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Book part
Publication date: 24 January 2022

Serdar Yaman and Turhan Korkmaz

Introduction: Financial failure is a concept that may arise from many internal and external factors such as operational, financial, and economic items and may incur…

Abstract

Introduction: Financial failure is a concept that may arise from many internal and external factors such as operational, financial, and economic items and may incur serious losses. Over-indebtedness arising from managerial misjudgments may cause high financial distress, insufficiency, and bankruptcy. In this regard, determination of effects of capital structure decisions on financial failure risk is crucial.

Aim: The main purpose of this study is to explore the relationship between capital structure decisions and financial failure risk. For this purpose, data from Borsa İstanbul (BIST) for listed food and beverage companies for the period from 2004 to 2019 is used. Another purpose of this study is to compare the financial failure models considering capital structure theories.

Method: In the study, capital structure decisions are associated with five different financial ratios; while the financial failure risk is proxied by financial failure scores of Altman (1968), Springate (1978), Ohlson (1980), Taffler (1983), and Zmijewski (1984). Therefore, five different panel data models are used for testing these hypotheses.

Findings: The results of panel data analysis reveal that capital structure decisions have statistically significant effects on financial failure risk for all models; however, those effects vary from one financial failure model to another. Also, the results show that in the models in which financial failure risk is proxied by the Altman (1968) and Taffler (1983) scores, the aggressive financial policies increase the financial failure risk. However, regarding the models in which financial failure risk is proxied by the Springate (1978), Ohlson (1980), and Zmijewski (1984) scores, aggressive financial policies decrease the financial failure risk.

Originality of the Study: To the best of our knowledge, this chapter is original and important in terms of revealing the effects of capital structure decisions on the financial failure risk and comparing the financial failure models.

Implications: The results revealed that the risk of financial failure models represented by Altman (1968) and Taffler (1983) scores are found to be statistically stronger and more successful in meeting theoretical expectations compared to other models. Therefore, it would be more appropriate to refer Altman’s (1968) and Taffler’s (1983) financial failure models in financial failure risk measurements.

Details

Insurance and Risk Management for Disruptions in Social, Economic and Environmental Systems: Decision and Control Allocations within New Domains of Risk
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80117-140-3

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Article
Publication date: 6 March 2020

Eijaz Ahmed Khan and Mohammed Quaddus

This study first examines whether the capital structure served as a mediator between financing mix and firm performance. Furthermore, the authors investigate whether this…

Abstract

Purpose

This study first examines whether the capital structure served as a mediator between financing mix and firm performance. Furthermore, the authors investigate whether this mediation effect was moderated by the financial environment. Grounded in the pecking order theory (POT) and dynamic capability view (DCV), this study extends these concepts by configuring all links to a moderated mediation model.

Design/methodology/approach

The study uses the structural equation modelling (SEM) approach and multiple regression analysis using “Hayes PROCESS macro” to empirically examine the model using data collected from 384 informal micro-firms operating in Bangladesh.

Findings

In the mediation analyses, results found that capital structure was a mediator in the link between financing mix and firm performance. In further moderated mediation analyses, outcomes confirmed that this mediation effect was moderated by the financial environment.

Research limitations/implications

This investigation shows paths for future research including implications for theory advancement and intervention development.

Originality/value

This investigation offers the first step towards examining a moderated mediation effect, using POT and DCV, of the relationship between financial environment, financing mix, capital structure and firm performance.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 40 no. 11/12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

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Article
Publication date: 31 December 2021

Ehsan Poursoleyman, Gholamreza Mansourfar and Sazali Abidin

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relation between debt structure and future external financing and investment. Furthermore, it aims to analyze the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relation between debt structure and future external financing and investment. Furthermore, it aims to analyze the association between debt structure and future financial performance.

Design/methodology/approach

Volume, maturity, possessing collateral and having priority at the settlement date are the dimensions of debt structure that have been employed in this paper. The sample consists of 1,060 firm-year observations from Tehran Stock Exchange corporations during the period 2009–2018.

Findings

The findings reveal that greater reliance on financial leverage (debt volume) and short-term debt are associated with increases in future debt financing as well as future equity financing. Moreover, these two dimensions of debt structure are positively related to future investment. This paper also shows that the positive impact of financial leverage and short-term debt on future financing and investment can finally lead to a favorable financial performance. Regarding other dimensions of debt structure, the results suggest that although collateralized debt with the priority option at the settlement date enhances future external financing, this type of debt can ultimately lead to a reduction in future investment and financial performance. Finally, the findings indicate that uncollateralized debt exacerbates future financial performance.

