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1 – 10 of over 5000
Article
Publication date: 1 December 2004

Iwan Setiawan, A.R. Mahmud, S. Mansor, A.R. Mohamed Shariff and A.A. Nuruddin

Peat swamp forest fire hazard areas were identified and mapped by integrating GIS‐grid‐based and multi‐criteria analysis to provide valuable information about the areas…

2640

Abstract

Peat swamp forest fire hazard areas were identified and mapped by integrating GIS‐grid‐based and multi‐criteria analysis to provide valuable information about the areas most likely to be affected by fire in the Pekan District, south of Pahang, Malaysia. A spatially weighted index model was implemented to develop the fire hazard assessment model used in this study. Fire‐causing factors such as land use, road network, slope, aspect and elevation data were used in this application. A two‐mosaic Landsat TM scene was used to extract land use parameters of the study area. A triangle irregular network was generated from the digitized topographic map to produce a slope risk map, an aspect risk map and an elevation risk map. Spatial analysis was applied to reclassify and overlay all grid hazard maps to produce a final peat swamp forest fire hazard map. To validate the model, the actual fire occurrence map was compared with the fire hazard zone area derived from the model. The model can be used only for specific areas, and other criteria should be considered if the model is used for other areas. The results show that most of the actual fire spots are located in very high and high fire risk zones identified by the model.

Details

Disaster Prevention and Management: An International Journal, vol. 13 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-3562

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 25 September 2019

Venkatesh Kodur, Puneet Kumar and Muhammad Masood Rafi

The current fire protection measures in buildings do not account for all contemporary fire hazard issues, which has made fire safety a growing concern. Therefore, this…

52718

Abstract

Purpose

The current fire protection measures in buildings do not account for all contemporary fire hazard issues, which has made fire safety a growing concern. Therefore, this paper aims to present a critical review of current fire protection measures and their applicability to address current challenges relating to fire hazards in buildings.

Design/methodology/approach

To overcome fire hazards in buildings, impact of fire hazards is also reviewed to set the context for fire protection measures. Based on the review, an integrated framework for mitigation of fire hazards is proposed. The proposed framework involves enhancement of fire safety in four key areas: fire protection features in buildings, regulation and enforcement, consumer awareness and technology and resources advancement. Detailed strategies on improving fire safety in buildings in these four key areas are presented, and future research and training needs are identified.

Findings

Current fire protection measures lead to an unquantified level of fire safety in buildings, provide minimal strategies to mitigate fire hazard and do not account for contemporary fire hazard issues. Implementing key measures that include reliable fire protection systems, proper regulation and enforcement of building code provisions, enhancement of public awareness and proper use of technology and resources is key to mitigating fire hazard in buildings. Major research and training required to improve fire safety in buildings include developing cost-effective fire suppression systems and rational fire design approaches, characterizing new materials and developing performance-based codes.

Practical implications

The proposed framework encompasses both prevention and management of fire hazard. To demonstrate the applicability of this framework in improving fire safety in buildings, major limitations of current fire protection measures are identified, and detailed strategies are provided to address these limitations using proposed fire safety framework.

Social implications

Fire represents a severe hazard in both developing and developed countries and poses significant threat to life, structure, property and environment. The proposed framework has social implications as it addresses some of the current challenges relating to fire hazard in buildings and will enhance overall fire safety.

Originality/value

The novelty of proposed framework lies in encompassing both prevention and management of fire hazard. This is unlike current fire safety improvement strategies, which focus only on improving fire protection features in buildings (i.e. managing impact of fire hazard) using performance-based codes. To demonstrate the applicability of this framework in improving fire safety in buildings, major limitations of current fire protection measures are identified and detailed strategies are provided to address these limitations using proposed fire safety framework. Special emphasis is given to cost-effectiveness of proposed strategies, and research and training needs for further enhancing building fire safety are identified.

Details

PSU Research Review, vol. 4 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2399-1747

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 11 May 2007

Austin Troy and Jeff Romm

This paper analyzes the effects on housing prices of fire hazard disclosure in real estate transactions. In 1998, California passed the Natural Hazard Disclosure Law (AB…

Abstract

This paper analyzes the effects on housing prices of fire hazard disclosure in real estate transactions. In 1998, California passed the Natural Hazard Disclosure Law (AB 1195), which requires sellers to fill out a form disclosing to potential buyers whether their residence is in a statutory flood, wildfire, or seismic zone. This study looks specifically at whether homes in designated wildfire hazard zones in California saw any drop in value following this law. We found that location in a statutory fire zone is actually associated with a 3% positive price premium both before and after AB 1195, probably due to the unmeasured amenity values associated with location in the urban–rural interface. However, the combination of proximity to recent fire perimeters and post-AB 1195 disclosure does have a negative effect on selling price. After AB 1195, homes in statutory fire hazard zones that were within five kilometers of the perimeter of a major and recent fire sold on average for 5.1% (or $10,600) less than comparable homes that were in statutory fire zones but not near the perimeter of a recent fire, while no such differential exists prior to the law. This indicates that state-level fire-disclosure requirements prior to AB1195 (which were numerous, but vague, limited to fewer hazard zones, and poorly enforced) were inadequate. Therefore, while disclosure on its own does not appear to have influenced the real estate market in all statutory fire zones, it does negatively impact prices when in combination with proximity to a recent major fire.

