Intellectual capital (IC) and social capital (SC), as forms of intangible value in organizations, are crucial assets in today's volatile business environment. Efforts to…
Intellectual capital (IC) and social capital (SC), as forms of intangible value in organizations, are crucial assets in today's volatile business environment. Efforts to retain and develop these intangibles are becoming more deliberate and disciplined. However, organizations fail to recognize the relationship between organizational distress and the loss and/or reduction of intangible value. The loss of intangible value may potentially impact an organization with equal or greater damage than the loss of more tangible value. IC and SC generate many outcomes beneficial to the individual and the organization. These benefits are reduced when stress of employees becomes excessive and damaging. The relationship between the health of an organization and the degree of impact of distress serves as a lingering threat to organizational financial resources. Managers must build upon the growing knowledge from research and practice to help organizations account for the costs of organizational distress, translate the importance of intangible value into tangible terms, and garner support for developing IC and SC to obtain business objectives. Deliberate and disciplined effort to build collaborative capital can facilitate the growth of IC and SC which minimize the damage of organizational distress.
The study this chapter reports focuses on how network theory contributes to the understanding of the internationalization process of SMEs and measures the effect of network capability on performance in international trade and has three research objectives.
The first objective of the study relates to providing new insights into the international market development activities through the application of a network perspective. The chapter reviews the international business literature to ascertain the development of thought, the research gaps, and the shortcomings. This review shows that the network perspective is a useful and popular theoretical domain that researchers can use to understand international activities, particularly of small, high technology, resource-constrained firms.
The second research objective is to gain a deeper understanding of network capability. This chapter presents a model for the impact of network capability on international performance by building on the emerging literature on the dynamic capabilities view of the firm. The model conceptualizes network capability in terms of network characteristics, network operation, and network resources. Network characteristics comprise strong and weak ties (operationalized as foreign-market entry modes), relational capability, and the level of trust between partners. Network operation focuses on network initiation, network coordination, and network learning capabilities. Network resources comprise network human-capital resources, synergy-sensitive resources (resource combinations within the network), and information sharing within the network.
The third research objective is to determine the impact of networking capability on the international performance of SMEs. The study analyzes 11 hypotheses through structural equations modeling using LISREL. The hypotheses relate to strong and weak ties, the relative strength of strong ties over weak ties, and each of the eight remaining constructs of networking capability in the study. The research conducts a cross-sectional study by using a sample of SMEs drawn from the telecommunications industry in Ireland.
The study supports the hypothesis that strong ties are more influential on international performance than weak ties. Similarly, network coordination and human-capital resources have a positive and significant association with international performance. Strong ties, weak ties, trust, network initiation, synergy-sensitive resources, relational capability, network learning, and information sharing do not have a significant association with international performance. The results of this study are strong (R2=0.63 for performance as the outcome) and provide a number of interesting insights into the relations between collaboration or networking capability and performance.
This study provides managers and policy makers with an improved understanding of the contingent effects of networks to highlight situations where networks might have limited, zero, or even negative effects on business outcomes. The study cautions against the tendency to interpret networks as universally beneficial to business development and performance outcomes.
This paper aims to outline the financial and human cost of bullying in the workplace. The authors investigate how bullying is perpetrated so that management controls to…
This paper aims to outline the financial and human cost of bullying in the workplace. The authors investigate how bullying is perpetrated so that management controls to prevent bullying can be put in place, reducing financial and human costs, and the risks posed to organisations by bullying.
The authors' study uses an exploratory on‐line survey, designed from a practice perspective. The instigator is an Australian management consultancy working on managing organisational risk. The study is based on sense‐making research using open‐ended questions, delving into life experiences to recall potential bullying incidences in their work life. The authors then develop hypotheses from their review of the literature and compare these to the results of their survey.
Most of the authors' findings contradict both academic and practitioner notions of bullying. They find that bullying happens mostly between peers rather than being perpetrated by people in positions of power over weaker colleagues, extends into all levels of the organisation, is perpetrated as part of the normal day‐to‐day interactions between people, rather than in special circumstances, and is often perpetrated between peers in the presence of other peers. To explain this behaviour the authors introduce the concept of “tournaments” from agency theory and the personal characteristics of perpetrators and victims.
From a management control and accounting perspective, managers controlling and accounting for bullying can also be the perpetrators and their participation in organisational politics and competitive tournaments may well be preventing the recognition and control of bullying, counter to what is good for the organisation.
