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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2008

Lela D. Pumphrey and Gil Crain

In 2004, City of Gardena was unable to meet its obligations on $26 million in debt. The authors examined City of Gardena financial reporting as of June 30, 2004 and 2003…

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Abstract

In 2004, City of Gardena was unable to meet its obligations on $26 million in debt. The authors examined City of Gardena financial reporting as of June 30, 2004 and 2003 to determine if the publicly available financial reports adequately disclosed the situation. Information about the long-term debt was properly displayed in the financial statements and disclosed in notes. There was no mention of the situation in the MD&A either year. The auditors’ did not include an explanatory paragraph highlighting the debt, nor did they issue a ‘substantial doubt about the ability to continue to exist as a going concern’ report. This paper examines existing accounting and auditing standards to determine their adequacy to protect the public interest.

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Journal of Public Budgeting, Accounting & Financial Management, vol. 20 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1096-3367

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Article
Publication date: 1 November 1998

Jill M. D’Aquila

The accounting profession’s strong focus on internal control and fraudulent financial reporting has led to new standards relating to internal control and fraudulent…

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3583

Abstract

The accounting profession’s strong focus on internal control and fraudulent financial reporting has led to new standards relating to internal control and fraudulent financial reporting. The control environment and specifically, management integrity, is an important component. The purpose of this article is to determine if the control environment forces ‐ the tone at the top, codes of conduct, and short‐term targets ‐ are related to financial reporting decisions. The results are based on a survey mailed to 400 CPAs who prepare financial reports. The findings indicate there is some reason for concern about fraudulent financial reporting. In addition, a tone at the top in an organization that fosters ethical decisions is of overriding importance to reliable financial reporting. Codes of conduct and pressure for short‐term performance, alone, had no significant effect on financial reporting decisions. The findings emphasize the importance of learning about an organization’s tone at the top during an audit.

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Managerial Auditing Journal, vol. 13 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-6902

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Article
Publication date: 27 July 2012

Bruce L. Ahrendsen and Ani L. Katchova

The purpose of this research is to evaluate the financial performance measures calculated and reported by the Economic Resource Service (ERS) from Agricultural Resource…

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3779

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this research is to evaluate the financial performance measures calculated and reported by the Economic Resource Service (ERS) from Agricultural Resource Management Survey (ARMS) data. The evaluation includes the calculation method and the underlying assumptions used in obtaining the reported values. Recommendations for improving the information reported are proposed to ERS.

Design/methodology/approach

The financial measures calculated and reported are compared with those recommended by the Farm Financial Standards Council (FFSC). The underlying assumptions are identified by analyzing the software code used in calculating the values reported. The values reported by ERS are duplicated and alternative methods for calculating the financial performance measures are considered. The values obtained from the various calculation methods are compared and contrasted.

Findings

Recommendations for ERS include: calculate and report the financial measures recommended by FFSC, note values that are imputed, periodically update and validate assumptions used in calculating imputed values, review its policy for flagging estimates as statistically unreliable, report medians and other select percentiles, and consider reporting the percent of farm businesses that have values within critical zones.

Originality/value

A total of four methods for calculating financial performance measures are compared and contrasted. These are the aggregate mean, sample mean, sample median, and percentage of farm businesses with values in critical zones.

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Agricultural Finance Review, vol. 72 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-1466

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Article
Publication date: 11 October 2021

Patrizia Di Tullio, Matteo La Torre, John Dumay and Michele Antonio Rea

The debate about whether corporate reports should focus on numbers or narrative is long-standing. The recent push for business model information to be included in…

Abstract

Purpose

The debate about whether corporate reports should focus on numbers or narrative is long-standing. The recent push for business model information to be included in corporate reports has revitalised the debate. Many scholars suggest this constitutes a move towards narrative-based reporting. This study aims to investigate the debate and draws a comparison with the juxtaposition of the narrative and rational paradigms. This study also investigates how accountingisation influences the way business model information is presented in corporate reports.

