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Article
Publication date: 31 July 2019

Guohua Zhang, Xueting Liu, Bengt Ake Sundén and Gongnan Xie

This study aims to clarify the mechanism of film hole location at the span-wise direction of an internal cooling channel with crescent ribs on the adiabatic film cooling

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to clarify the mechanism of film hole location at the span-wise direction of an internal cooling channel with crescent ribs on the adiabatic film cooling performance, three configurations are designed to observe the effects of the distance between the center of the ellipse and the side wall(Case 1, l = w/2, Case 2, l = w/3 and for Case 3, l = w/4).

Design/methodology/approach

Numerical simulations are conducted under two blowing ratios (i.e. 0.5 and 1) and a fixed cross-flow Reynolds number (Rec = 100,000) with a verified turbulence model.

Findings

It is shown that at low blowing ratio, reducing the distance increases the film cooling effectiveness but keeps the trend of the effectiveness unchanged, while at high blowing ratio, the characteristic is a little bit different in the range of 0 = x/D =10.

Research limitations/implications

These features could be explained by the fact that shrinking the distance between the hole and side wall induces a much smaller reserved region and vortex downstream the ribs and a lower resistance for cooling air entering the film hole. Furthermore, the spiral flow inside the hole is impaired.

Originality/value

As a result, the kidney-shaped vortices originating from the jet flow are weakened, and the target surface can be well covered, resulting in an enhancement of the adiabatic film cooling performance.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 29 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 3 January 2017

Mojtaba Kazemi Kelishami and Esmail Lakzian

The purpose of this paper is to report the result of a numerical investigation of film cooling performance on a flat plate for finding optimum blowing ratios.

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to report the result of a numerical investigation of film cooling performance on a flat plate for finding optimum blowing ratios.

Design/methodology/approach

Steady-state simulations have been performed, and the flow has been considered incompressible. Calculations have been performed with 3D finite-volume method and the k-e turbulence model.

Findings

The adiabatic film cooling effectiveness and the effects of density ratio (DR), blowing ratio (M) and main stream turbulence intensity (Tu), coolant penetration, hole incline and diameter are studied. The temperature and film cooling effectiveness contours, centerline and laterally film cooling effectiveness are presented for these cases. Results show that the cases with smaller Tu have better effectiveness. In the console, using the air coolant and in cylindrical hole cases, using CO2 coolant fluid has higher effectiveness. The results indicated that there is an optimum blowing ratio in the cylindrical hole cases to optimize the performance of new gas turbines.

Research limitations/implications

Investigation of optimum blowing ratio for the convex surfaces and turbine blades is a prospective topic for future studies.

Practical implications

The motivation of this study comes from several industrial applications such as film cooling of gas turbine components. This research gives the best blowing ratio for receiving maximum cooling effectiveness with minimum coolant velocity.

Originality/value

This study optimizes the blowing ratio for film cooling on a flat plate.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 27 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 30 October 2007

İbrahim Koç

To investigate the film cooling effectiveness in a flat plate with a single row of rectangular injection holes.

Abstract

Purpose

To investigate the film cooling effectiveness in a flat plate with a single row of rectangular injection holes.

Design/methodology/approach

Three injection holes in model are in a single row. The holes are rectangular cross section and they are 9 × 6.5 mm. The injection holes are inclined at 30° along the mainstream direction. The blowing ratios are from 0.5 to 2.0. The experiments and their computational models are established to investigate its effects at the 330 and 335 and 340 K injection temperatures and the different blowing ratios.

Findings

Results show that the blowing ratio and injection temperature and momentum flux ratio affect the film cooling effectiveness and to provide a good film cooling performance in both mainstream and lateral direction a suitable blowing ratio should be selected. In this study, the highest effectiveness is determined at a blowing ratio of 0.5. Further increasing this ratio results in reverse effect on the film cooling effectiveness.

Originality/value

It is the fist time the film cooling effectiveness is compared at the rectangular injection holes as experimental and numerical.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 79 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-2667

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 23 June 2020

Guohua Zhang, Gongnan Xie and Bengt Ake Sunden

In this study, numerical simulations are performed to compare the adiabatic film cooling effectiveness and reveal the difference of film cooling mechanisms of two models…

Abstract

Purpose

In this study, numerical simulations are performed to compare the adiabatic film cooling effectiveness and reveal the difference of film cooling mechanisms of two models with the same geometries and cross-section areas of film holes’ exits at three typical blowing ratios (M = 0.5, 1 and 1.5). The two models are an elliptical model and a cylindrical model with 90° compound angle, respectively.

Design/methodology/approach

Three different cases are considered in this work and the baseline is the model with a cylindrical film hole. The same boundary conditions and a validated turbulence model (realizable k-ε) are adopted for all cases.

