Search results

1 – 10 of over 39000
To view the access options for this content please click here
Article

Gary Wilson and Sarah Wilson

Located within growing scholarly interest in linking the global financial crisis with revelations of financial crime, this piece utilises Roman Tomasic's suggestion that…

Abstract

Purpose

Located within growing scholarly interest in linking the global financial crisis with revelations of financial crime, this piece utilises Roman Tomasic's suggestion that the financial crisis has marked something of a turning point in regulatory responses to financial crime worldwide. Tomasic attributes this to changing attitudes towards light-touch regulation and risk assessment, and the demand for existing agencies to be replaced with new tougher authorities. In the UK, this can be illustrated by the imminent replacement of the FSA with the Financial Conduct Authority (FCA). The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

Discussion of the FSA's financial crime fighting activity is an important forecast for the likely directional focus of the FCA in this regard. A focus only on “market abuse” enforcement within this arises on account of the effects for financial systems widely attributed to this activity, with threats to systemic stability being a hallmark of the 2007-2008 financial crisis. This methodology also encourages coherence in focus and management of sources within the article. Market abuse enforcement provides a lens for exploring the FSA's adoption of the philosophy and ethos of “credible deterrence”, and FCA commitment to retain it, and ultimately for applying the hypothesis of the “haphazard pursuit of financial crime” to pre-crisis criminal enforcement relating to financial crime undertaken by the FSA.

Findings

The FSA and FCA appear acutely aware that the financial crisis has marked something of a turning point for the enforcement of financial crime, and for signalling changes in approach, for the reasons explored by Tomasic. Tomasic correctly identifies factors encouraging a range of undesirable practices pre-crisis, and ones signalling tougher and more sustained attention being paid to financial crime henceforth. It is noted that, pre-crisis, the FSA's pursuit of criminal enforcement of market abuse was conscious, comprehensively resourced, well publicised, and actually extensive.

Originality/value

This exploration of the FSA's criminal enforcement of market abuse given the Authority's own perceptions that it was not, and could never be, a “mainstream” criminal prosecutor considers the likely lasting legacy of this determined pursuit, when domestic politics and pan-European policies suggested against this. This is likely to be enormously valuable as the FCA undertakes this task in a domestic arena which is markedly in contrast from this, and where European agendas are pushing in favour of criminal enforcement, with the “more Europe, or less” debate providing a further dimension of interest.

Details

Journal of Financial Crime, vol. 21 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-0790

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article

Adebola Adeyemi

The purpose of this paper is to highlight the activities of the FCA with respect to the incidence of money laundering and highlight regulatory gaps. The financial services…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to highlight the activities of the FCA with respect to the incidence of money laundering and highlight regulatory gaps. The financial services sector provides a crucial infrastructure for the promotion of wealth and innovation in the UK. This attractive infrastructure also appeals to criminals looking to launder the gains of their illicit activities.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper analyses the UK money laundering regime, highlighting specific challenging areas. The paper investigates the role of politically exposed persons and the use of corporate structures in promoting money laundering. In this context, it also becomes crucial to investigate the role of financial institutions and the sufficiency of their governance approach in lessening the incidence of money laundering. The paper investigates secondary sources and relies on their findings. It compares these findings to the regulatory outcomes.

Findings

The paper recommends steps that can be used to lessen the incidence of money laundering in the UK. From the reports evaluated, it is clear that the Financial Conduct Authority is working towards reducing the incidence of money laundering, but this could be further strengthened with the adoption of additional enforcement tools.

Practical implications

The paper suggests that different approaches should be used based on firm size, the type of business and the risk that a financial services firm presents to the financial sector. A large firm will need to bear more regulatory burden compared to a smaller firm.

Originality/value

The paper investigates the current approach to minimising the incidence of money laundering in the UK. It suggests that the regulator can guide financial services firms to meet the regulatory objectives by relying on an approach that discerns the regulatory risks presented by different firms depending on their size.

Details

Journal of Money Laundering Control, vol. 21 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1368-5201

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part

Katica Tomic

Product intervention power is introduced under the markets in financial instruments regulation (MiFIR) and packaged retail and insurance-based investment products (PRIIPs…

Abstract

Product intervention power is introduced under the markets in financial instruments regulation (MiFIR) and packaged retail and insurance-based investment products (PRIIPs) Regulation for all EU Member States and gives National Competent Authorities (NCAs), European Securities and Markets Authority (ESMA), and European Banking Authority (EBA) powers to monitor financial products (and services) under their supervision and to “temporarily” prohibit or restrict the marketing, distribution, or sale of certain financial instruments, or to intervene in relation to certain financial activities or practice. This extends the supervisory measures defined in MiFID II to any PRIIPs (including insurance-based investment products “IBI products”) that would not otherwise fall under the scope of MiFID II. Product intervention power is given to the NCAs, and in order to use power, it requires to take the specifics of the individual case into account and a series of conditions, criteria, and factors to fulfill. Moreover, ESMA and the EBA have a type of control function and ability to override national regulators on product. The aim of product intervention powers is to ensure strengthening of investor protection, but given the potential significant impact of this power, calls into question of possibility to delay innovation and slow down product developments on the capital market.