Design/methodology/approach

This study analyses data from the financial and non-financial reports from 86 globally listed companies. This study first uses content analysis to code the data. This study then uses a partial least squares-structural equation model to test how accountingisation influences how firms report their business model information.

Findings

This study finds that accountingisation and a rational paradigm shape how companies present information about their business model in their financial and non-financial reports. This suggests that the dominance of quantitative measures in accounting affects even the presentation of narrative-based information. Despite the much-touted shift towards qualitative reporting, this study argues that companies find it difficult to cast off the yoke of a traditional numbers-based mindset.

Research limitations/implications

This paper contributes to the debate on numbers- versus narrative-based corporate reporting and the workings of narrative and rational paradigms. In it, this study lays out theoretical and empirical findings of accountingisation. This study also makes a case for freeing corporate reports from the shackles of an accountingisation mindset.

Originality/value

This study provides new insights into how companies report information about their business models and the influence of narrative and rational paradigms on financial and non-financial reporting.

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Journal of Accounting & Organizational Change, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1832-5912

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Article
Publication date: 22 July 2021

Mitali Panchal Arora, Sumit Lodhia and Gerard Stone

With the increasing adoption of integrated reporting and the subsequent interest of the accounting discipline in its development, this paper aims to examine the enablers…

Abstract

Purpose

With the increasing adoption of integrated reporting and the subsequent interest of the accounting discipline in its development, this paper aims to examine the enablers and barriers to the involvement of accountants in integrated reporting.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper adopts a case study approach by collecting interview data from six organisations that have adopted integrated reporting internationally. In the selected organisations, face-to-face and telephone interviews were conducted with professionals who are involved in the preparation of an integrated report. The interviewees in this study included key integrated report preparers including accountants, corporate reporting managers, sustainability managers and other report preparers. Institutional entrepreneurship provided the theoretical insights for this study.

Findings

The study found that accountants’ expertise in corporate reporting and especially their knowledge of the assurance process was one of the major reasons why they were involved in integrated reporting. Accountants’ in-depth understanding of an organisation in addition to their general analytical and interpersonal skills were also found to be useful in preparing an integrated report. However, the voluntary nature of integrated reporting along with the lack of sufficient guidelines deterred accountants from being involved in integrated reporting. The study also found that accountants themselves did not see value in integrated reporting and found it challenging to convert numerical information to narratives, thus limiting their involvement in integrated reporting.

Research limitations/implications

Whilst prior studies have underlined accountants’ institutionalised practices, this study uncovers the strategies applied by accountants to maintain their institutionalised practices. The specific application of the institutional entrepreneurship concept identifies mechanisms and strategies through which accountants restrict their practices to narrow taken-for-granted roles.

Practical implications

This study uncovers practical implications by highlighting the factors that limit the involvement of accountants within integrated reporting. One of the major implications identified relates to the training of accountants to apply their existing skills and expertise in non-financial reporting to contribute effectively to multi-disciplinary teams that contribute towards integrated reporting in organisations. This study also provides an impetus for the International Integrated Reporting Council to provide more guidance for preparing an integrated report.

Originality/value

This is one of the initial studies that has explored the enablers and barriers to the involvement of accountants in integrated reporting through its focus on organisations that are already practising this form of reporting. The use of institutional entrepreneurship theory adds to the theoretical insights for exploring the involvement of the various actors in integrated reporting.

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Meditari Accountancy Research, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2049-372X

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Article
Publication date: 20 August 2021

Vahab Rostami and Leyla Rezaei

This study aims to trace the impact of corporate governance and its mechanisms in preventing companies from turning to fraudulent financial reporting.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to trace the impact of corporate governance and its mechanisms in preventing companies from turning to fraudulent financial reporting.

