Search results

1 – 10 of 501
To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 21 June 2021

Eva Lubloy, Lajos Gábor Takács, David Istvan Enczel and Zsolt Cimer

The fire safety of structures is an existing and important design aspect, which is assured by strict regulations. As a means to adhere to the strict requirements, fire

Abstract

Purpose

The fire safety of structures is an existing and important design aspect, which is assured by strict regulations. As a means to adhere to the strict requirements, fire protection has become a core problem. It is particularly difficult to comply with these regulations in the case of timber, which is a combustible material. These problems could be solved by enveloping the wood in fire retardant materials. MSZ EN 1995-1-2 currently does not take into consideration the fire-retardant materials charring rate under fire exposure.

Design/methodology/approach

However, currently these fire retardants are proving to be reliable and depending on their application can achieve better reaction-to-fire classifications. During the research, the authors used five different fire-retardant materials on three different types of wood and tested their behaviours in a laboratory. When selecting them, it was important to choose the species that are most commonly used in the building industry but which have significantly different densities. Our choice fell upon spruce (360 kg/m3), Scots pine (540 kg/m3) and oak (650 kg/m3). During the tests, we examined the weight reduction and the process of burning on the specimens treated with the fire retardant material. In addition, the authors also performed tests by derivatography on both untreated and treated specimen.

Findings

The question is whether the effects of the fire retardants should be taken into consideration when calculating the extent of the burn. The Eurocode (MSZ EN 1995-1-2) does not provide any opinions. On the market, there are manufacturers who are already discussing the possibilities of reducing the burn rate during the qualification of paints. In this paper, based on the results we received, we discuss the beneficial effects of the fire retardants which can be taken into account while measuring cross-sections.

Originality/value

By using fire retardants, a high proportion of cross-sectional area gain is only possible in case of small cross-sections; therefore, it is advisable to use them here as well. This can be effective for example in many smaller cross-sections, when there is a little space and therefore requires a small cross-section. Thus, if a larger cross-section without protection is not possible, it can be replaced by a smaller cross section, treated with a fire retardant.

Details

Journal of Structural Fire Engineering, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-2317

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 20 April 2015

Santanu Basak, Kartick K Samanta, Sajal K Chattopadhyay, Rajesh Shashikant Narkar and R Mahangade

The purpose of this paper is to use the natural wastage plant product, bannana pseudostem sap (BPS) for using as fire retardant of cellulosic textile substrate. The study…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to use the natural wastage plant product, bannana pseudostem sap (BPS) for using as fire retardant of cellulosic textile substrate. The study aims to use first time any wastage plant product for making fire retardant cellulosic textile. In this regard flame retardant functionality was imparted in cellulosic textile using BPS, an eco-friendly natural wastage product.

Design/methodology/approach

The extracted sap was made alkaline and applied in pre-mordanted bleached and mercerized cotton fabrics. Flame retardant properties of the control and treated fabrics were analyzed in terms of limiting oxygen index (LOI), horizontal and vertical flammability and total heat of combustion using bomb calorimeter. The thermal degradation and pyrolysis was studied using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The chemical composition of the control and BPS treated cellulosic fabric were analyzed by FTIR, SEM and EDX. Durability of the flame retardant functionality to soap washing had also been studied.

Findings

The study showed that the treated fabrics had good flame retardant property compared to control fabrics. The LOI value was found to increase by 1.6 times after application of BPS. As a result of this, the fabric does not catch flame. In horizontal flammability, the treated fabric showed burning with afterglow (without presence of flame) with a propagation rate of 7.5 mm/min, which is almost ten times lower than the control fabric. After application of BPS cellulosic fabric sample produced natural khaki colour. There was no significant change in other physical properties.

Practical implications

The application process is simple and cost-effective as no costly chemicals were used. Further advantage is that the treated fabric could also be considered as natural dyed cotton fabric. The developed khaki colour is quite attractive and stable to sun light exposure. This developed process could used in colouration and flame retardant finishing of home furnishing products such as home-window curtain, railway curtain, hospital curtain, table lamp and as a covering material of non-permanent structure like in book fair, festival, religious purpose, etc., where large quantity of textile is used and has chance of fire hazards.