Research limitations/implications

Financial performance can be affected by several factors, including available funds, investment amount, investment efficiency and managerial capability. However, this paper only considers the investment amount and external financing as the channels through which debt structure improves future financial performance. This study has the potential to contribute to one of the most important issues in finance and business fields, despite its probable trivial drawbacks.

Practical implications

Financing strategies as one of the most controversial topics have been meticulously scrutinized in this paper and practical implications are made to facilitate the process of decision-making regarding the optimal type of debt financing.

Originality/value

This study extends the literature by analyzing the direct link between debt structure and firm performance in firms domiciled in developing markets.

Details

International Journal of Managerial Finance, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1743-9132

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Article
Publication date: 9 March 2020

Sayed Hashem Al-Hunnayan

This study aims to find the determinants of the capital structure of Islamic banks in the Gulf Cooperation Council countries (GCC). The uniqueness of the case of Islamic…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to find the determinants of the capital structure of Islamic banks in the Gulf Cooperation Council countries (GCC). The uniqueness of the case of Islamic banks stems from the fact that they are not only subject to the supervision of financial regulatory bodies that organize the banking sector (e.g. central banks) but also subject to the guidelines of Shari’ah law governing their financial transactions, products and contracts. Such characteristics are expected to have an impact on the capital structure decisions of Islamic banks compared to their conventional counterparts.

Design/methodology/approach

To achieve the research purpose, an empirical model was constructed to describe the relationship between leverage and the independent variables. The empirical model was tested through multivariate regression analysis using a panel data approach of 12 Islamic banks in the GCC for the period 2005-2014. Three types of regression analysis were used as follows: ordinary least squares (OLS), fixed-effect and random-effect regressions on panel data.

Findings

The research findings show that the leverage of Islamic banks in the GCC is positively related to size of the firm (SIZE) and growth opportunity (GROWTH); and it is negatively related to profitability of the firm (ROA), tangibility of the firm’s assets (TANG) and financial market development (MRKT). The results indicate that larger Islamic banks tend to be relatively more diversified with higher credit ratings, which lower their cost of funding and relatively increase its profitability and the bank’s customer/depositor base. The results also show that higher profitability ratios indicate relatively more internal funds to cover future investments, which leads to less reliance on external funds in the form of debt and/or equity. However, the higher the growth opportunities of Islamic banks, the faster the depletion rate of internal funding, and the more external debt financing is acquired to cover the expansion plans. In addition, the results show that in developed financial markets, savers tend to purchase less traditional depository products, and they prefer to invest directly in the financial markets to avoid higher commissions. The results are in line with the pecking order theory, which states that Islamic banks in the GCC tend to prefer sources of funds that have the least transaction cost and reveal minimal information to competitors. Hence, bank management resort to internally generated funds by its operations rather than acquiring external funds. Furthermore, the results are weakly explained by the agency theory, which states that as the firm assets become more tangible, the required monitoring cost is reduced; and hence, shareholders will have less tendency to raise more debt for the purpose of sharing the monitoring cost with debt holders.

Research limitations/implications

This research study contributes to the theory of capital structure in re-validating the findings of a previous theoretical and empirical study on capital structure in the GCC and abroad. It helps understand the capital structure of Islamic banks in comparison with financial and non-financial firms. Future research is recommended in several areas. In terms of the methodology, it is recommended to conduct the research topic surveying management and financial executives of Islamic banks in the GCC; this will validate the results using a triangular approach supported by the findings of this paper. It is also recommended to apply the research methodology in other parts of the world where Islamic banking exists. Finally, as studies on the capital structure of financial institutions and other regulated sectors are rare, it is recommended to intensify research effort in these sectors to strengthen our knowledge of capital structure.

Practical implications

From a practical perspective, this research bridges the gap between theory and practice in many aspects. The findings can serve Islamic bank executives as guidelines to understand the market and competitive reaction in response to capital structure decisions. On the other hand, research analysts and equity holders can use the findings in their debt and equity research valuations, assessment of the size of dividends and profit distributions, and to make more informed decisions to buy/sell financial securities. Furthermore, the findings help regulatory bodies to issue informed regulations in relation to capital adequacy ratios, reserve requirements, provisions and payout decisions to achieve policy intended purpose. In addition, organizations that are responsible for setting accounting and audit standards for Islamic banks will learn more about the industry practice; and hence, be able to pass practical standards. Moreover, the findings realize the recommendations of international financial regulatory bodies, such as the International Monetary Fund (IMF), the World Bank (WB) and other concerned organizations that emphasize the importance of further understanding of financial institution practices, to enable more effective formulation of risk management techniques, which may prevent future financial crisis.

