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Article
Publication date: 5 July 2011

L.Z. Liu, L. Weng, Y.X. Song, L. Gao, H. Zhao and Q.Q. Lei

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of coupling agents on the structure and properties of the nanocomposite films and clarify their mechanism…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of coupling agents on the structure and properties of the nanocomposite films and clarify their mechanism. Polyimide (PI)/Al2O3 nanocomposite films were prepared using different coupling agents.

Design/methodology/approach

Poly(amic acid) (PAA) was firstly synthesised from appropriate pyromellitic diannanocomposite and oxydianiline in N‐dimethylacetamide. Calculated amount of nano‐Al2O3 particles modified by different coupling agents (KH550, KH560, KH570 and AE3012) were added to PAA solution by an ultrasonic‐mechanical method and PI/nano‐Al2O3 film was fabricated by heat curing. The microstructure, thermal stability, mechanical properties and electric breakdown strength of the films were characterised.

Findings

The addition of coupling agents could greatly improve the dispersion homogeneity of Al2O3 nano‐particles in PI matrix. Results of corresponding characterisations indicated that both the thermal stability and mechanical properties of PI/Al2O3 nanocomposite film with KH550 were greater/better than others, while AE3012 could improve the electric breakdown strength.

Research limitations/implications

In the present discussion, the effects of different coupling agents, KH550, KH560, KH570 and AE3012, were investigated. Results of this research work would be beneficial to an in‐depth understanding on the relationship between microstructure and properties of PI composites, and further promote the development of the high‐performance PI insulating materials.

Originality/value

The four coupling agents, KH550, KH560, KH570 and AE3012, were firstly used to disperse the nano‐Al2O3 particles in PI matrix. The effects of coupling agents on microstructure and properties of composites were discussed by the authors in detail.

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Article
Publication date: 7 December 2020

Michał Mazur, Roman Pastuszek, Damian Wojcieszak, Danuta Kaczmarek, Jarosław Domaradzki, Agata Obstarczyk and Aneta Lubanska

Indium tin oxide (ITO) is a material belonging to the group of transparent conductive oxides, which are widely used in many fields of technology including optoelectronics…

Abstract

Purpose

Indium tin oxide (ITO) is a material belonging to the group of transparent conductive oxides, which are widely used in many fields of technology including optoelectronics and photovoltaics. However, the properties of ITO thin films depend on many factors. Therefore, the aim of the study was thorough investigation of the properties of sputtered ITO thin films of various thicknesses.

Design/methodology/approach

ITO coatings were deposited by magnetron sputtering in pure argon atmosphere using ceramic ITO target. Various deposition times resulted in obtaining thin films with different thickness, which had significant influence on the optoelectronic properties of deposited coatings. In this work the results of investigation of structural, surface, optical and electrical properties were presented.

Findings

Increase of the coating thickness caused change of the microstructure from amorphous to nanocrystalline and occurrence of grains with a size of 40 to 60 nm on their surface. Moreover, the fundamental absorption edge was red-shifted, whereas the average transmission in the visible wavelength range remained similar. Increase of the thickness caused considerable decrease of the sheet resistance and resistivity. It was found that even thin films with a thickness of 10 nm had antistatic properties.

Originality/value

The novelty and originality of presented work consists in, among other, determination of antistatic properties of ITO thin films with various sheet resistances that are in the range typical for dielectric and semiconducting material. To date, there are no reports on such investigations in the literature. Reported findings might be very helpful in the case of, for example, construction of transparent antireflective and antistatic multilayers.

Details

Circuit World, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 28 June 2019

Jurgita Domskiene, Florentina Sederaviciute and Judita Simonaityte

The purpose of this paper is to analyse the properties of bacterial cellulose (BC) film, obtained through Kombucha tea fermentation.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyse the properties of bacterial cellulose (BC) film, obtained through Kombucha tea fermentation.

Design/methodology/approach

Kombucha fungus was used to produce BC film under static cultivation conditions. Physical and mechanical properties under the influence of drying temperature and durability of BC material were investigated. Tensile properties were estimated by TINIUS OLSEN H10 KT test machine according to ISO 3376:2011, thickness was measured by DPT 60. BC structure was analysed by Scanning Electron Microscopy Quanta 200 FEG.