Social implications

BPS abundantly available in Indian as well as other countries and it is normally considered as waste material. It is eco-friendly and produced from renewable source. Therefore, the application of BPS in cotton textile for colouration and functionalization will give the advantages of value addition using natural product. Rural people will be benifited lot by applying this technology whenever it required.

Originality/value

This paper helps to clarify first time why and how a wastage plant product like BPS can be used for preparing fire retardant cotton cellulosic fabric.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 27 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 April 2001

S.A. Mazrouh

Fire retardant materials made of unsaturated polyester resin containing different halides and antimony trioxide were studied. In the present work the addition of a…

Abstract

Fire retardant materials made of unsaturated polyester resin containing different halides and antimony trioxide were studied. In the present work the addition of a substance rich in halogen such as polyvinylchloride (PVC) and antimony trioxide Sb2O3 to the composite made of unsaturated polyester and fiberglass as a reinforced material has been studied. The addition of fire retardant material (PVC) and (Sb2O3) enhanced the fire retardancy of the product with remarkable low effect on the mechanical properties of the products. The electrical properties of the products are studied.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 30 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 16 October 2019

Yusuf Yivlik, Nilgun Kizilcan and Ahmet Akar

Cyclohexanone–formaldehyde resin (CFR) was in situ modified with isocyanuric acid (ICA) in the presence of hydrochloric acid or p-toluenesulfonic acid by condensation…

Abstract

Purpose

Cyclohexanone–formaldehyde resin (CFR) was in situ modified with isocyanuric acid (ICA) in the presence of hydrochloric acid or p-toluenesulfonic acid by condensation polymerization. The purpose of this study is to produce isocyanuric acid-modified ketonic resins that have higher melting and decomposition temperature, and to use the produced resin in the production of fire-retardant polyurethane.

Design/methodology/approach

Two methods were used for in situ preparation of ICA-modified CFR in the presence of an acid catalyst. Method I: cyclohexanone, paraformaldehyde and ICA were mixed, and then an acid catalyst was added to form the modified CFR. Method II: ICA and formalin were mixed to produce N, N, N-trihydroxymethyl isocyanurate, and then water was removed under vacuum. The produced N, N, N-trihydroxymethyl isocyanurate solution was mixed with cyclohexanone and paraformaldehyde, then an acid catalyst was slowly added to this mixture to obtain ICA-modified CFR.

Findings

CFR was prepared in the presence of an acid catalyst. The product, CFR, has a dark red colour. The resulting resins have similar physical properties with the resin prepared in the presence of a basic catalyst. The solubility of ICA-modified CFR is much different than CFR in organic solvents.

Research limitations/implications

This study focuses on obtaining an ICA-modified ketonic resin. Cyanuric acid has the form of an enolic structure under a basic condition; therefore, it cannot give a product with formaldehyde under basic conditions. The modification experiments were carried out in acidic conditions.

Practical implications

This study provides technical information for in situ modification of ketonic resin in the presence of acid catalysts. The resins may also promote the adhesive strength of the coating and provide corrosion inhibition on metal surfaces for a coating. The modified resins may also be used in the field of fire-retardant polyurethane applications.

Social implications

These resins may be used for the preparation of non-toxic fire-retardant polyurethane foam. Polyurethane containing ICA-modified resin may exhibit better fire-retardant performance because of the incorporation of ICA molecule into the polyurethane structure.

Originality/value

ICA-modified CFRs have been synthesized in the presence of an acid catalyst, and the ICA-modified resin was used to produce fire-retardant polyurethane.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 49 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 September 1995

Alastair West

In the British Isles and Ireland each year many thatched roofs arelost owing to fire. This not only has implications for the safety of theoccupants of the dwelling, but…

Abstract

In the British Isles and Ireland each year many thatched roofs are lost owing to fire. This not only has implications for the safety of the occupants of the dwelling, but also in many cases hundreds of years of history disappear in smoke. This inherent risk with thatch leads to higher insurance premiums. Two new fire retardants designed and tested for use on thatched buildings have recently been introduced. One is a water repellent external retardant which can be sprayed directly on to the surface of the roof, the other is designed for internal use and can be sprayed on to the internal surface of the thatch and the supporting timbers.