Details

Living on the Edge
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-000-5

Article
Publication date: 17 February 2012

Muhammad Masood Rafi, Syed Wasiuddin and Salman Hameed Siddiqui

There is an acute shortage of infrastructure to deal with fire hazard in big cities in Pakistan. Consequently, fire hazard poses a serious threat to economic and social…

1386

Abstract

Purpose

There is an acute shortage of infrastructure to deal with fire hazard in big cities in Pakistan. Consequently, fire hazard poses a serious threat to economic and social activites in these cities. Unfortunately, the scale of this threat is not fully recognised in Pakistan despite the fact that recent fire incidences in different cities of Pakistan have resulted in considerable economic and life losses. The purpose of this paper is to present the results of a survey which was conducted in one of the largest cities of Pakistan to determine the nature and level of this threat. A critical evaluation of available resources with the Fire Brigade Department (FBD) to deal with the fire hazard in the city confirmed a lack of infrastructure facilities and adequate training. A conceptual framework model for fire risk management is proposed to reduce the level of this threat.

Design/methodology/approach

This study is based on a survey of fire exposed buildings in Karachi (one of the largest cities of Pakistan) and the analysis of available resources and infrastructure of FBD. A total of 13 sites were visited and interviews were conducted. Fire stations in the city were visited and an inventory of available resources was prepared. The data of fire incidents and human and economic losses were collected and analysed. Based on the findings, a conceptual framework model was suggested for fire risk management in the city.

Findings

The survey of the fire exposed structures indicated that negligence, violation of building codes, unawareness of safety measures, carelessness, and lack of training were the major causes of fire incidents. An acute shortage of facilities and infrastructure for fire fighting was noted. The recording mechanism of data related to fire incidents was found to be inadquate.

Research limitations/implications

The paper is a small but original contribution to identify a potential hazard which is faced by the businesses and community in the city. This is the first attempt (to the best of authors’ knowledge) to mitigate the effects of fire hazard.

Practical implications

The suggested model can be employed by the authorities as a guideline to mitigate fire hazard in the country.

Originality/value

The paper provides valuable information on the fire incidents and human and economic losses in Pakistan. The suggested model can become helpful in reducing fire hazard in Pakistan.

Details

Disaster Prevention and Management: An International Journal, vol. 21 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-3562

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 April 2021

Md Delwar Hossain, Md Kamrul Hassan, Anthony Chun Yin Yuen, Yaping He, Swapan Saha and Waseem Hittini

The purpose of this study is to review and summarise the existing available literature on lightweight cladding systems to provide detailed information on fire behaviour…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to review and summarise the existing available literature on lightweight cladding systems to provide detailed information on fire behaviour (ignitibility, heat release rate and smoke toxicity) and various test method protocols. Additionally, the paper discusses the challenges and provides updated knowledge and recommendation on selective-fire mechanisms such as rapid-fire spread, air cavity and fire re-entry behaviours due to dripping and melting of lightweight composite claddings.

Design/methodology/approach

A comprehensive literature review on fire behaviour, fire hazard and testing methods of lightweight composite claddings has been conducted in this research. In summarising all possible fire hazards, particular attention is given to the potential impact of toxicity of lightweight cladding fires. In addition, various criteria for fire performance evaluation of lightweight composite claddings are also highlighted. These evaluations are generally categorised as small-, intermediate- and large-scale test methods.

Findings

The major challenges of lightweight claddings are rapid fire spread, smoke production and toxicity and inconsistency in fire testing.

Originality/value

The review highlights the current challenges in cladding fire, smoke toxicity, testing system and regulation to provide some research recommendations to address the identified challenges.

Details

Journal of Structural Fire Engineering, vol. 12 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-2317

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 12 June 2017

Saeed Bakhtiyari, Leila Taghi Akbari and Masoud Jamali Ashtiani

The purpose of this study is assessment of fire and smoke hazards of some fiber reinforced polymers (FRP). The use of FRP strengthening strips has been found rapid growth…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is assessment of fire and smoke hazards of some fiber reinforced polymers (FRP). The use of FRP strengthening strips has been found rapid growth in construction industry of Iran and many other countries. However, the fire and smoke hazards of these materials in both construction and use phases need to be determined and the appropriated measures against fire should be taken.

Design/methodology/approach

The fire hazards of two types of fibre-reinforced epoxy composites (graphite fibre-reinforced polymer and carbon fibre-reinforced polymer) were investigated in bench-scale using cone calorimeter test method. Time to ignition, heat release rate, total heat release, smoke release and carbon monoxide production were measured and analysed. Time to flashover of an assumed room lined with the tested FRP was analysed with Conetools software. Smoke production and toxicity of the considered composites were also analysed and discussed, using the fractional effective dose parameter.

