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Tools and Techniques for Financial Stability Analysis
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-846-4

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1985

J. Colin Dodds and Richard Dobbins

Although the focus of this issue is on investment in British industry and hence we are particularly concerned with debt and shares, the transactions and holdings in these…

Abstract

Although the focus of this issue is on investment in British industry and hence we are particularly concerned with debt and shares, the transactions and holdings in these cannot be separated from the range of other financial claims, including property, that are available to investors. In consequence this article focuses on an overview of the financial system including in Section 2 a presentation of the flow of funds matrix of the financial claims that make up the system. We also examine more closely the role of the financial institutions that are part of the system by utilising the sources and uses statements for three sectors, non‐bank financial institutions, personal sector and industrial and commercial companies. Then we provide, in Section 3, a discussion of the various financial claims investors can hold. In Section 4 we give a portrayal of the portfolio disposition of each of the major types of financial institution involved in the market for company securities specifically insurance companies (life and general), pension funds, unit and investment trusts, and in Section 4 a market study is performed for ordinary shares, debentures and preference shares for holdings, net acquisitions and purchases/sales. A review of some of the empirical evidence on the financial institutions is presented in Section 5 and Section 6 is by way of a conclusion. The data series extend in the main from 1966 to 1981, though at the time of writing, some 1981 data are still unavailable. In addition, the point needs to be made that the samples have been constantly revised so that care needs to be exercised in the use of the data.

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Managerial Finance, vol. 11 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4358

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Article
Publication date: 5 June 2017

Merike Kukk

The paper aims to investigate the impact of financial liabilities on households’ holdings of financial assets. The debt-to-income ratio of the household sector increased…

Abstract

Purpose

The paper aims to investigate the impact of financial liabilities on households’ holdings of financial assets. The debt-to-income ratio of the household sector increased from 75 per cent in 2000 to 99 per cent in 2010 in the euro area on average, and the rapid accumulation of household debt has induced the need to study how indebtedness affects the behaviour of households beyond their borrowing decisions.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper uses the first wave of the Household Finance and Consumption Survey from 2009-2010 covering euro area countries. The paper estimates a system of equations for households’ financial liabilities and assets, taking account of endogeneity and selection bias.

Findings

The results indicate that higher household liabilities are related to lower holdings of financial assets. The results are confirmed by a large number of robustness tests. The findings support the hypothesis that credit availability reduces precautionary savings as income shocks can be smoothed by borrowing, meaning fewer assets are held for self-insurance against consumption risk.

Practical implications

The results are obtained from a recession period when households faced aggregate shocks, whereas credit constraints were tighter than during good times. The implications of lower incentives to keep financial assets by indebted households is that they are actually more vulnerable to aggregate shocks, as they have fewer resources available when they are hit by a negative shock.

Originality/value

This is the first paper to investigate the effect of liabilities on financial assets using household level data. The paper takes a holistic view and models financial assets and liabilities jointly while controlling for endogeneity and selection bias.

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Studies in Economics and Finance, vol. 34 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1086-7376

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Book part
Publication date: 27 September 2021

Neil Thomas Bendle, Jonathan Knowles and Moeen Naseer Butt

Marketers frequently lament the lack of representation of marketing in the boardroom and the short tenure of CMOs. The most common explanations offered are that marketing…

Abstract

Marketers frequently lament the lack of representation of marketing in the boardroom and the short tenure of CMOs. The most common explanations offered are that marketing is not perceived as a strategic discipline and that marketers do not demonstrate a strong enough understanding of how the business makes money.

Financial accounting is how “score is kept” in terms of business performance. It is, therefore, in the self-interest of marketers to become familiar with financial reporting. Doing so will allow them to understand how marketing activities are recorded. In addition, academic researchers need to understand the meaning of the financial measures that they often use as the metrics of success when researching marketing strategy questions.

This is especially important since financial reporting generally does not recognize assets created by marketing investments. In order to substantiate a claim that “brands are assets”, marketers must be able to explain how the financial accounting rules misrepresent economic reality and why managers might use a different set of principles for management reporting.

