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Article
Publication date: 16 June 2017

Filipe Sardo and Zelia Serrasqueiro

The purpose of this paper is to analyse if capital structure decisions of small- and medium-sized Portuguese firms are in accordance with the predictions of dynamic…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyse if capital structure decisions of small- and medium-sized Portuguese firms are in accordance with the predictions of dynamic trade-off theory, more precisely, the speed of adjustment of short-term debt (STD) and long-term debt (LTD) towards the respective target debt ratios.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on two samples of Portuguese firms, 1,377 small-sized firms and 811 medium-sized firms, dynamic estimators were used for the treatment of data obtained from the Amadeus database for the period 2007-2011.

Findings

The results indicate that small- and medium-sized firms adjust their STD and LTD ratios towards the respective target ratios. Small- and medium-sized firms present a high-speed adjustment towards the target STD ratio, suggesting that both types of firm face costs of deviating from the target capital structure, which are, probably, greater than the costs of adjustment associated with STD. However, considering the distance from the target ratio as a determinant of the adjustment speed, the results show the predominance of the negative effect of the costs of adjustment on capital structure adjustment speeds.

Originality/value

The results obtained for the speed of adjustment of STD and LTD, in a recession context, show that for small firms and medium-sized firms, mainly for the former, the costs of external market transactions are prohibitively high, slowing the speed of adjustment towards the target capital structure.

Details

Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. 24 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 26 June 2018

Filipe Sardo and Zélia Serrasqueiro

The purpose of this paper is twofold: first, to analyse the impact of intellectual capital (IC) and growth opportunities on firms’ financial performance as well as the…

1664

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is twofold: first, to analyse the impact of intellectual capital (IC) and growth opportunities on firms’ financial performance as well as the moderating effect of IC on the relationship between growth opportunities and financial performance; and second, to analyse the impact of IC on growth opportunities.

Design/methodology/approach

The current study uses a sample of non-financial listed firms consisting of 14 Western European countries for the period between 2004 and 2015. The estimation method used is specifically the Generalised Method of Moments system (1998) estimator, a dynamic panel estimator.

Findings

The results reveal that the IC efficiency of the current period has a positive impact on the financial performance of high-, medium- and low-tech European firms. A non-linear relationship was found between growth opportunities and financial performance. Also, findings suggest that the positive relationship between growth opportunities and financial performance is enhanced with the efficient use of firms’ IC. Results indicate that the efficient use of IC in the current period has a greater impact on growth opportunities in high firms. Additionally, results reveal the presence of a non-linear relationship between ownership concentration and growth opportunities.

Originality/value

The current study contributes to the current literature by exploring a sample of firms across Western European countries, which is divided among high-, medium- and low-tech firms. The econometric modelling enables the author to conduct a longitudinal study.

Details

Journal of Intellectual Capital, vol. 19 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1469-1930

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 October 2017

Filipe Sardo and Zélia Serrasqueiro

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the relationship between firms’ intellectual capital (IC), financial performance (FP) and market value (MV) as well as the…

2136

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the relationship between firms’ intellectual capital (IC), financial performance (FP) and market value (MV) as well as the relationship between ownership concentrations on IC performance.

Design/methodology/approach

A large sample of non-financial listed firms belonging to 14 countries in Western Europe, for the period between 2004 and 2015, was investigated using the GMM system (1998) dynamic estimator and the effect of lagged explanatory variables on firm’s FP and MV.

Findings

The results reveal that IC is an important resource for firms’ value creation. Human capital is found to be a key factor of firms’ wealth. Results show that capital employed efficiency positively impacts on firms’ FP in the short run. The impact of IC components on firms’ MV may not be immediate. The structural capital positively affects firms’ FP in the long run. Also, the results reveal that ownership concentration and owners’ management involvement constrain firms’ IC performance.

Originality/value

The current study contributes to IC research by exploring a large sample of firms across countries in Western Europe using econometric modeling. Considering that the effect of IC on firms’ FP needs time to be realized, thus to be measured, the effect of lagged explanatory variables on performance was tested, using dynamic panel estimators, specifically the GMM system (1998) dynamic estimator.