Design/methodology/approach

For this purpose, using the systematic elimination pattern, the information of 187 listed companies on the Tehran Stock Exchange over six years from 2013 to 2019 were collected, and the hypotheses were examined using a linear regression model. To measure fraudulent financial reporting, the adjusted model of Beneish (1999) was used to evaluate corporate governance. Its mechanisms based on nine corporate governance mechanisms, including board independence, board remuneration, CEO financial expertise, expertise in CEO industry, board financial expertise, board industry expertise, board effort, CEO duality and managerial ownership, have been examined. These mechanisms are calculated as a combined index of corporate governance.

Findings

The findings indicate that robust corporate governance significantly reduces companies’ intention toward fraudulent financial reporting. In the same way, a negative and significant relationship was observed between each of the nine corporate governance mechanisms, except for board compensation and fraudulent financial reporting.

Originality/value

This study’s findings provide valuable insight into the importance of strengthening companies to prevent companies’ managers from engaging in fraudulent financial reporting activities. Hence, it is suggested that professional references bodies more seriously follow the rules to dictate to companies for using and empowering their corporate governance.

Details

Journal of Financial Crime, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-0790

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Article
Publication date: 2 June 2021

Ewelina Zarzycka and Joanna Krasodomska

The paper aims to examine if corporate characteristics, general contextual factors and the internal context differentiate the quality and quantity of the disclosed non…

Abstract

Purpose

The paper aims to examine if corporate characteristics, general contextual factors and the internal context differentiate the quality and quantity of the disclosed non-financial Key Performance Indicators (KPIs).

Design/methodology/approach

The study is based on content analysis of the disclosures provided by large public interest entities operating in Poland after the introduction of the Directive 2014/95/EU. The quality of the KPIs disclosures is measured with the disclosure index. Regression analysis and selected statistical tests are used to examine the influence of the selected factors on the differences in the index value and corporate disclosure choices as regards the KPIs.

Findings

The study findings indicate that the sample companies provide a variety of non-financial KPIs in a manner that makes their effective comparison difficult. The research confirms that mainly industry, ecologists and the reporting standard determine the significant differences in the quality of the KPIs disclosures and the quantity of presented KPIs.

Research limitations/implications

The paper adds to the understanding of the differences in the quality of KPIs presentation and the choice of disclosed KPIs.

Practical implications

The paper includes suggestions on how to change corporate practice with regard to the non-financial KPIs disclosures.

Originality/value

We shed additional light on the importance of internal contextual factors such as the reporting standard and the reporters' experience in providing non-financial KPIs disclosures.

Details

Journal of Applied Accounting Research, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0967-5426

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Article
Publication date: 10 June 2021

Thereza Raquel Sales de Aguiar

The purpose of this paper is to explore issues related to the use of financial accounting and reporting by discussing three interrelated areas: the theoretical…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore issues related to the use of financial accounting and reporting by discussing three interrelated areas: the theoretical foundations, the framework and practicalities. The paper also discusses participatory and pluralistic approaches to accounting and corporate governance as alternatives to address some of these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

This is a narrative research based on deductive thematic analysis of secondary data. This study provides a general overview of the existing literature of the limits of the use of financial accounting and its impact on business and society.

Findings

In terms of the theoretical foundations, this paper contrasts financial accounting explained by agency theory and a dialogic accounting approach. The findings of this study emphasise the need to establish an accounting framework for the interests of the many (not the few) in conjunction and simultaneously with a participatory and pluralistic approach to corporate governance. Finally, this paper explores accounting for carbon emissions and recent financial accounting scandals to analyse the impact of the inappropriate use of financial accounting and reporting in business and society.

Originality/value

This paper provides an overview of the limits of the use of financial accounting by exploring its theoretical background, framework and practicalities. The paper also discusses the need for new accounting and corporate governance frameworks that allow a pluralistic and participatory approach to the decision-making of companies.