This paper provided an overview of supervisory measures on product intervention, that is, scope of the product intervention power, criteria, factors, and risks which have to be taken into consideration when using this regulator’s tool.

Details

Governance and Regulations’ Contemporary Issues
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-815-6

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article

Eva Ka Yee Kan and Mahmood Bagheri

This paper aims to explain the importance of the international cooperation and coordination among supervisory authorities of different countries in event of banking…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to explain the importance of the international cooperation and coordination among supervisory authorities of different countries in event of banking crises. It also suggests that the harmonious relationship has to be attained in the adoption of ex ante financial regulatory measures and ex post compensation schemes. In other words, the paper highlights the linkage between ex ante preventive regulatory measures and ex post compensation schemes, on the one hand, and cooperation among national regulatory and supervisory authorities in globalized financial markets. Although the paper is relevant to most developed and emerging financial markets, it chooses Hong Kong as a context to examine this proposal. In the current literature, there are no similar approach linking these two paradigms and examining them in an integrated context.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper adopts a conceptual framework after the 2008 global financial crisis and takes Hong Kong, an international financial centre in which numerous branches or subsidiaries of foreign financial institutions locate, as an example to examine how the coordination with foreign supervisory authorities are being conducted and to analyse whether the present regulatory framework in Hong Kong is effective and sufficient against banking crises. Through the review of the literature, the important link between ex ante regulatory measures and ex post compensation schemes is found to be significant in adopting proper solutions.

Findings

Through analysing the Hong Kong financial regulators’ reports on the collapse of Lehman Brother, the paper finds out that even though there is some weakness in the cooperation and coordination between regulators after the 2008 financial crisis, Hong Kong is still in the progress of proposing bank special resolution regime. Although there has been some awareness on the issue of coordination between home and host states regulatory measures, there is still a lack of awareness of the connection between regulatory measures and compensation schemes.

Research limitations/implications

Conflict of interests could hardly be prevented in the course of cooperation and coordination among home and host regulatory authorities, and the coordination of the important link between ex ante regulatory measures and ex post compensation scheme which involves legal and economic analyses is a challenging task.

Practical implications

The paper’s findings show that there are practical implications for the recent rapid development of special resolution regime for global systematically important financial institutions against future banking crises and for managing the balance between the adoption of financial supervisory laws and special resolution measures.

Originality/value

This paper suggests that the harmonious coordination between ex ante regulatory measures and ex post compensation schemes has to be achieved through international context to avoid the absurd situations. This conceptual integrated framework presented in the current paper is not touched upon by the existing literature. This important concept is valuable for future research, and it is significant to financial regulators, legislators and the government in adjusting policy against banking crises in both developed and developing countries.

Details

International Journal of Law and Management, vol. 57 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-243X

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part

Patrick Ring

In the context of increasing private provision of social security and welfare, alongside what is argued to be the ‘financialisation’ of daily lives, individuals in many…

Abstract

In the context of increasing private provision of social security and welfare, alongside what is argued to be the ‘financialisation’ of daily lives, individuals in many countries face an array of potentially difficult financial choices and decisions. Limitations in levels of knowledge and expertise may lead them to consider seeking financial advice. Yet, in the wake of the great financial crisis, trust in the financial services industry is low.

At the same time, in a number of countries the financial advice sector is facing its own challenges. These include regulatory issues concerning the definition, suitability and delivery of advice; the affordability of advice; and the challenges and opportunities facing the advice sector as a result of the increasing use of technology in the financial services sector.

This chapter examines the implications of these developments for the regulation and governance of financial advice in the context of Markets in Financial Instruments Directive II. In particular, it considers the example of the UK and issues this raises for the implementation of recent European regulatory reforms.

Details

Governance and Regulations’ Contemporary Issues
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-815-6

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part

Rasha Kassem and Umut Turksen

The need for independent audit goes back to the agency theory, the theory of delegation of power and the issue of trust. Stakeholders delegate power to management to…

Abstract

The need for independent audit goes back to the agency theory, the theory of delegation of power and the issue of trust. Stakeholders delegate power to management to manage the business on their behalf, yet they face the risk of information asymmetry and management motivations to commit fraud. The main aim of having an independent auditor was therefore to reduce the risk of information asymmetry and fraudulent behaviour by management. Auditors are required by the International Auditing Standards to detect material fraud and error, and they are expected to have a duty of care for stakeholders. However, recently independent auditors, whether conducting private or public audit, have been scrutinised for failing to detect material fraud. There have been a lot of discussions in the literature about the role of private auditors in detecting fraud, but very little discussions about the role of public auditors in detecting fraud. This chapter will outline the difference between private audit and public audit; explain the legal liability of public auditors in relation to fraud detection; the role of public auditors in detecting fraud; and will critically review the root causes for auditors’ failure to detect fraud.