Findings

BC material with excellent deformation properties in wet state were obtained by fermenting Kombucha tea. Due to the presence of fermentation residues, Kombucha film is sensitive to drying temperature. The best deformation properties retain when BC material is dried at low temperature (about 25°C). BC material becomes stiffer and ruptures at lower deformations due to rapid water evaporation at higher drying temperature. It is confirmed that during time, the properties of BC film changes significantly and there may be problems with the durability of products from this material. BC film has an interesting set of properties, therefore its application to fashion industry without further preparation is limited.

Originality/value

A new approach is based on the evaluation of Kombucha material properties and investigation of BC as new type of material for fashion industry. Some recommendations for Kombucha BC film production are provided, basing on gained experience, experimental results and analysed literature. The advantages and disadvantages of material are discussed in the paper, in order to search for the ways to adapt the new type of material to fashion business.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 31 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 8 August 2019

Nishant Kumar and Neeraj

The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of functional properties of the polysaccharide-based component and their application in developing edible film and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of functional properties of the polysaccharide-based component and their application in developing edible film and coating for the food processing sector.

Design/methodology/approach

In this review study, approximately 271 research and review articles focusing on studies related to polysaccharide-based components and their film-forming properties. This article also focused on the application of polysaccharide-based edible film in the food sector.

Findings

From the literature reviewed, polysaccharide components and components-based edible film/coating is the biodegradable and eco-friendly packaging of the materials and directly consumed by the consumer with food. It has been reported that the polysaccharide components have excellent properties such as being nontoxic, antioxidant, antimicrobial, antifungal and with good nutrients. The polysaccharide-based edible film has lipid and gas barrier properties with excellent transparency and mechanical strength. In various studies, researchers worked on the development of polysaccharide-based edible film and coating by incorporating plant based natural antioxidants. This was primarily done for obtaining improved physical and chemical properties of the edible film and coating. In future, the technology of developing polysaccharide-based edible film and coating could be used for extending the shelf life and preserving the quality of fruits and vegetables at a commercial level. There is more need to understand the role of edible packaging and sustainability in the food and environment sector.

Originality/value

Through this review paper, possible applications of polysaccharide-based components and their function property in the formation of the edible film and their effect on fruits, vegetables and other food products are discussed after detailed studies of literature from thesis and journal article.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science , vol. 49 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 13 March 2017

Sue Teng Tew, Jan Mei Soon, Soottawat Benjakul, Thummanoon Prodran, Manee Vittayanont and Phakawat Tongnuanchan

Protein-based films have good barrier characteristics against gas compared to synthetic films, but they have poor mechanical properties and high water vapour permeability…

Abstract

Purpose

Protein-based films have good barrier characteristics against gas compared to synthetic films, but they have poor mechanical properties and high water vapour permeability (WVP) due to their hydrophilic nature. Sugarcane bagasse (SCB) is available abundantly in Southeast Asian countries and can be potentially utilized for its cellulose to increase the stiffness of the film. Hence, the purpose of this study was to develop a gelatine-based film from chicken feet incorporated with SCB.

Design/methodology/approach

Film-forming solutions (FFS) from chicken feet gelatine with different percentages of glycerol (25 and 35 per cent) were prepared by casting 4.0 g of FFS onto a rimmed silicone resin plate (50 × 50 mm2). Cellulose from SCB was purified and used to prepare hydrolyzed SCB. Films with 35 per cent glycerol were selected to be incorporated with different weight percentages (2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0 per cent) of hydrolyzed SCB to increase the tensile strength (TS) and lower the WVP of the films. Mechanical properties, colour and transparency of the films were also tested.

Findings

Films containing 35 per cent glycerol have lower TS but higher elongation at break compared to films prepared with 25 per cent glycerol. There were no significant differences between the films with 25 per cent and 35 per cent glycerol in thickness, WVP and transparency value tests. Film incorporated with 5.0 Wt.% SCB had a slight increment in TS (23.07 MPa) compared to the control film (22.50 MPa). WVP was also lowered from 2.18 × 10−11gm−1s−1Pa−1 to 1.85 × 10−11gm−1s−1Pa−1. The other properties, namely, thickness, colour measurement and transparency value, were significantly different (p < 0.05) but nearer to the properties of the control film.

