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Article
Publication date: 7 January 2019

Edward Rock Davis and Rachel Wilson

This paper aims to analyse contrasting discourses on education and competitiveness from four countries to show the different national values that are a key driver in…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to analyse contrasting discourses on education and competitiveness from four countries to show the different national values that are a key driver in economic development.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper uses content analysis to compare and contrast the newspaper discourse surrounding the OECD Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) in four countries with above OECD average performance: Japan and South Korea (improving performance) and Australia and Finland (declining performance). PISA has attracted much government and public attention because it reflects education and the economic value of that education.

Findings

There are key contrasts in the discourses of the four countries. Despite shifts to globalised perspectives on education, strong national and cultural differences remain. Educational competitiveness and economic competitiveness are strong discourses in Japan and South Korea, while in Australia and Finland, the focus is on educational competitiveness. The media in Finland has few references to economic competitiveness and it does not feature in Australia. The discourse themes on PISA from 2001 to 2015 are presented with trends in educational attainment and shifting national perspectives on education.

Research limitations/implications

Analysis is limited to the top two circulation newspapers in English language in each country over 2001 to 2015. These newspapers in Finland, Japan and South Korea include translated content from local language papers.

Originality/value

The paper provides longitudinal perspectives to understand the contrasting societal values placed on education and how these relate to perspectives on competitiveness. This media evidence on national discourses can inform education policy orientations in the four countries examined.

Details

Journal of Asia Business Studies, vol. 13 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1558-7894

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 2009

Helen Cripps, Jari Salo and Craig Standing

The purpose of the paper is to describe the impediments to information technology (IT) adoption and possible solutions in the context of business relationships by drawing…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the paper is to describe the impediments to information technology (IT) adoption and possible solutions in the context of business relationships by drawing on case studies conducted in both Australia and Finland in the heavy manufacturing sector.

Design/methodology/approach

The in depth case studies were conducted in the steel manufacturing industry in Finland and in the marine defence (shipbuilding) industry in Australia.

Findings

The findings indicate that doubts about the security of shared information, missing mutual benefits, incompatibility of IT systems, inadequate IT resources, uncertainty about the future directions of the relationship, information rich working routines, i.e. face to face communication, IT deployment not being part of the industry standard and investments not justified by the relationship seems to be the most significant impediments to IT adoption in heavy manufacturing in Australia and Finland.

Research limitations/implications

This paper focuses on one industry sector using case studies. Further work could be conducted in other industry sectors to determine if the same impediments arise.

Practical implications

Through the cases discussed an attempt is made to identify some of the impediments to IT adoption, strategies for overcoming them and by doing so, adding to the body of marketing knowledge on business relationships. For managers this paper provides some insights to manage IT adoption in the heavy manufacturing industry.

Originality/value

Across various industry sectors managers have adopted different types of IT tools to coordinate their relationships with their counterparts. However there has been little academic research in this area until recently, as the research has been focused on large firms in technology rich industry sectors. This paper broadens the discussion on IT adoption in the context of business relationships in industry sectors that have not been traditionally targeted.

Details

Journal of Systems and Information Technology, vol. 11 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1328-7265

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1978

Paolo Roberti

This article is concerned with pre‐tax total income distribution in 18 “western” countries. Its objective is a tentative comparison among national income distributions and

Abstract

This article is concerned with pre‐tax total income distribution in 18 “western” countries. Its objective is a tentative comparison among national income distributions and the study of trends since the 1950s. Similar issues have recently been analysed in a number of studies. This analysis differs from them in three main respects. Firstly, it refers to a group of nations which excludes developing countries. In spite of substantial differences in political and socio‐economic structures in this group of countries, processes of income distribution have a great degree of similarity. Income statistics are then more “homogeneous” and their comparison more meaningful than in studies covering developed and developing nations. Secondly, the article differs in the methodology it uses. Other studies have relied on “strict comparisons” of income statistics, for example they have compared values of coefficients of inequality and of income shares. In this article “loose classification”, for example categorisation of countries into groups (see following section), is used as a means of comparing income distributions. This makes it possible to allow, within limits, for the fact that the value of the data can be different from the one which is observed, even when statistics seem “fairly” accurate and comparable. Thirdly, the possible influence of the data source on each country's position is examined by considering a plurality of sources whenever possible. Intentionally, this article does not include discussion of most of the problems which exist in the field of income distribution—including those concerning coverage and reliability of data. It is expected that the reader keeps them and their various caveats well in mind when evaluating the empirical evidence which is presented. The explanation of differences in income distribution structures is outside the scope of this article.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 5 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Book part
Publication date: 24 July 2020