We argue that the misrepresentation of market-based assets has two forms of negative impact for marketers: external and internal. The external problems are that financial statements are not especially informative about the value of marketing for the providers of capital and do not provide a true portrait of the economic resource base of the company. The internal problems are that marketers cannot point to valuable assets that they are creating, nor can they be effectively held accountable for the way that these assets are managed given that the assets are not recorded.

We do not expect immediate radical changes in financial reporting because financial accounting rules are designed with the specific interests of the suppliers of capital (debt and equity) in mind. To influence financial accounting developments, such as encouraging greater disclosure of marketing activity in the notes to the published accounts, marketers must be able to communicate in language understood by accountants and the current users of financial accounts. To aid this we provide guidance for marketers on the purpose and practices of accounting. We also discuss how academic marketing researchers might wish to adjust financial accounting data to capitalize a proportion of marketing expenses for companies where marketing is a primary driver of business performance.

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Marketing Accountability for Marketing and Non-marketing Outcomes
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-563-9

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Article
Publication date: 4 December 2017

Tita Anthanasius Fomum and Aziakpono Meshach Jesse

The purpose of this paper is to explore the feasibility of asset-building social welfare in South Africa using the FinScope (2014) consumer survey data set. This is…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the feasibility of asset-building social welfare in South Africa using the FinScope (2014) consumer survey data set. This is achieved using quantile regression technique to examine how financial inclusion influences asset ownership of individuals at the bottom of the assets distribution.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper test the feasibility of asset-building social policy for poor families in South Africa by examining the relationship between financial inclusion and asset ownership using FinScope 2014 consumer survey for South Africa. Financial inclusion is captured by monthly savings and insurance whereas asset ownership is measured by a composite assets index derived using multiple correspondence analyses from indicators of individual asset possession. Quantile regressions are used to examine how financial inclusion influences asset ownership of individuals at the bottom of the assets distribution.

Findings

Evidence from mean and quantile regressions showed that the relationship between financial inclusion and asset ownership is positive and statistically significant at 1 per cent level across the entire assets distribution. However, across the distribution, the change in asset ownership varies: higher at the lower tail (10th) quantile, lower at the median (50th) quantile and higher at the upper tail from the 60th quantile. Thus, the poor and low-income families, some of whom may be gaining formal access for the first time, may derive more satisfaction than frequent users such as the working class.

Research limitations/implications

This evidence provides a good case for progressive asset-building social welfare programmes for the poor and low-income families in South Africa. With 11.9 million children currently receiving child support grants, the puzzle is whether income transfer alone can assist these children to break out of poverty. The results should be interpreted as association as the analysis is based on cross-sectional data.

Practical implications

The implications of this study are that social welfare in South Africa needs to extend beyond transfer and invest in capacity development of the poor. Asset-building social policy that combines income transfer and asset building such as child development/saving accounts will help to provide a sustainable pathway out of poverty.

Social implications

Financial inclusion and asset-building social welfare is a crucial issue as it has the potential to improve welfare of the poor. That is, it acts as a complementary strategy to the income transfer approach to poverty alleviation by enabling the poor to find a sustainable pathway out of poverty by building assets.

Originality/value

Financial inclusion and asset building is a rare area of research particularly in South Africa. This study therefore is timely and its findings will be handy for policy makers in South Africa. Furthermore, the findings will stimulate future research and debates on how financial inclusion and asset-building social welfare can be used to close the gap between the rich and the poor in South Africa.

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International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 44 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1993

Richard Dobbins

Sees the objective of teaching financial management to be to helpmanagers and potential managers to make sensible investment andfinancing decisions. Acknowledges that…

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Abstract

Sees the objective of teaching financial management to be to help managers and potential managers to make sensible investment and financing decisions. Acknowledges that financial theory teaches that investment and financing decisions should be based on cash flow and risk. Provides information on payback period; return on capital employed, earnings per share effect, working capital, profit planning, standard costing, financial statement planning and ratio analysis. Seeks to combine the practical rules of thumb of the traditionalists with the ideas of the financial theorists to form a balanced approach to practical financial management for MBA students, financial managers and undergraduates.