Findings

The results show that both the elliptical and cylindrical models with 90° compound angle can enhance the film cooling effectiveness compared with the baseline. However, the elliptical model performs well at lower blowing ratios and in the near region at each blowing ratio because of the wider width of the film hole’s exit. The cylindrical model with 90° compound angle provides better film cooling effectiveness in the further downstream area of the film hole at higher blowing ratio because of the less lift-off and better coolant coverage in the larger x/D region along the mainstream direction.

Originality/value

Overall, it can be concluded that although the elliptical and cylindrical models with 90° compound angle have identical hole exits, the different inlet direction and cross-sectional geometry affect the flow structures when the coolant enters, moves through and exits the hole and finally different film cooling results appear.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 31 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 May 2015

Jin Wang, Chunwei Gu and Bengt Ake Sunden

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the effect of thermal conductivity on gas turbine blades, and to investigate the contribution of different rib configurations to…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the effect of thermal conductivity on gas turbine blades, and to investigate the contribution of different rib configurations to the heat flux and the film cooling effectiveness.

Design/methodology/approach

The Renormalization Group (RNG) model with enhanced wall treatment was used for the turbulence modeling, and the SIMPLE algorithm was used to handle the pressure-velocity coupling.

Findings

A flame-shape distribution on the internal wall provides high heat flux compared to a hawk-shape distribution; the film cooling effectiveness on the external wall is enhanced for the lateral film cooling effectiveness by heat conduction and film cooling (convection); by comparing the square-rib and pin-rib configurations, the circular-rib configuration offers a higher film cooling effectiveness on the Aluminum wall.

Research limitations/implications

In the present research, the combination of internal cooling and external cooling is used to predict cooling effectiveness on film-cooled flat plate; two kinds of different plate materials are used to obtain the influence of the thermal conductivity. The successful computational method should give guidelines for potential CFD users in engineering sciences.

Practical implications

The results of the paper are of engineering interest where film cooling and ribbed surfaces are applied. The successful computational method will also serve as guidelines for potential users of CFD in design as well as research and development work.

Originality/value

In the present research, the combination of internal cooling and external cooling is used to predict cooling effectiveness on film-cooled flat plate; two kinds of different plate materials are used to obtain the influence of the thermal conductivity.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 25 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 23 January 2009

İbrahim Koç, Yaşar İslamoğlu and Ünal Akdağ

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the film cooling effectiveness and heat transfer coefficient in a flat plate with two rows of rectangular injection holes.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the film cooling effectiveness and heat transfer coefficient in a flat plate with two rows of rectangular injection holes.

Design/methodology/approach

Experimental and numerical investigation of film cooling effectiveness in a flat plate with two rows which are rectangular injection holes. The liquid crystal technique has been used for measuring the heat transfer coefficients on the mixture region. Three injection holes in model are in a single row. The holes are rectangular cross section and they are 9 × 6.5 mm. The injection holes are inclined at 30° along the mainstream direction. The blowing ratios are from 0.5 to 2.0. The experiments and their computational models are established to investigate its effects at the 330 and 340 and 350 K injection temperatures and the different blowing ratios.

Findings

The results show that the film cooling effectiveness and heat transfer coefficient of a given flat plate surface, both along the mainstream and lateral direction, depend on the optimum selection of parameters. In this study, the highest effectiveness is determined at a blowing ratio of 0.5. Further increasing the ratio results in reverse effect on the film cooling effectiveness.

Originality/value

It is the fist time the film cooling effectiveness is compared at the rectangular injection holes with two rows as experimental and numerical.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 81 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-2667

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 June 2006

A. Immarigeon and I. Hassan

The present study aims to conduct a numerical investigation of a novel film cooling scheme combining in‐hole impingement cooling and flow turbulators with traditional…

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Abstract

Purpose

The present study aims to conduct a numerical investigation of a novel film cooling scheme combining in‐hole impingement cooling and flow turbulators with traditional downstream film cooling, and was originally proposed by Pratt & Whitney Canada for high temperature gas turbine applications.

Design/methodology/approach

Steady‐state simulations were performed and the flow was considered incompressible and turbulent. The CFD package FLUENT 6.1 was used to solve the Navier‐Stokes equations numerically, and the preprocessor, Gambit, was used to generate the required grid.

Findings

It was determined that the proposed scheme geometry can prevent coolant lift‐off much better than standard round holes, since the cooling jet remains attached to the surface at much higher blowing rates, indicating a superior performance for the proposed scheme.

Research limitations/implications

The present study was concerned only with the downstream effectiveness aspect of performance. The performance related to the heat transfer coefficient is a prospective topic for future studies.