Ilkka Väänänen, Kati Peltonen and Sharon Lierse

This chapter adopts an international perspective and discusses the policies and activities that the universities both in Finland and in Australia have undertaken in order…

Abstract

This chapter adopts an international perspective and discusses the policies and activities that the universities both in Finland and in Australia have undertaken in order to strengthen and develop the prosperity for achieving a better and more sustainable future for all. Social responsibility is approached from the broad-based perspectives – especially how research and development (R&D) activities of universities can be seen as platforms for university–community partnerships. This chapter first opens up the driving forces behind the universities’ social responsibility. The second section portrays how social responsibility is implemented in the Finnish and Australian universities. The following section addresses the significance of universities’ R&D activities in promoting social responsibility. Finally, the chapter ends with the discussion on the action models, which supports the social responsibility in university–community partnership.

Details

University–Community Partnerships for Promoting Social Responsibility in Higher Education
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-439-2

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Article
Publication date: 23 November 2010

Liz Gill, Anu Helkkula, Nicola Cobelli and Lesley White

The substitution of generic prescription medicines for branded medicines is being practiced in most westernised countries, with evidence of a strong focus on evaluating and

Abstract

Purpose

The substitution of generic prescription medicines for branded medicines is being practiced in most westernised countries, with evidence of a strong focus on evaluating and monitoring its economic impacts. In contrast, the purpose of this paper is to explore the generic substitution experience of customers and pharmacists in a pharmacy practice setting.

Design/methodology/approach

The study applied a phenomenological method using the narrative inquiry technique combined with critical event analysis, in order to understand the generic medicine experience as perceived by customers and pharmacists as key substitution actors. Interviews were conducted with 15 pharmacists and 30 customers in Australia, Finland and Italy, using a narrative inquiry technique combined with critical events and metaphors.

Findings

The findings show that customers, with poor awareness of generic prescription medicine when offered as a substitute, were likely to become confused and suspicious. Pharmacists related how they felt challenged by having to facilitate generic substitution by educating unaware customers, in isolation from both the prescribing doctor and the government/insurer. They also experienced frustration due to the mistrust and annoyance their customers displayed.

Social implications

The findings suggest that to increase generic substitution, open dialogue is paramount between all the participants of this service network, along with the development of targeted promotional materials.

Originality/value

Little is known about how customers and pharmacists experience the service phenomenon of generic medicine substitution. This paper explores how the key actors at the point of substitution make sense of the process. Additionally, the methodology provides a technique for obtaining a deeper understanding of both the customer and pharmacist experience of generic medicine, along with insights into how the uptake of generic medicine might be improved.

Details

International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Healthcare Marketing, vol. 4 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6123

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 1998

Jens J. Dahlgaard, Kai Kristensen, Gopal K. Kanji, Hans J. Juhl and Amrik S. Sohal

This paper compares quality management practices in manufacturing companies in the East and the West. It uses data collected from three countries in the East, namely…

Abstract

This paper compares quality management practices in manufacturing companies in the East and the West. It uses data collected from three countries in the East, namely Japan, Korea and Taiwan and compares these with data collected from four countries in the West, namely Denmark, Finland, Sweden and Australia. Twenty‐five Japanese companies, 105 Korean companies, 48 Taiwanese companies, 65 Danish companies, 88 Swedish companies, 18 Finnish companies and 62 companies from Australia responded to the questionnaire. Comparison between the East and the West is carried out on the following: formulation and communication of a quality policy; education and training of employees in quality management; top management participation in quality activities, quality motivation and suggestions; and the use of quality tools and methods. The comparison shows that quality management practices are relatively more widespread in the Eastern companies than in the Western companies. The key differences between the East and the West are identified and suggestions made to close the gap.