Details

Structural Survey, vol. 13 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-080X

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 2 March 2015

H. Abd El-Wahab

This paper aims to report on the synthesis and characterisation of new flame retardants and anticorrosive additives based on Schiff’s base compounds, which were added…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to report on the synthesis and characterisation of new flame retardants and anticorrosive additives based on Schiff’s base compounds, which were added physically to organic coating.

Design/methodology/approach

Flame retardants are incorporated into polymeric materials either as additives or as reactive materials. Additive-type flame retardants are widely used by incorporating into polymeric materials by physical means. In this research, Schiff’s base (azomethine) compounds are added physically to alkyd paint as flame-retardant additives. Elemental analysis, infrared spectroscopy and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy were used to characterise the structure of the prepared Schiff’s base compounds. Thermal gravimetric analysis was used to evaluate their thermal stability. Experimental coatings were manufactured on a laboratory scale, and then applied by brush on wood and steel panels.

Findings

Results of an oxygen index value indicated that alkyd paints containing Schiff’s base compounds as additives exhibit very good flame-retardant effects. Also the physical, mechanical and corrosion resistance properties were studied to evaluate the drawbacks of the additives. The additives did not affect the flexibility of the paint formula. The gloss and the impact strength were decreased by the additives, but the hardness, adhesion and corrosion resistance were significantly improved by these additives.

Research limitations/implications

Alkyd resins are the most extensively used synthetic polymers in the coating industry. Nitrogen compounds are a small but rapidly growing group of flame retardants which are in the focus of public interest concerning environment-friendly flame retardants. So, the focus of this study is on Schiff’s base compounds as flame retardants and anticorrosive additives for alkyd resins to assess their applicability.

Practical implications

Schiff’s base compounds can be used as new additives in paint formulations to improve the flame-retardant and corrosion properties.

Originality/value

In recent years, there has been considerable interest in the nitrogen-based family of materials because they not only have a wide range of thermal and chemical stabilities, but can also provide improved thermal and flame-retardant properties to polymers. The present paper reports on the synthesis and characterisation of Schiff’s base compounds and their performance in alkyd resin coatings.

Details

Pigment and Resin Technology, vol. 44 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 6 March 2017

Arezoo Mamani, Morteza Ebrahimi and Maryam Ataeefard

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of expandable graphite (EG) plates’ incorporation on the mechanical, thermal and fire-retardant properties of an…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of expandable graphite (EG) plates’ incorporation on the mechanical, thermal and fire-retardant properties of an epoxy–aliphatic amine system. In addition, the optimum amount of EG in epoxy/EG composites is determined to achieve the best thermal and mechanical properties at the same time.

Design/methodology/approach

The epoxy/EG composites were prepared by using (1-4) phr of EG. The morphological structure of epoxy/EG composites was studied by using scanning electron microscopy. The thermal, flame-retardant and mechanical properties of epoxy/EG composites were evaluated by using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), oxygen index test and dynamic mechanical analysis and tensile and impact test, respectively.

Findings

TGA results showed that the incorporation of EG to the epoxy resin increased the initial decomposition temperature and residue weight of the composites. It was found that, with increasing EG concentration up to 4 phr, the oxygen index, glass transition temperature and Young’s modulus of epoxy/EG composites increased up to 60 per cent, 4.1°C and 50 per cent, respectively. On the other hand, the sample with 2 phr EG provided the maximum values of tensile strength, storage modulus, cross-linking density, ultimate tensile strain and impact strength.