Details

Accounting Research Journal, vol. 34 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1030-9616

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Book part
Publication date: 15 December 2011

Jinyu Zhu and Simon S. Gao

Purpose – This study investigates the nature, types, and methods of fraudulent financial reporting committed by Chinese listed companies with a view to understanding…

Abstract

Purpose – This study investigates the nature, types, and methods of fraudulent financial reporting committed by Chinese listed companies with a view to understanding corporate behavior relating to management fraud in China. Such an understanding is important for preventing frauds and achieving better financial reporting compliance.

Design/Methodology/Approach – This study adopts a descriptive research approach using the data based on 182 punishment bulletins issued by the China Securities Regulatory Commission from 2002 to 2006. The study considers three categories of frauds (i.e., false income statements, false balance sheets, and insufficient or false disclosure) and uses these categories to describe and analyze the fraud cases.

Research findings/Insights – Based on the sample of 83 cases over the 5-year period from 2002 to 2006, this study finds that all the frauds in the sample involved the manipulation, alteration, and falsification of reported financial information. Fraud schemes often contained more than one technique to misstate financial statements, typically through overstating revenues and assets, and understating liabilities and expenses. Most of the sample companies committed several frauds simultaneously. This study also reveals that most of the frauds committed by Chinese listed companies lasted more than 2 years, with the longest being 9 years, and common intervals between the initial fraud year and the announcement year of punishment were more than 3 years, with the longest being 11 years.

Theoretical/Academic implications – This study provides an empirical analysis of fraudulent financial reporting cases committed by Chinese listed companies. These cases were rarely studied in the Western literature. This study contributes to the extant literature by providing an insight into management fraud in China. Research into fraudulent financial reporting in the largest developing economy is certainly of interest as prior research into this area is mostly based on developed economies.

Practitioner/Policy implications – The implications drawn from this study could be useful for a better understanding of the management behavior of companies in developing and transitional economies. This study has a potential to assist regulators and accounting professional bodies to set guidelines facilitating corporate compliance of regulated financial reporting.

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Book part
Publication date: 27 September 2021

Neil Thomas Bendle, Jonathan Knowles and Moeen Naseer Butt

Marketers frequently lament the lack of representation of marketing in the boardroom and the short tenure of CMOs. The most common explanations offered are that marketing…

Abstract

Marketers frequently lament the lack of representation of marketing in the boardroom and the short tenure of CMOs. The most common explanations offered are that marketing is not perceived as a strategic discipline and that marketers do not demonstrate a strong enough understanding of how the business makes money.

Financial accounting is how “score is kept” in terms of business performance. It is, therefore, in the self-interest of marketers to become familiar with financial reporting. Doing so will allow them to understand how marketing activities are recorded. In addition, academic researchers need to understand the meaning of the financial measures that they often use as the metrics of success when researching marketing strategy questions.

This is especially important since financial reporting generally does not recognize assets created by marketing investments. In order to substantiate a claim that “brands are assets”, marketers must be able to explain how the financial accounting rules misrepresent economic reality and why managers might use a different set of principles for management reporting.

We argue that the misrepresentation of market-based assets has two forms of negative impact for marketers: external and internal. The external problems are that financial statements are not especially informative about the value of marketing for the providers of capital and do not provide a true portrait of the economic resource base of the company. The internal problems are that marketers cannot point to valuable assets that they are creating, nor can they be effectively held accountable for the way that these assets are managed given that the assets are not recorded.

We do not expect immediate radical changes in financial reporting because financial accounting rules are designed with the specific interests of the suppliers of capital (debt and equity) in mind. To influence financial accounting developments, such as encouraging greater disclosure of marketing activity in the notes to the published accounts, marketers must be able to communicate in language understood by accountants and the current users of financial accounts. To aid this we provide guidance for marketers on the purpose and practices of accounting. We also discuss how academic marketing researchers might wish to adjust financial accounting data to capitalize a proportion of marketing expenses for companies where marketing is a primary driver of business performance.

Details

Marketing Accountability for Marketing and Non-marketing Outcomes
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-563-9

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1 – 10 of over 141000