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Article
Publication date: 12 September 2016

Stephen A. Woods, Fiona C. Patterson, Anna Koczwara and Juilitta A. Sofat

The aim of this paper is to examine the impact of personality traits of the Big Five model on training outcomes to help explain variation in training effectiveness.

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Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this paper is to examine the impact of personality traits of the Big Five model on training outcomes to help explain variation in training effectiveness.

Design/methodology/approach

Associations of the Big Five with self-reported learning following training were tested in a pre- and post-design in a field sample of junior medical practitioners (N = 99), who attended a training workshop on self-awareness. Associations are reported of personality traits with post-training learning measured immediately following the workshop and one-month later controlling for pre-training learning.

Findings

Conscientiousness was related to post-training learning at both times. None of the remaining Big Five factors were associated with post-training learning.

Research limitations/implications

The study contributes to the literature on personality and training outcomes, clarifying the associations of traits with outcomes in a pre-and-post design. Although the study sample has limitations, the findings have implications for numerous lines of future research, in particular in understanding the role of training in relations of personality and job performance.

Practical implications

Practitioners should consider ways to encourage training participants to approach training conscientiously. Personality assessment might help people reflect on their approach to learning to adapt it during training.

Originality/value

No study has previously examined the role of personality traits in training outcomes using a pre- and post-design. The role of conscientiousness in workplace learning is underlined by the findings. While dimensions such as openness and extraversion may encourage people to participate in training, conscientiousness may make the difference in promoting internalized individual development and change following training.

Details

Journal of Workplace Learning, vol. 28 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1366-5626

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 13 June 2016

Stephen A Woods, Fiona C Patterson, Bart Wille and Anna Koczwara

The purpose of this paper is to re-examine the role of personality in occupational specialty choice, to better understand how and in what ways personality traits might influence…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to re-examine the role of personality in occupational specialty choice, to better understand how and in what ways personality traits might influence vocational development after a person has chosen a career.

Design/methodology/approach

The study tested hypotheses in a sample of UK medical students, each of whom had chosen their specialty pathway, and completed a measure of the Big Five personality traits. Associations of the junior doctor’s Big Five personality traits with the Holland’s realistic, investigative, artistic, social, enterprising, conventional (RIASEC) profiles of their medical specialty selections (derived from the O*NET database) were examined.

Findings

Findings provided good support for the hypotheses. Junior doctors’ agreeableness (with social) and neuroticism (with realistic, artistic and enterprising) were the main predictors of the RIASEC profiles of their specialty selections.

Research limitations/implications

The findings suggest that personality traits influence specialty selection in predictable ways, and differently compared to occupational choice. The paper discusses findings within a theoretical framework that explains how and why trait influences on within occupational specialty selection differ from influences on occupational interest and choice more broadly. The potential mechanisms underlying these associations are explored in the context of motivational aspects of agreeableness and neuroticism.

Practical implications

Within-occupation specialties should feature in career guidance discussions and interventions more explicitly to enable people to decide whether occupational specialties are available that appeal to their individual differences.

Originality/value

This is the first study to examine the relations of personality and occupational specialty through the lens of the RIASEC model, and the first to propose cross-occupation theoretical pathways from personality to specialty choice. The data from the field of medicine enable us to test the propositions in a suitably diverse set of occupational specialties.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 21 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 1997

Eamonn Ferguson, Máire Kerrin and Fiona Patterson

How do individuals structure their knowledge? How does this structure vary as a function of training? What are individuals’ implicit theories of personality? How do individuals…

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Abstract

How do individuals structure their knowledge? How does this structure vary as a function of training? What are individuals’ implicit theories of personality? How do individuals perceive their organizational culture? These are all important questions facing occupational/organizational psychologists. Describes the technique of multi‐dimensional scaling (MDS) analysis and shows how it might be applied to these questions.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 12 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

Keywords

Abstract

Many jurisdictions fine illegal cartels using penalty guidelines that presume an arbitrary 10% overcharge. This article surveys more than 700 published economic studies and judicial decisions that contain 2,041 quantitative estimates of overcharges of hard-core cartels. The primary findings are: (1) the median average long-run overcharge for all types of cartels over all time periods is 23.0%; (2) the mean average is at least 49%; (3) overcharges reached their zenith in 1891–1945 and have trended downward ever since; (4) 6% of the cartel episodes are zero; (5) median overcharges of international-membership cartels are 38% higher than those of domestic cartels; (6) convicted cartels are on average 19% more effective at raising prices as unpunished cartels; (7) bid-rigging conduct displays 25% lower markups than price-fixing cartels; (8) contemporary cartels targeted by class actions have higher overcharges; and (9) when cartels operate at peak effectiveness, price changes are 60–80% higher than the whole episode. Historical penalty guidelines aimed at optimally deterring cartels are likely to be too low.

Details

The Law and Economics of Class Actions
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-951-5

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2004

Georgios I. Zekos

Investigates the differences in protocols between arbitral tribunals and courts, with particular emphasis on US, Greek and English law. Gives examples of each country and its way…

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Abstract

Investigates the differences in protocols between arbitral tribunals and courts, with particular emphasis on US, Greek and English law. Gives examples of each country and its way of using the law in specific circumstances, and shows the variations therein. Sums up that arbitration is much the better way to gok as it avoids delays and expenses, plus the vexation/frustration of normal litigation. Concludes that the US and Greek constitutions and common law tradition in England appear to allow involved parties to choose their own judge, who can thus be an arbitrator. Discusses e‐commerce and speculates on this for the future.