Originality/value

This paper was amongst the few research studies conducted on determinants of capital structure in the GCC and specifically on the Islamic banking sector.

Details

Journal of Islamic Accounting and Business Research, vol. 11 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0817

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2003

Georgios I. Zekos

Aim of the present monograph is the economic analysis of the role of MNEs regarding globalisation and digital economy and in parallel there is a reference and examination…

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Abstract

Aim of the present monograph is the economic analysis of the role of MNEs regarding globalisation and digital economy and in parallel there is a reference and examination of some legal aspects concerning MNEs, cyberspace and e‐commerce as the means of expression of the digital economy. The whole effort of the author is focused on the examination of various aspects of MNEs and their impact upon globalisation and vice versa and how and if we are moving towards a global digital economy.

Details

Managerial Law, vol. 45 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0558

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Article
Publication date: 2 September 2020

I. Wayan Widnyana, I. Gusti Bagus Wiksuana, Luh Gede Sri Artini and Ida Bagus Panji Sedana

This study aims to analyze and explain the effect of financial architecture (with three dimensions: ownership structure, capital structure and corporate governance) and…

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1144

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to analyze and explain the effect of financial architecture (with three dimensions: ownership structure, capital structure and corporate governance) and intangible assets on performance financial and corporate value in the Indonesian capital market.

Design/methodology/approach

This research was conducted on nonfinancial sector companies that were registered in the Indonesian capital market, namely Indonesia Stock Exchange (IDX) in 2015. This study used quantitative data and used secondary data sources, meaning that data were obtained, collected and processed from other parties. In this study, the hypothesis testing of the effect of financial architecture (included the dimensions of ownership structure, capital structure and corporate governance) and intangible assets on financial performance and corporate value using path analysis was performed.

Findings

The results of this study have provided findings that follow the research model that has been built (1) This research has been able to provide a theoretical model of the influence of financial architecture (with dimensions of ownership structure, capital structure and corporate governance), intangible assets, board processes on financial performance and company value in the Indonesian capital market. (2) To develop a theoretical model about the effect of corporate governance on financial performance in accordance with the two-tier system adopted by Indonesia. (3) An empirical study of the concept of financial architecture put forward by Myers (1999).

Originality/value

This research update lies in the research variable, which determines one value of the financial architecture variable comprehensively, combines the financial architecture variable and intangible assets to then be tested for its effect on company value and the use of the financial process variable as a board process as an intervening variable.

Details

International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, vol. 70 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-0401

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Article
Publication date: 8 February 2021

Shahab Ud Din, Muhammad Arshad Khan, Majid Jamal Khan and Muhammad Yar Khan

This study examines the impact of ownership structure on firm financial performance, for 146 manufacturing firms listed at the Pakistan Stock Exchange (PSX) for the period…

Abstract

Purpose

This study examines the impact of ownership structure on firm financial performance, for 146 manufacturing firms listed at the Pakistan Stock Exchange (PSX) for the period 2003–2012.

Design/methodology/approach

The theoretical background of the present study is based on the agency theory. Ownership structure is measured by institutional shareholdings, insider shareholdings, foreign shareholders and government shareholdings, while return on assets (ROA), return on equity (ROE), market-to-book ratio (MBR) and Tobin's Q (TQ) are used as proxies of corporate financial performance. The dynamic panel generalized method of moments (GMM) method is employed to cater for the issue of endogeneity.

Findings

We find that institutional ownership exerts a significant positive impact on ROE and MBR, which suggests that institutional investors play a significant role in improving the financial performance of the sample Pakistani. Furthermore, the results reveal a significant positive relationship of insider ownership with ROA, ROE, MBR and TQ, which is consistent with the prediction of agency theory that concentration of insider ownership aligns the interest of shareholders with those of the managers and hence improves performance. A significant positive association of government shareholdings with ROA and ROE was also found. Therefore, policymakers may encourage government ownership in firms, which can help to improve corporate financial performance.

Originality/value

The present study contributes to the existing literature on ownership structure and corporate financial performance in an emerging market like Pakistan. It is worth mentioning that the institutional setup and corporate governance structure in Pakistan is yet at an evolving stage. Findings of this study may provide useful insights to corporate managers and investors about the relationship between ownership structure and financial performance of firms from the manufacturing sector in Pakistan.