Originality/value

This study incorporates hydrolyzed SCB to study the potential mechanical benefits in protein-based bio-films. There is potential to utilize agricultural waste (chicken feet and SCB) to develop food packaging films.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 47 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 8 June 2015

Shu-Hao Deng, Xi Yang, Mao Wang and Jiao Wang

– The purpose of this paper is to improve anti-corrosion, self-cleaning, hydrophily and sterilization properties of aluminum (Al) alloy.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to improve anti-corrosion, self-cleaning, hydrophily and sterilization properties of aluminum (Al) alloy.

Design/methodology/approach

A multifunctional coating for medical external application on Al alloy had been prepared by anodic oxidation, electrolytic coloring silver (Ag) and sealed in boiling water with nano-sized titanium dioxide (TiO2) particles. The multifunctional coating was characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive spectroscopy. Other properties such as corrosion-resistance, wipe-resistance, hydrophilicity, photochemical decomposition and bactericidal antiseptic effect were also investigated.

Findings

The results demonstrate that a golden film with multi-function had been obtained for medical external application. The main phase of coating is amorphous Al2O3, and nano-sized silver particle is electrodeposited in bottom of film hole, while nano-sized TiO2 is sealed on the external surface of coating. The properties of film, such as anti-corrosion, self-cleaning, hydrophily, sterilization are better than those of Al alloy substrate.

Originality/value

Considering about this usage for medical external application, a multifunctional coating which has the properties such as decoration, anti-corrosion, sterilize and self-cleaning has been first prepared on Al alloy surface in the study. This coating would meet the requirements of medical external using and provide theoretical and practical foundation about Al alloy for medical use.

Details

International Journal of Structural Integrity, vol. 6 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-9864

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 6 November 2009

Sukhen Mistry and Devendra Agarwal

The purpose of this paper is to describe the synthesizing of polyesteramide (PEA) resins using an acid functional acrylic copolymer (ACR) and hydroxy ethyl fatty amide…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to describe the synthesizing of polyesteramide (PEA) resins using an acid functional acrylic copolymer (ACR) and hydroxy ethyl fatty amide (HEFA) of dehydrated castor oil (DCO) and to study the effect of HEFA on the performance properties of the coating films of PEA resins.

Design/methodology/approach

The PEA resins are synthesised by using ACR (synthesised by using butyl methacrylate (BMA) and maleic anhydride (MA)), and HEFA. Different formulations are developed by using ACR and HEFA. The coatings are made using xylene/acetone as a solvent. These coatings are applied on mild steel panels and are cured at 110°C. Various mechanical, optical and chemical properties of the coating films are evaluated.

Findings

The study reveals that, HEFA of DCO is used successfully as a cross‐linking agent for the ACR to form the PEA resins. Incorporation of long chain fatty acid (C18) moieties of the fatty amide in the PEA resins backbone is thought to serve as flexibliser, which lead to improved mechanical and chemical properties of the films. The optimum results are obtained from composition three of copolymer A having (3:1) (ACR:HEFA) molar ratio.

Research limitations/implications

The PEA resins synthesised here are made up of ACR (synthesised by using BMA and MA), and HEFA of DCO. Besides, this ACRs can be synthesised from acrylic acid. In addition to this, one can also use HEFA synthesised from other oils.

Practical implications

This method provides a simple solution for the synthesis of PEA resins and resulting to their improved mechanical properties. The developed product is also an environment friendly product.

Originality/value

The method developed here for the synthesis of PEA resins form ACRs and HEFA is unique and can be used as an effective surface coating material. These studies will help to develop low volatile organic compounds product which could find numerous industrial applications in surface coatings for metal surfaces.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 38 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 30 August 2013

Mohammad Fahim Ansari, Gautam Sarkhel, Dipendra Nath Goswami and Bangali Baboo

The purpose of this paper is to improve the properties of shellac by blending with novolac and to study the thermal behaviour of the blends with an ultimate aim to use as…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to improve the properties of shellac by blending with novolac and to study the thermal behaviour of the blends with an ultimate aim to use as surface coating material.

Design/methodology/approach

Novolac was synthesized by reaction of phenol with formaldehyde in a molar ratio of 1:0.8, in acidic condition. Blending of shellac with novolac was done in solution and films of the blends, prepared on glass slides and tin panels, were baked at 150°C for 15 minutes. Properties of the films were studied as per standard procedures.