Details

Managerial Law, vol. 46 no. 2/3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0558

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 31 July 2023

Carrie L. Shandra and Fiona Burke

How people spend their time is an indicator of how they live their lives, with time use over the life course conditioned both by age and by participation in age-graded…

Abstract

How people spend their time is an indicator of how they live their lives, with time use over the life course conditioned both by age and by participation in age-graded institutions. This chapter uses nationally representative data from the pooled 2008–2020 American Time Use Survey (ATUS) to evaluate how time use in 12 activity categories varies by age, gender, and disability status among 137,266 respondents aged 15 and older. By doing so, we quantify the “disability gap” in time use between men and women with and without disabilities, identifying at what age and by how much people with disabilities experience time differentials in activities of daily living (ADLs), instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs), and other indicators of social participation. Results indicate that – at many ages – patterns of time use for people with disabilities deviate from those of people without disabilities, with more pronounced differences in midlife. Further, the magnitude of women's disability gaps equals or exceeds men's for sleeping, and nearly all ADLs and IADLs, indicating that disability gaps are also gendered.

Details

Disabilities and the Life Course
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80455-202-5

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 June 2018

Fiona Eva Bakas, Nancy Duxbury and Tiago Vinagre de Castro

Given limited research about how artisans become integrated into tourism, the purpose of this paper is to investigate the emergence of artisan entrepreneur–mediators who link…

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Abstract

Purpose

Given limited research about how artisans become integrated into tourism, the purpose of this paper is to investigate the emergence of artisan entrepreneur–mediators who link artisans to tourism in rural areas and small cities in Portugal. Using social embeddedness as a conceptual framework, this paper views artisan entrepreneur–mediators as existing within an entrepreneurial ecosystem. The paper investigates their role within this ecosystem and how social networks influence the artisan entrepreneur–mediators’ roles in connecting artisans to creative tourism.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper is based on new (2017 and 2018) empirical evidence developed through two rounds of semi-structured interviews of five artisan entrepreneur–mediators.

Findings

This paper finds that artisan entrepreneur–mediators in rural areas or small cities take on multiple roles as networking agents who organize and offer creative tourism experiences, providing the missing link between artisans and tourists. An analysis of the nuances of the operations of these artisan entrepreneur–mediators suggests that high levels of social embeddedness within local rural communities are important in order for these neo-rural entrepreneurs to attain their goals.

Originality/value

Originality lies in the identification of a gap in artisan entrepreneurship literature in a rural context. It is the first time that a critical analysis of artisan entrepreneur–mediators who facilitate the link between artisans and tourism is carried out in terms of social embeddedness, their roles and connections to creative tourism, and types of community engagement.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 25 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

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Abstract

Details

Māori and Pasifika Higher Education Horizons
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-703-0

Article
Publication date: 28 June 2022

Alastair Thomas Matthew Marsh, Naufan Ashraf Jahja, Fiona Gleed, Oliver Peacock, David Coley and Ricardo Codinhoto

Physical inactivity has a considerable negative impact on health. Physical activity has reduced partly due to workplace and lifestyle changes, causing people to spend more time in…

Abstract

Purpose

Physical inactivity has a considerable negative impact on health. Physical activity has reduced partly due to workplace and lifestyle changes, causing people to spend more time in buildings and increasing sedentary behaviour. The purpose of this paper is to address a largely untapped opportunity for designers and managers to improve building users’ health by designing buildings that raise users’ Non-Exercise Activity Thermogenesis (NEAT) levels. In this research a conceptual model was developed to assess buildings’ performance in providing NEAT-promoting opportunities through building design features and management, in relation to building users’ propensity for NEAT behaviours.

Design/methodology/approach

The conceptual model was developed by a multi-disciplinary team of researchers and data to populate the model was obtained through a survey of 75 buildings in Jakarta (Indonesia).

Findings

The presented proof-of-concept shows that the model’s “meso-scale” approach to study physical activity and building design can lead to potential improvements of NEAT levels and physical activity in buildings.

Originality/value

The review of precedent models shows that this subject has been researched at micro-scale (i.e. detailed monitoring of individuals’ movement) and macro-scale (i.e. epidemiological studies of populations’ health). The presented model is original, as it explores a “meso-scale”(i.e. building scale) that is unique.

Details

Facilities , vol. 40 no. 11/12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-2772

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2008

Jane Hibberd

Older people account for a significant proportion of users of health and social care services (Wanless, 2006). Within current constraints on health and social care services, it is…

Abstract

Older people account for a significant proportion of users of health and social care services (Wanless, 2006). Within current constraints on health and social care services, it is essential that interventions such as home visits for older people can be seen to be appropriately deployed resources for facilitating their safe and timely discharge home. This paper discusses the findings of an evaluation project undertaken in 2003/04 within two in‐patient intermediate care services. The service provided short‐term intervention for older people, with an emphasis on rehabilitation to enable a safe return to their own home environment. A government audit report in 2003 concerning effective discharge of older patients from NHS acute hospitals stated that delayed discharges are a significant problem, with 17% caused by delays in assessing patients, shortages of occupational therapists and lack of integrated therapy services (House of Commons, 2003).

Details

Quality in Ageing and Older Adults, vol. 9 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1471-7794

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