Findings

The results showed that the tested FRP products had a high fire hazard and a potential high contribution to fire growth. The tests also proved that the used epoxy resin had a low glass transition temperature, around 50°C; therefore, the mechanical strength of the product could be drastically reduced at first stages of a probable fire incident. This also showed that a regular thermal barrier, typically used for protection of plastic foams against fire, could not be sufficient for the protection of strengthening FRP composites.

Originality/value

This research was carried out for the first time for the materials used in construction industry of Iran. The results and achievements were very useful for safe use and development of proper details of application of the system.

Details

International Journal of Disaster Resilience in the Built Environment, vol. 8 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-5908

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 December 2004

Shattri Mansor, Mohammed Abu Shariah, Lawal Billa, Iwan Setiawan and Faisal Jabar

This study integrates high spatial resolution remote sensor data with geographic information system (GIS) data and multi‐criteria analysis to develop a methodology to…

4163

Abstract

This study integrates high spatial resolution remote sensor data with geographic information system (GIS) data and multi‐criteria analysis to develop a methodology to model disaster risk for flood risk management and in peat swamp forest fires in order to assist in providing decision support systems for emergency operations and disaster prevention. Landslides are the result of a wide variety of processes, including geological, geomorphological and meteorological factors. Spatial technology has the ability to assess and estimate regions of landslide hazard by creating thematic maps and overlapping them to produce a final hazard map which classifies regions according to three categories of risk.

Details

Disaster Prevention and Management: An International Journal, vol. 13 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-3562

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 23 January 2019

Mayank Shrivastava, Anthony Abu, Rajesh Dhakal and Peter Moss

This paper aims to describe current trends in probabilistic structural fire engineering and provides a comprehensive summary of the state-of-the-art of performance-based…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to describe current trends in probabilistic structural fire engineering and provides a comprehensive summary of the state-of-the-art of performance-based structural fire engineering (PSFE).

Design/methodology/approach

PSFE has been introduced to overcome the limitations of current conventional design approaches used for the design of fire-exposed structures, which investigate assumed worst-case fire scenarios and include multiple thermal and structural analyses. PSFE permits buildings to be designed in relation to a level of life safety or economic loss that may occur in future fire events with the help of a probabilistic approach.

Findings

This paper brings together existing research on various sources of uncertainty in probabilistic structural fire engineering, such as elements affecting post-flashover fire development, material properties, fire models, fire severity, analysis methods and structural reliability.

Originality/value

Prediction of economic loss would depend on the extent of damage, which is further dependent on the structural response. The representative prediction of structural behaviour would depend on the precise quantification of the fire hazard. The incorporation of major uncertainty sources in probabilistic structural fire engineering is explained, and the detailed description of a pioneering analysis method called incremental fire analysis is presented.

Details

Journal of Structural Fire Engineering, vol. 10 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-2317

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 17 October 2015

Michael Eburn

Modern emergency management policy is built around the concepts of shared responsibility and the development of resilient communities. Drawing on the Australian context…

Abstract

Modern emergency management policy is built around the concepts of shared responsibility and the development of resilient communities. Drawing on the Australian context, this chapter argues that giving effect to these policy directions will require negotiation between stakeholders and an inevitable trade in values, interests, and resources. The chapter identifies an apparent contradiction at the heart of modern disaster management: that improvements in establishing professional emergency and risk management services may have reduced the capacity of individuals and local communities to take responsibility for disaster preparation and response.

Details

Special Issue Cassandra’s Curse: The Law and Foreseeable Future Disasters
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-299-3

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 27 August 2009

Mohammad A. Hassanain

The purpose of this paper is to investigate approaches pertaining to qualitative fire risk assessment of existing hotel facilities, for the purpose of identifying and…

5076

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate approaches pertaining to qualitative fire risk assessment of existing hotel facilities, for the purpose of identifying and eliminating fire hazards, and meeting requirements of the current legislation.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper carries out several research activities, including: identifying the set of factors that render hotel facilities a high‐risk type of facilities in fires; investigating potential high‐risk areas to fires in hotels; exploring the role of hotel managers towards operating safe hotel facilities; discussing the concept of fire risk management, and the role of fire safety inspections as a risk mitigation strategy to ensure the adherence of existing hotels to fire safety legislation; and describing a methodical approach that fire safety inspectors can follow while conducting fire safety inspections. The paper also presents the development of a qualitative fire risk assessment tool, whereby existing hotel facilities can be assessed.

Findings

The paper establishes that hotel facilities are a high‐risk type of facilities in fire emergencies due to the combination of several risk factors. The fire risk assessment tool provides 76 items to assess, in seven main divisions, including exits, fire protection systems, electrical, fire doors, hazardous materials, housekeeping and miscellaneous.

Originality/value

This paper provides for a better comprehension of the roles of hotel managers towards operating safe hotel facilities. The paper emphasizes adherence of existing hotels to fire safety legislation to ensure the minimum level of safety for guests in all hotel properties. It serves to enhance the understanding of the potential dangers present in hotel facilities. It is of practical value to hoteliers responsible for the day‐to‐day operation of hotel facilities and for surveyors inspecting such properties.

Details

Structural Survey, vol. 27 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-080X

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 5000