Practical implications

Advanced and innovative cooling techniques are essential in order to improve the efficiency and power output of gas turbines. This scheme combines in‐hole impingement cooling and flow turbulators with traditional downstream film cooling for improved cooling capabilities.

Originality/value

This new advanced cooling scheme both combines the advantages of traditional film cooling with those of impingement cooling, and provides greater airfoil protection than traditional film cooling. This study is of value for those interested in gas turbine cooling.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 16 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 8 June 2012

C.X‐Z. Zhang and I. Hassan

Numerical simulations were carried out for two cooling schemes, a circular hole and a louver cooling scheme, at the leading edge of a rotor blade in a complete turbine stage.

Abstract

Purpose

Numerical simulations were carried out for two cooling schemes, a circular hole and a louver cooling scheme, at the leading edge of a rotor blade in a complete turbine stage.

Design/methodology/approach

Two holes were positioned at the leading edge of a rotating blade, one on the pressure side and the other on the suction side. The methodology was validated with a circular hole case. Numerical results of cooling effectiveness for three blowing ratios at three rotational speeds were successfully obtained. Both blowing ratio and rotating speed of the rotor affect the cooling effectiveness level.

Findings

It was shown that for the circular hole, the blowing ratio is the dominant factor at low blowing ratios and the rotational speed is the dominant factor at high blow ratios when jet is prone to lift off in determining the cooling effectiveness level. For the louver scheme, a higher rotational speed leads to a higher level of cooling effectiveness since jet liftoff is avoided.

Originality/value

There are only a few studies of film cooling on a rotational turbine blade and very few studies of film cooling at the leading edge of a rotating turbine blade in the open literature. The present work presents a challenging CFD case. The analysis of film cooling at the leading edge of an airfoil was presented, which sheds light on the physics of film cooling and should prove helpful to the cooling designs of turbine blades.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 22 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 28 July 2021

Krishna Anand Vasu Devan Nair Girija Kumari and Parammasivam Kanjikoil Mahali

This paper aims to investigate the film cooling effectiveness (FCE) and mixing flow characteristics of the flat surface ramp model integrated with a compound angled film

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the film cooling effectiveness (FCE) and mixing flow characteristics of the flat surface ramp model integrated with a compound angled film cooling jet.

Design/methodology/approach

Three-dimensional numerical simulation is performed on a flat surface ramp model with Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes approach using a finite volume solver. The tested model has a fixed ramp angle of 24° and a ramp width of two times the diameter of the film cooling hole. The coolant air is injected at 30° along the freestream direction. Three different film hole compound angles oriented to freestream direction at 0°, 90° and 180° were investigated for their performance on-ramp film cooling. The tested blowing ratios (BRs) are in the range of 0.9–2.0.

Findings

The film hole oriented at a compound angle of 180° has improved the area-averaged FCE on the ramp test surface by 86.74% at a mid-BR of 1.4% and 318.75% at higher BRs of 2.0. The 180° film hole compound angle has also produced higher local and spanwise averaged FCE on the ramp test surface.

Originality/value

According to the authors’ knowledge, this study is the first of its kind to investigate the ramp film cooling with a compound angle film cooling hole. The improved ramp model with a 180° film hole compound angle can be effectively applied for the end-wall surfaces of gas turbine film cooling.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 93 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1748-8842

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 January 2011

Fadéla Nemdili, Abbès Azzi and B.A. Jubran

The purpose of this paper is to report a numerical investigation of jet‐cross‐flow interaction in the presence of imperfection inside the injection hole with application…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to report a numerical investigation of jet‐cross‐flow interaction in the presence of imperfection inside the injection hole with application to film cooling of turbine blades.

Design/methodology/approach

The work includes the prediction of the thermal and hydrodynamic fields by solving the Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes and energy equations using the finite volume method with a body‐fitted hexahedral unstructured grid. The turbulence field is resolved by use of the k‐epsilon turbulence model.

Findings

The computational results show a dramatic and rapid decrease of the film cooling effectiveness when the obstruction is superior to 50 per cent. It is found that when the obstruction is close to the exit hole, the thermal protection is significantly reduced.

Research limitations/implications

The present numerical investigation is simply directed towards a qualitative investigation of hole imperfection effects on film cooling.

Practical implications

The motivation comes from several industrial applications such as film cooling of gas turbine components and fuel injection. One of the main challenges of using film cooling is the blockage of holes by particles ingested by the engine during landing/take off or due to application of thermal barrier coating or due to combustion particles as well as inaccuracies that result from drilling of holes.

Originality/value

The main goal of the present study is to conduct a numerical parametric investigation rather than reproducing the exact Jovanović's experimentation.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 21 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

Keywords

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