Details

Contemporary Issues in Public Sector Accounting and Auditing
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-508-5

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article

George Pavlidis

This paper aims to examine three important interrelated issues that arise in the context of financial investigations: the access of law enforcement agencies to centralised…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine three important interrelated issues that arise in the context of financial investigations: the access of law enforcement agencies to centralised bank account registries that have been set up in several jurisdictions; the exchange of financial information between financial intelligence units (FIUs) that function in different jurisdictions; and the exchange of financial information between FIUs and law enforcement bodies. Through the adoption of Directive 2019/1153, the European Union (EU) has attempted to achieve a paradigm shift in these three areas, but many challenges remain, from the interconnection of registries to the implementation of adequate data protection safeguards.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper draws on primary sources of law, legal scholarship, reports and open source data to analyse the changes that Directive 2019/1153 has brought about in conducting financial investigations in the area of anti-money laundering (AML) and the counter-financing of terrorism (CFT).

Findings

The new Directive 2019/1153 constitutes an international model for broadening the access of law enforcement agencies to financial information and facilitating information exchanges between FIUs and law enforcement agencies. Nevertheless, many challenges have still to be addressed, such as the interconnection of centralised registries and the implementation of adequate safeguards.

Originality/value

This is a comprehensive study examining the new EU framework for access to financial information and information exchanges between FIUs and law enforcement agencies, which can be used as a model for international cooperation in the areas of AML/CFT.

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article

Selina Keesoony

This paper aims to explore the underlying problem of tackling money laundering, namely, the difficulty of enforcing international laws and whether this is a problem which…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to explore the underlying problem of tackling money laundering, namely, the difficulty of enforcing international laws and whether this is a problem which is too great to overcome in practice.

Design/methodology/approach

A doctrinal approach is used to discuss international anti-money laundering (AML) laws and question whether money laundering can be truly regarded as an international crime. A comparative approach with case studies of corruption in financial institutions illustrates the problems which law enforcement might encounter. The advantages and disadvantages of tackling money laundering will be highlighted to elucidate both the negative impacts of the crime and the reasons why some states may not be tackling money laundering as forcefully as they could.

Findings

Uniformity of AML laws among different countries may deter criminals from laundering money. The ratification of the Vienna Convention can help to facilitate uniformity of legal rules. States need robust domestic laws to tackle money laundering. Money laundering is an international crime, although not always a specific crime in international law. Moreover, it is generally advantageous to consider money laundering to be a specific crime under international law.

Originality/value

The article questions the effectiveness of current AML laws by examining the foundations of international law. Suggestions as to how uniformity can be achieved are given. A comparative approach is also used to demonstrate the extent of the crime, weaknesses in companies’ regulatory regimes and how each State responds to money laundering. The comparison also reveals State-specific issues which fuel money laundering. Moreover, the article explores the practical and legal advantages and disadvantages of money laundering being considered a specific crime in international law.

Details

Journal of Money Laundering Control, vol. 19 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1368-5201

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article

Elianne van Steenbergen, Danny van Dijk, Céline Christensen, Tessa Coffeng and Naomi Ellemers

Emphasizing that errors are unacceptable and will be sanctioned does not prevent that errors are made – but can cause workers to cover up mistakes. Making an effort to…

Abstract

Purpose

Emphasizing that errors are unacceptable and will be sanctioned does not prevent that errors are made – but can cause workers to cover up mistakes. Making an effort to identify things that go wrong to learn from them and prevent errors in the future offers a more fruitful approach. By sharing an applicable LEARN framework, this paper aims to inspire and give direction to financial corporations in building an error management culture within their organizations.

Design/methodology/approach

The behavior and culture team of the Dutch Authority for the Financial Markets (AFM) collaborated closely with social and organizational psychologists from Utrecht University to study error management. The results of a literature study were combined with the findings obtained from a survey (N =436) and in-depth interviews (N =15) among employees of 13 Dutch financial corporations that are active within the infrastructure of the capital markets.

Findings

Tone at the top and direct managers’ behavior were positively related to error management culture, which in turn related to more learning. Combining these findings with relevant psychological literature resulted in the LEARN framework, which can guide organizations in developing actions and interventions to build an effective error management culture: Let the board take ownership, Engage employees, Align structure and culture, Refocus from person to system and Narrate the best examples.

Originality/value

Stimulating financial corporations to start building a healthier corporate culture by offering the LEARN framework – and recruiting insights from social and organizational psychology to do so – extends traditional supervisory approaches.

Details

Journal of Financial Regulation and Compliance, vol. 28 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1358-1988

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article

Shazeeda Ali

The purpose of this study is to provide an overview of some of the deficiencies in the criminal justice system in Jamaica, particularly relating to financial crime. The…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to provide an overview of some of the deficiencies in the criminal justice system in Jamaica, particularly relating to financial crime. The author also examines possible alternatives in the approach that may be taken in tackling financial crime.

Design/methodology/approach

The methodology used was a review of data on financial crime in Jamaica as well as recent significant cases. An analysis of key pieces of legislation was also undertaken. In some instances, a comparative approach was invoked, with special reference to the UK and US laws.

Findings

Some essential findings include the positive impact that may be gained from restorative justice principles, the effective enforcement of asset recovery provisions and stricter regulation of the financial services industry.

Originality/value

There is no similar comprehensive examination of these issues concerning Jamaica.

Details

Journal of Financial Crime, vol. 27 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-0790

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 39000