Details

International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, vol. 15 no. 8/9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-671X

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Book part
Publication date: 20 June 2003

Susan Harkness and Jane Waldfogel

In this paper, we use microdata on employment and earnings from a variety of industrialized countries to investigate the family gap in pay – the differential in hourly…

Abstract

In this paper, we use microdata on employment and earnings from a variety of industrialized countries to investigate the family gap in pay – the differential in hourly wages between women with children and women without children. We present results from seven countries: Australia, Canada, the United Kingdom, the United States, Germany, Finland, and Sweden. We find that there is a good deal of variation across our sample countries in the effects of children on women’s employment and in the effects of children on women’s hourly wages even after controlling for differences between women with and without children in characteristics such as age and education. We also find that the variation in the family gap in pay across countries is not primarily due to differential selection into employment or to differences in wage structure across countries. We suggest that future research should examine the impact of family policies such as maternity leave and child care on the family gap in pay.

Details

Worker Well-Being and Public Policy
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-213-9

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Book part
Publication date: 27 February 2009

Frank Vanclay and Tiina Silvasti

Purpose – Using examples from Australia, Finland and The Netherlands, we describe the sociocultural processes that influence farmers. We outline the styles of farming…

Abstract

Purpose – Using examples from Australia, Finland and The Netherlands, we describe the sociocultural processes that influence farmers. We outline the styles of farming approach as an explanation of diversity (heterogeneity) and the farming scripts approach as an explanation of conformity (continuity and tradition).

Methodology – This chapter is a theoretical comparison that draws on earlier work of the authors. The research into styles of farming used focus groups and interviews, while the research on farming scripts is based on an analysis of biographies submitted for a national writing competition or gained by narrative interview.

Findings – We argue that there are a number of farming scripts that may well be universal, at least within family farming in western cultures. We found that the concept of styles of farming is a useful heuristic device, but that it was difficult to use in practice to use to classify farmers. We conclude that both style and script are needed to account for the full range of sociocultural influences on farmers.

Practical implications – Our chapter seeks to expand understanding of the social lives of farming families and to increase the realisation that farming is a sociocultural practice. Efforts to change agriculture need to be mindful of this fundamental dimension of farming practice if they are to be successful.

Originality – The analysis we have undertaken is the only theoretical comparison of these approaches.

Details

Beyond the Rural-Urban Divide: Cross-Continental Perspectives on the Differentiated Countryside and its Regulation
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-138-1

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1989

Judith L. Zaichkowsky and James H. Sood

Respondents from fifteen countries reported their level of use andinvolvement with eight products and services: the countries wereArgentina, Austria, Australia, Barbados…

Abstract

Respondents from fifteen countries reported their level of use and involvement with eight products and services: the countries were Argentina, Austria, Australia, Barbados, Canada, Chile, China, Columbia, England, Finland, France, Mexico, Sweden, the United States and Yugoslavia; the products and services were air travel, beer, blue jeans, eating at a restaurant, hair shampoo, going to the cinema, soft drinks and stereo sets. The results indicated that country accounted for eight to 45 per cent of the variation in product and service usage. Among regular product users, country accounts for one to 20 per cent of the variation in involvement levels across products and services.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 6 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 8 May 2017

Eelis Rytkönen, Christopher Heywood and Suvi Nenonen

This paper aims to outline campus management process dynamics that are affected by glocalization, changing funding structures and digitalization, and answer: How do…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to outline campus management process dynamics that are affected by glocalization, changing funding structures and digitalization, and answer: How do glocalization, changing funding structures and digitalization challenge university campus management? and What implications do the challenges have on campus management processes?

Design/methodology/approach

Literature overview discusses how glocalization, changing funding structures and digitalization affect campus management. Empirical part explores how these forces affect management processes through 36 interviews on multiple embedded cases in the main campuses of Aalto University in Finland and the University of Melbourne in Australia.

Findings

Major challenges include future foresight, institutional sharing, economical paucity and functional flexibility. Heterogeneous user behaviors challenge absolute spatial measures as bases for designing learning and working environments. Finding a balance between long-haul portfolio maintenance for the university and future users and short-haul flexible pilots for the current user communities is crucial.

Research limitations/implications

The results derive from interviews of 36 campus management professionals from two campus management organizations limiting the validity and the reliability of the study. Further studies should be conducted by replicating the study in another context, by interviewing end users and clients and by investigating case investments and impacts over time.

Practical implications

Campus managers can answer the challenges through practical applications such as big data collection and sharing in physical environments, integrated service provision to thematic communities, cross-pollination of user communities and open access to information and infrastructure services.

Originality/value

This paper provides insights and tools to strategic alignment by comparing campus management of two fundamentally different systems in the context of higher education and on-going digitalization.

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