This paper's risk management approach to understanding bullying in the workplace is novel; it outlines implications from a management control and accounting perspective. It also uses the concept of “tournaments” to propose why Australian managers tend to want to “sweep the issue under the carpet” and how the authors' research methodology offers a way forward to raise awareness so bullying can become an important part of management control in organisations.
Presents information relating to the scale of road traffic accidents in the UK involving commercial vehicles. Establishes the extent of the accident problem and explores some of the main causes of vehicle accidents including human nature, the role of the driver, vehicle operators and government road transport strategy. Introduces some general measures to reduce commercial vehicle accidents such as improved driving, safety cultures, vehicle improvements and government policy. Provides a case study of a company which gained many benefits from reducing vehicle accident levels through the implementation of a vehicle accident database.
This article considers the effects of UK government cuts across the housing, care and support sector on vulnerable people. The article urges that the human and financial…
This article considers the effects of UK government cuts across the housing, care and support sector on vulnerable people. The article urges that the human and financial costs of savings are fully considered, as these could outweigh the short‐term financial savings. The article also sets out what the National Housing Federation is doing to urge the government to consider the impact of the cuts on vulnerable people in particular.
Healthcare is an ever‐growing segment of the American economy. Transparency facilitates better decision‐making and better outcomes measures. The purpose of this paper is…
Healthcare is an ever‐growing segment of the American economy. Transparency facilitates better decision‐making and better outcomes measures. The purpose of this paper is to present the human and economic results of increasing transparency.
The ASIMP Working Group on Healthcare Transparency represents a diverse yet conscilient group of practitioners, researchers, regulators, economists, and academics. Given the need for re‐envisioning healthcare to include more accountability, evidence of efficacy and transparency, this integrative medicine (ASIMP) working group is suitable to address the above purpose.
Substantial opportunity exists to reduce morbidity and mortality, suffering and excess death, unnecessary costs and risks. Greater transparency facilitates the transition to safer, more effective, more humane healthcare.
This paper starts from a need to improve clinical outcomes and value for resources devoted. Best efforts of a national working group are presented. The implications of the report, when tested, will determine the enduring value of this work.
Consumers and business, administrators and practitioners can improve care at lower cost by increasing transparency. This will accelerate the diffusion of effective approaches that are not yet in widespread use despite replication of efficacy.
This is the first time an integrative approach has been compared with conventional healthcare models, particularly with regard to the role of transparency in healthcare management.
Discusses the substantial increase in merger and acquisition (M& A) activity both domestically and internationally during the 1980swhich, in contrast to previous waves of…
Discusses the substantial increase in merger and acquisition (M & A) activity both domestically and internationally during the 1980s which, in contrast to previous waves of M & A activity, involved organizational marriages between organizations in the same area of business activity. As a result, merger synergy has become increasingly dependent on the wide‐scale integration of people and their organizational cultures. Examines the potential role played by people, the so called “soft” issues in merger success. Argues that this distinction between “hard” (financial and strategic) and “soft” issues is extremely unhelpful in reaching any complete understanding of such complex phenomena.
Although a majority of mentally disordered offenders have substance use problems (Wright et al, 2002), as yet there have been few attempts to understand the human and…
Although a majority of mentally disordered offenders have substance use problems (Wright et al, 2002), as yet there have been few attempts to understand the human and financial cost of this problem in forensic mental health services. The current study examined the effect of a drugs and alcohol programme (Derry, 2005) on re‐admission rates. As would be expected, patients with a history of substance misuse were found to be more likely to use drugs and alcohol on discharge. This group of patients were found to be at increased risk of re‐admission to forensic mental health services. Patients who participated in a 24‐session cognitive behavioural substance use programme were found to spend significantly more time in the community (89%) than those who did not (77%). These initial findings suggest that treatment for drug and alcohol problems can be effective in reducing re‐admission rates, and warrants further investigation.
Presents the Mohonk Criteria for Humanitarian Assistance inComplex Emergencies, produced by the Task Force on Ethical and LegalIssues in Humanitarian Assistance, convened…
Presents the Mohonk Criteria for Humanitarian Assistance in Complex Emergencies, produced by the Task Force on Ethical and Legal Issues in Humanitarian Assistance, convened by the Program on Humanitarian Assistance at the World Conference on Religion and Peace, as guidelines for co‐operative relationships between political, humanitarian and military actors in complex humanitarian emergencies created by armed conflict.