Details

Journal of Intellectual Capital, vol. 18 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1469-1930

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 6 October 2022

Filipe Sardo, Zélia Serrasqueiro, Elisabete Vieira and Manuel Rocha Armada

This study seeks to analyse if the adjustment towards the target short-term debt ratio of small and medium-sized firms (SMEs) is related to financial distress risk.

Abstract

Purpose

This study seeks to analyse if the adjustment towards the target short-term debt ratio of small and medium-sized firms (SMEs) is related to financial distress risk.

Design/methodology/approach

Data obtained for a sample of Portuguese manufacturing SMEs from 2010 to 2017 were analysed using the system-generalised method of moments (GMM-sys). Using the modified Z-Altman score, the authors classify SMEs according to their exposure to financial distress risk.

Findings

Manufacturing SMEs exposed to a high risk of financial distress rebalance their short-term debt ratio quicker. However, regardless of the financial distress risk level, SMEs distant from the target short-term debt ratio adjust more slowly, suggesting that transaction costs are greater than financial distress costs.

Practical implications

Policymakers should promote the access to external sources of finance with low transaction costs for SMEs, exposed to low levels of financial distress risk, to rebalance their short-term debt ratios quicker. Distressed SMEs far from their target short-term debt ratios, but with capacity to rebalance, need government programmes to access finance with low transaction costs to rebalance their short-term debt ratios.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to deepening our understanding of how SMEs, facing financial risk, rebalance their short-term debt ratios. SMEs, facing high financial distress risk, adjust towards their target short-term debt ratios more rapidly. However, SMEs, distant from the target short-term debt ratio face higher transaction costs than financial distress costs. These firms adjust towards their target short-term debt ratios more slowly, which may aggravate the refinancing risk and, ultimately, announce bankruptcy.

Details

The Journal of Risk Finance, vol. 23 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1526-5943

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 31 March 2021

Filipe Sardo and Zélia Serrasqueiro

This study seeks to analyse the determinants of working capital of manufacturing small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), particularly the effect of the probability of…

Abstract

Purpose

This study seeks to analyse the determinants of working capital of manufacturing small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), particularly the effect of the probability of financial distress on working capital.

Design/methodology/approach

Using panel data models, the authors analyse a sample of 3994 manufacturing SMEs for the period 2011–2017.

Findings

The results suggest that SMEs pursue conservative working capital management to avoid the failure to fulfil the commitments with creditors. Also, the positive impact of the probability of financial distress on SME working capital suggests that SMEs exposed to a higher probability of bankruptcy invest more in working capital to avoid the risk of default and financing imbalance.

Originality/value

The novelty of this study is to extend the consequences of aggressive or conservative working capital management by analysing the probability of financial distress on working capital.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 49 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 10 December 2019

Chin-Hsien Hsieh, Irene Wei Kiong Ting, Jawad Asif and Hanh Thi My Le

Although intellectual capital (IC) has been proven to be value-added for companies, the drivers of IC performance remain an under-researched area. From the perspective of…

Abstract

Purpose

Although intellectual capital (IC) has been proven to be value-added for companies, the drivers of IC performance remain an under-researched area. From the perspective of corporate governance, the purpose of this paper is to examine how controlling the ownership of shareholders would influence IC performance.

Design/methodology/approach

This study utilized value-added intellectual capital (VAICTM) and its subcomponents, namely human capital, structural capital and capital employed efficiencies, to proxy for IC performance and regression analyses to assess the association between controlling the ownership of shareholders and the IC performance of Taiwanese listed semiconductor firms for the years 2009–2017.

Findings

Results show that controlling the ownership of shareholders is nonlinearly related to IC performance. Specifically, controlling their ownership positively affects the level of IC performance up to an optimal point before it turns to be a negative relationship thereafter.

Practical implications

The results of this study can help policy makers and other stakeholders understand the role of controlling shareholders in determining IC performance. The findings of this study suggest a nonlinear relationship between controlling the ownership of shareholders and IC.

Originality/value

This study provides an extended perspective in studies related to the determinants of IC by considering the resources provided by controlling shareholders. The definitions of controlling interests and IC applied in this study are compared and aligned with those found in the International Financial Reporting Standard 10 – Consolidated Financial Statements and the International Integrated Reporting Council, respectively.

Details

Journal of Intellectual Capital, vol. 21 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1469-1930

Keywords

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