization of the Enterprise World Survey to identify Schumpeterian entrepreneurial firms. Additionally, the study challenges the female underperformance hypothesis and contributes to the literature on the role of entrepreneurship in economic growth.

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International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-6266

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Article
Publication date: 27 October 2021

Julio Diéguez-Soto, María J. Martínez-Romero, Maarten Corten and Anneleen Michiels

This study investigates the impact of the CEO's financial literacy on family SMEs' growth, as well as the moderating role of the generational stage on this relationship.

Abstract

Purpose

This study investigates the impact of the CEO's financial literacy on family SMEs' growth, as well as the moderating role of the generational stage on this relationship.

Design/methodology/approach

The study is based on survey data of Spanish private family firms and utilizes a second source of data, the SABI database by Bureau Van Dijk. The authors run ordinary least squares regressions and use both the base and the partition approaches to test the hypotheses.

Findings

The analysis reveals a positive association between the CEO's financial literacy and firm growth. However, this relationship is not uniform across generations. The CEO's financial literacy-firm growth relationship becomes weaker for first- and third or subsequent-generation family firms while becoming stronger for second-generation family firms.

Originality/value

This study adds the financial literacy of the CEO as a novel individual-level determinant of family firm growth. It also shows that CEOs do not always use their financial literacy to its full potential to foster growth. More specifically, the extent to which financial literacy leads to firm growth is found to be conditional on the generational stage of the family SME. The obtained findings are valuable for family SMEs intending to hire a new CEO, encouraging the financial literacy of the current CEO and educating the next generation of family members.

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Baltic Journal of Management, vol. 17 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5265

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Article
Publication date: 22 October 2021

Channappa Santhosh

This paper aims to explore the moderating effect of human capital in the form of a CEO’s educational background and firm age at the time of internationalization on growth

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to explore the moderating effect of human capital in the form of a CEO’s educational background and firm age at the time of internationalization on growth and survival.

Design/methodology/approach

The research study is based on primary data gathered from 102 internationalized small and medium enterprises (SMEs) belonging to the engineering industry in Bangalore district, Karnataka, India.

Findings

The results reveal that human capital significantly improves sales growth but had no impact on the survival of internationalized SMEs.

Practical implications

The paper includes practical implications for the CEOs of SMEs to successfully strategize their efforts towards growth and survival in the international market.

Originality/value

This research study enhances the importance of human capital and its impact on the growth and survival of internationalized SMEs in the context of an emerging economy where research studies are limited and largely unexplored till date.

Details

Journal of Economic and Administrative Sciences, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1026-4116

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Book part
Publication date: 6 September 2018

Liang-Wei Kuo, Hsin-Yu Liang and Yung-Jang Wang

Building upon the framework of the tradeoff model of capital structure and motivated by the equity market timing theory, we examine whether equity misvaluation is a source…

Abstract

Building upon the framework of the tradeoff model of capital structure and motivated by the equity market timing theory, we examine whether equity misvaluation is a source of adjustment “costs” that will affect a firm’s leverage adjustment speed toward target. We also investigate whether the quality of a firm’s long-term growth options will influence the decisions of managers to exploit the mispriced equity to converge to the optimum. Using a sample of listed Taiwanese firms during 1992–2014 and employing the market-to-book decomposition as developed by Rhodes-Kropf, Robinson, and Viswanathan (2005), we find that overleveraged and overvalued firms demonstrate faster adjustment speed than overleveraged but undervalued firms. Furthermore, controlling for the misvaluation status, high-growth firms converge to target faster than their low-growth counterparts. The effect of growth options on the relation between equity mispricing and adjustment speed does not mirror the effect of financing deficits. With the detailed financial information of the local companies across a rather long time series, this study provides incremental inputs to the literature of capital structure from the determinants of target leverage, the estimation of leverage adjustment speeds, to the identification of the sources of adjustment costs in an emerging market where institutional environment is strikingly different from the US.

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Advances in Pacific Basin Business, Economics and Finance
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-446-6

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Book part
Publication date: 14 March 2003

Larry W Cox, Michael D Ensley and S.Michael Camp

This study tests the “Resource Balance Proposition” that is developed from the Resource-Based View (RBV) of strategy. While recent research using RBV to study new ventures…

Abstract

This study tests the “Resource Balance Proposition” that is developed from the Resource-Based View (RBV) of strategy. While recent research using RBV to study new ventures has focused primarily on the identification and acquisition of resources (Alvarez & Busenitz, 2001; Lichtenstein & Brush, 2001), this investigation examines the deployment of given resources in the pursuit of growth. It argues that the effective management of the resource base is at least as important to long-term survival as securing that base in the first place. Further, it assumes that firm growth is a desirable goal (especially for young firms) but posits that growth is not without cost and highly accelerated growth is particularly costly. Therefore, the hypotheses presented in this paper propose that there is a growth trajectory that optimizes profits and net worth by striking a balance between the resource deployments necessary to fuel growth and those needed to meet current obligations. The findings from this study confirm that both too little and too much growth have detrimental effects on firm vitality. More specifically, the data show a curvilinear relationship between the absolute rate of firm growth and the levels of both profits and net worth. This finding provides significant support for the Resource Balance Proposition, which states that the allocation of firm resources must be properly balanced between current resource positions and future resource positions to maximize wealth creation.

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Issues in Entrepeneurship
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-200-9

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