Findings

Films of shellac‐novolac blends showed improvement in gloss and impact resistance compared to those of shellac alone. Gloss of blends increased with the increase in concentration of novolac and further increased on baking the films. Scratch hardness of shellac decreased on blending with novolac. Baked films of the blends showed resistance to heat and water. Films of shellac‐novolac blends were found to be more resistant to polar solvents compared to non‐polar solvents.

Research limitations/implications

Shellac, prepared from kusmi seedlac, was used in the study. Besides shellac, dewaxed decolorized lac (DDL), dewaxed lac (DL) and bleached lac (BL) could also be used for study on blending with novolac.

Practical implications

Blending of shellac with novolac improved the film properties of shellac. The study suggests that the compositions can be utilised in developing formulations of coating material with improved properties for metal surfaces.

Originality/value

The formulations based on modification of shellac with novolac and study of the film properties utilising various instruments are novel. The formulations based on shellac and novolac can find applications in the field of surface coating with desired purposes.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 42 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 20 January 2012

Shital Patil and Vijaya Puri

The purpose of this paper is to study properties of magnesium oxide and mixed magnesium oxide‐bismuth oxide thick films for application in tuned devices.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study properties of magnesium oxide and mixed magnesium oxide‐bismuth oxide thick films for application in tuned devices.

Design/methodology/approach

The effect of magnesium oxide and mixed magnesium oxide‐bismuth oxide thick films overlay of different thickness on Ag thick film microstrip rectangular patch antenna was investigated in the X band (8‐12 GHz). Using Ag thick film microstrip rectangular patch antenna the thick and mixed thick films was characterized by microwave properties such as resonance frequency, amplitude, bandwidth, quality factor and input impedance. Using the resonance frequency the permittivity of magnesium oxide and mixed magnesium oxide‐bismuth oxide thick films was measured.

Findings

Cubic structure of single magnesium oxide and monoclinic structure of bismuth oxide was present in mixed thick film. Also the morphology of single thick films was maintained in mixed thick film of magnesium oxide‐bismuth oxide. Due to overlay magnesium oxide and magnesium oxide‐bismuth oxide mixed thick films, change in resonance frequency shifts towards high frequency end was observed. Dielectric constant of magnesium oxide and mixed magnesium oxide‐bismuth oxide thick film calculated from resonance frequency decreased with increase in thickness.

Originality/value

The microwave properties using Ag thick film microstrip patch antenna due to overlay of magnesium oxide and mixed magnesium oxide‐bismuth oxide thick films have been reported for the first time. Thickness of overlay dependent tuning of the antenna has been achieved.

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Article
Publication date: 16 March 2012

A. Bal, I. Acar, G. Güçlü and T.B. İyim

In this study, organo clay modified alkyd resins were synthesised and these modified alkyd resins were cured with different ratios of phenol formaldehyde resin. The…

Abstract

Purpose

In this study, organo clay modified alkyd resins were synthesised and these modified alkyd resins were cured with different ratios of phenol formaldehyde resin. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the physical and chemical properties of the films and thermal behaviours of the resins.

Design/methodology/approach

Alkyds formulated to have an oil content of 40 percent were prepared with phthalic anhydride (PA), glycerine (G), coconut oil fatty acid (COFA), dipropylene glycol (DPG) and organo clay. “K alkyd constant system” was used for the formulation calculations of the alkyd resins. Alkyd resins were blended with 30 percent of a phenol–formaldehyde. The films of the alkyd–phenol formaldehyde (A‐PF) resins were prepared from 60 percent solid content xylene solutions by using 50 μm applicators. After the films were cured at 150°C for 2 h in an oven, properties of the films were determined.

Findings

The effect of organo clay addition on the film properties such as drying degree, hardness, adhesion strength, impact resistance, water, acid, alkaline, solvent resistance and thermal behaviours of the resins were investigated. The addition of organo clay has a positive effect on the physical and chemical film properties for phenol formaldehyde resin.

Originality/value

The paper reports on a study in which organo clay modified A‐PF resins for manufacturing of industrial baking enamels were synthesised for the first time.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 41 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

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