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Management Decision, vol. 31 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

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The Banking Sector Under Financial Stability
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-681-5

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Article
Publication date: 13 January 2021

Monsurat Ayojimi Salami

This study aims to critically examine the pricing of Islamic financial assets (Sharīʿah-compliant assets, Sharīʿah-compliant securities, Sharīʿah-compliant financing and…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to critically examine the pricing of Islamic financial assets (Sharīʿah-compliant assets, Sharīʿah-compliant securities, Sharīʿah-compliant financing and Sukuk) in the three South-East Asia countries such as Malaysia, Indonesia and Brunei to provide necessary information to the policymakers and Islamic finance investors for making a sound decision.

Design/methodology/approach

This study used secondary data and used the nonlinear autoregressive distributed lags (NARDL) model to estimate the reaction of Islamic financial assets in South-East Asia towards price changes. Wald-test was used to diagnose the final model.

Findings

The result of this study shows that the majority of Islamic financial assets in the three South-East Asia countries exhibit positive and negative long-run effects. The findings reveal a long-run asymmetric relationship that supports rockets and feathers effects. The indication is that Islamic financial assets pricing deviates from weak form EMH. Pricing of Islamic financial assets reveals unfair pricing.

Practical implications

Price adjustment of Islamic financial assets requires urgent attention of policymakers to prevent Sharīʿah non-compliant risk. Therefore, the Shariah advisory board in those countries, Accounting and Auditing Organization for Islamic Financial Institutions and Islamic Financial Services Board are hereby advised to act on the factors that might enable rockets and feathers effects on the pricing of Islamic financial assets, as the long-run asymmetric relationship is established.

Originality/value

This study is novel as it critically and simultaneously examines the pricing behaviour of Islamic financial assets in the three South-East Asian countries. The findings from the study provide vital information on the pricing behaviour of Islamic financial assets to the policymakers and investors.

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Journal of Financial Reporting and Accounting, vol. 19 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1985-2517

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Book part
Publication date: 30 September 2014

Karina Doorley and Eva Sierminska

Using harmonized wealth data and a novel decomposition approach in this literature, we show that cohort effects exist in the income profiles of asset and debt portfolios…

Abstract

Using harmonized wealth data and a novel decomposition approach in this literature, we show that cohort effects exist in the income profiles of asset and debt portfolios for a sample of European countries, the United States, and Canada. We find that the association between household wealth portfolios at the intensive margin (the level of assets) and household characteristics is different from that found at the extensive margin (the decision to own). Characteristics explain most of the cross-country differences in asset and debt levels, except for housing wealth, which displays large unexplained differences for both the under-50 and over-50 populations. However, there are cohort differences in the drivers of wealth levels. We observe that younger households’ levels of wealth, given participation, may be more responsive to the institutional setting than mature households. Our findings have important implications, indicating a scope for policies which can promote or redirect investment in housing for both cohorts and which promote optimal portfolio allocation for mature households.

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Economic Well-Being and Inequality: Papers from the Fifth ECINEQ Meeting
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-556-2

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2015

Elizabeth Plummer and Terry K. Patton

This descriptive study shows how the government-wide financial statements can be used, with adjustments, to provide evidence on a state's fiscal sustainability. We compute…

Abstract

This descriptive study shows how the government-wide financial statements can be used, with adjustments, to provide evidence on a state's fiscal sustainability. We compute “adjusted total net assets(AdjTNA), which equals a state’s assets (not including its capital assets) minus the state's liabilities and obligations, including the UAAL for pension and OPEB not reported on the Statement of Net Assets. AdjTNA provides information about a state’s ability to sustain its current fiscal structure, given its current financial resources. Primary results suggest that 40 states have a negative AdjTNA value, with a median -$6.7 billion per state (-$5,230 per household). Sensitivity analysis suggests 48 states have a negative AdjTNA value, with a median -$20.7 billion per state (-$16,200 per household). The paper discusses the important policy implications of these results.

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Journal of Public Budgeting, Accounting & Financial Management, vol. 27 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1096-3367

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