Details

International Journal of Emerging Markets, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-8809

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Article
Publication date: 4 September 2017

Giacomo Morri and Edoardo Parri

The purpose of this paper is to identify the capital structure determinants through an analysis of 74 All-Equity REITs listed in the US market from 2005 to 2014…

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1262

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify the capital structure determinants through an analysis of 74 All-Equity REITs listed in the US market from 2005 to 2014. Furthermore, the paper aims at understanding the impact of the financial economic crisis (FEC) among the identified explanatory variables.

Design/methodology/approach

A fixed effect panel regression model is performed based on Trade-off Theory (TOT) and Pecking Order Theory as a starting point to provide expectations on the relationships incurring among the identified variables.

Findings

First, while tangibility of assets and crisis evidenced a positive relationship with REITs’ financial leverage, operating risk and growth opportunities variables displayed a negative relationship. Meanwhile, size and profitability did not appear to influence the capital structure. Second, it appears that the positive effects of tangibility of assets and profitability variables on US REITs’ capital structure increased as a consequence of the FEC. Operating risk and growth opportunities variables slightly increased their negative relationship with US REITs’ capital structure after the FEC. The TOT prevails when explaining the economic reality underlying US REITs.

Practical implications

The paper contributes to the understanding of US REITs’ financing decisions within the US market. The FEC also had a substantial indirect impact on the financial leverage determinants of US REITs, the latter being nowadays more oriented to maintaining a flexible capital structure.

Originality/value

The paper provides a comprehensive view of the medium-term effect of the FEC on US REITs’ capital structure.

Details

Journal of Property Investment & Finance, vol. 35 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-578X

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1998

Richard Dale and Simon Wolfe

Several recent developments (notably, the breakdown of traditional distinctions between different types of financial activity, the globalisation of financial markets and…

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1696

Abstract

Several recent developments (notably, the breakdown of traditional distinctions between different types of financial activity, the globalisation of financial markets and increasing emphasis on systemic stability as a regulatory objective) have prompted policy‐makers to search for an ‘optimum’ regulatory structure that is adapted to the new market environment. Further impetus has been given to this debate by the radical overhaul of regulatory structures, along quite different lines in Australia, the UK and Japan, and the ongoing deliberations within the US Congress over structured financial reform. This paper examines alternative ways of organising the regulatory function in the context of the new financial market environment. The first section reviews the objectives, targets and techniques of regulation. The second section describes the new market environment and the restructuring of the financial services industry. The third section assesses the implications of this new environment for the structure of regulation. The fourth section addresses the international dimension. The final section provides a summary and conclusion. The paper is based on a presentation made at the World Bank Conference, El Salvador, June 1998.

Details

Journal of Financial Regulation and Compliance, vol. 6 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1358-1988

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Book part
Publication date: 27 November 2017

Tarek Ibrahim Eldomiaty, Islam Azzam, Mohamed Bahaa El Din, Wael Mostafa and Zahraa Mohamed

The main objective of this study is to examine whether firms follow the financing hierarchy as suggested by the Pecking Order Theory (POT). The External Funds Needed (EFN…

Abstract

The main objective of this study is to examine whether firms follow the financing hierarchy as suggested by the Pecking Order Theory (POT). The External Funds Needed (EFN) model offers a financing hierarchy that can be used for examining the POT. As far as the EFN considers growth of sales as a driver for changing capital structure, it follows that shall firms plan for a sustainable growth of sales, a sustainable financing can be reached and maintained. This study uses data about the firms listed in two indexes: Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA30) and NASDAQ100. The data cover quarterly periods from June 30, 1999, to March 31, 2012. The methodology includes (a) cointegration analysis in order to test for model specification and (b) causality analysis in order to show the generic and mutual associations between the components of EFN. The results conclude that (a) in the majority of the cases, firms plan for an increase in growth sales but not necessarily to approach sustainable rate; (b) in cases of observed and sustainable growth of sales, firms reduce debt financing persistently; (c) firms use equity financing to finance sustainable growth of sales in the long run only, while in the short run, firms use internal financing, that is, retained earnings as a flexible source of financing; and (d) the EFN model is quite useful for examining the hierarchy of financing. This study contributes to the related literature in terms of utilizing the properties of the EFN model in order to examine the practical aspects of the POT. These practical considerations are extended to examine the use of the POT in cases of observed and sustainable growth rates. The findings contribute to the current literature that there is a need to offer an adjustment to the financing order suggested by the POT. Equity financing is the first source of financing current and sustainable growth of sales, followed by retained earnings, and debt financing is the last resort.

Details

Growing Presence of Real Options in Global Financial Markets
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-838-3

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