Practical implications

Prepared epoxy/EG composites can be used as halogen-free flame-retardant composites. The proposed process for the preparation of the composites is simple and can easily be implicated in the industry.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, there is no other publication that considers mechanical, thermal and fire-retardant properties of epoxy/EG composites in one paper. In this work, the optimum concentration of EG in epoxy/EG composites was determined, considering all these properties.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 46 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 April 2021

Md Delwar Hossain, Md Kamrul Hassan, Anthony Chun Yin Yuen, Yaping He, Swapan Saha and Waseem Hittini

The purpose of this study is to review and summarise the existing available literature on lightweight cladding systems to provide detailed information on fire behaviour…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to review and summarise the existing available literature on lightweight cladding systems to provide detailed information on fire behaviour (ignitibility, heat release rate and smoke toxicity) and various test method protocols. Additionally, the paper discusses the challenges and provides updated knowledge and recommendation on selective-fire mechanisms such as rapid-fire spread, air cavity and fire re-entry behaviours due to dripping and melting of lightweight composite claddings.

Design/methodology/approach

A comprehensive literature review on fire behaviour, fire hazard and testing methods of lightweight composite claddings has been conducted in this research. In summarising all possible fire hazards, particular attention is given to the potential impact of toxicity of lightweight cladding fires. In addition, various criteria for fire performance evaluation of lightweight composite claddings are also highlighted. These evaluations are generally categorised as small-, intermediate- and large-scale test methods.

Findings

The major challenges of lightweight claddings are rapid fire spread, smoke production and toxicity and inconsistency in fire testing.

Originality/value

The review highlights the current challenges in cladding fire, smoke toxicity, testing system and regulation to provide some research recommendations to address the identified challenges.

Details

Journal of Structural Fire Engineering, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-2317

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 13 November 2020

Pundalik Pandharinath Mali, Nilesh S. Pawar, Narendra S. Sonawane, Vikas Patil and Rahul Patil

The purpose of this work was to develop a new trispiperazido phosphate-based reactive diluent (diphosphate-piperazine hydroxyl acrylate [DPHA]) and used as a flame…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this work was to develop a new trispiperazido phosphate-based reactive diluent (diphosphate-piperazine hydroxyl acrylate [DPHA]) and used as a flame retardant with an epoxy acrylate (EA) in ultraviolet (UV)-curable wood coating.

Design/methodology/approach

The concentration of reactive diluent was varied from 0% to 20% in the UV-curable formulation with constant photoinitiator concentration. The effect of DPHA concentration on film properties was studied by differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetric analysis, gel content, water absorption and limiting oxygen index.

Findings

The results showed that the viscosity of the prepared formulation decreased by increasing reactive diluent (DPHA) concentration which leads to improving the coating efficiency. A high concentration of reactive diluent (DPHA) of the cured films shows good resistance against stain, mechanical and thermal properties, which results in an increased glass transition temperature (Tg) and cross-linking density of the films.

Originality/value

The new trispiperazido phosphate-based reactive diluent was used in wood coating formulation, which resulted in excellent flame-retardant properties with higher cross-linked density with good stain resistance. This material can provide a wide range of application for coating industries to produce a glossy finish.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 50 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 June 2003

E.S. Abd El‐Sayed and A.H. Basta

This study examines the effects of using magnesium chloride as a precipitating agent of sodium silicate on the mechanical, optical and fire retardant properties of the…

Abstract

This study examines the effects of using magnesium chloride as a precipitating agent of sodium silicate on the mechanical, optical and fire retardant properties of the resulting paper sheets. Two types of treatments (internal and external), were carried out to investigate such effects on the paper sheets prepared from wood pulp and from non‐wood fibrous, bagasse pulp. The results obtained showed that the treatment of paper sheets with either sodium silicate or sodium silicate‐magnesium chloride led to a decrease in the activation energy of the initial main degradation stages. Wood pulp‐paper sheets treated with sodium silicate showed better fire retardant properties than the sodium silicate‐magnesium chloride treated wood pulp‐paper sheets. A reverse trend was noted in the case of paper sheets made from bagasse pulp.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 32 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

1 – 10 of 501