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Article
Publication date: 21 March 2016

Kamaljit Singh Boparai, Rupinder Singh and Harwinder Singh

The purpose of this study is to highlight the direct fabrication of rapid tooling (RT) with desired mechanical, tribological and thermal properties using fused deposition…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to highlight the direct fabrication of rapid tooling (RT) with desired mechanical, tribological and thermal properties using fused deposition modelling (FDM) process. Further, the review paper demonstrated development procedure of alternative feedstock filament of low-cost composite material for FDM to extend the range of RT applications.

Design/methodology/approach

The alternative materials for FDM and their processing requirements for fabrication in filament form as reported by various researchers have been summarized. The literature demonstrates the role of various post-processing techniques on surface finish of FDM prints. Further, low-cost materials for feedstock filament have been investigated experimentally to check their adaptability/suitability for commercial FDM setup. The approach was to realize the requirements of FDM (melt flow rate, flexibility, stiffness, glass transition temperature and mechanical strength), necessary for the successful run of an alternative filament. The effect of constituents (additives, plasticizers, surfactants and fillers) in polymeric matrix on mechanical, tribological and thermal properties has been investigated.

Findings

It is possible to develop composite material feedstock as filament for commercial FDM setup without changing its hardware and software. Surface finish of the parts can further be improved by applying various post-processing techniques. Most of the composite parts have high mechanical strength, hardness, thermal stability, wear resistant and better bond formation than standard material parts.

Research limitations/implications

Future research may be focused on improving the surface quality of parts fabricated with composite feedstock, solving issues related to the uniform distribution of filled materials during the fabrication of feedstock filament which in turns further increases mechanical strength, high dimensional stability of composite filament and transferring the technology from laboratory scale to various industrial applications.

Practical implications

Potential applications of direct fabrication with RT includes rapid manufacturing (RM) of metal-filled parts and ceramic-filled parts (which have complex shape and cannot be rapidly made by any other manufacturing techniques) in the field of biomedical and dentistry.

Originality/value

This new manufacturing methodology is based on the proper selection and processing of various materials and additives to form high-performance, low-cost composite material feedstock filament (which fulfil the necessary requirements of FDM process). Finally, newly developed feedstock filament material has both quantitative and qualitative advantage in RT and RM applications as compared to standard material filament.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 22 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2013

Christian Baechler, Matthew DeVuono and Joshua M. Pearce

A low‐cost, open source, self‐replicating rapid prototyper (RepRap) has been developed, which greatly expands the potential user base of rapid prototypers. The operating…

Abstract

Purpose

A low‐cost, open source, self‐replicating rapid prototyper (RepRap) has been developed, which greatly expands the potential user base of rapid prototypers. The operating cost of the RepRap can be further reduced using waste polymers as feedstock. Centralized recycling of polymers is often uneconomic and energy intensive due to transportation embodied energy. The purpose of this paper is to provide a proof of concept for high‐value recycling of waste polymers at distributed creation sites.

Design/methodology/approach

Previous designs of waste plastic extruders (also known as RecycleBots) were evaluated using a weighted evaluation matrix. An updated design was completed and the description and analysis of the design is presented including component summary, testing procedures, a basic life cycle analysis and extrusion results. The filament was tested for consistency of density and diameter while quantifying electricity consumption.

Findings

Filament was successfully extruded at an average rate of 90 mm/min and used to print parts. The filament averaged 2.805 mm diameter with 87 per cent of samples between 2.540 mm and 3.081 mm. The average mass was 0.564 g/100 mm length. Energy use was 0.06 kWh/m.

Practical implications

The success of the RecycleBot further reduces RepRap operating costs, which enables distributed in‐home, value added, plastic recycling. This has implications for municipal waste management programs, as in‐home recycling could reduce cost and greenhouse gas emissions associated with waste collection and transportation, as well as the environmental impact of manufacturing custom plastic parts.

Originality/value

This paper reports on the first technical evaluation of a feedstock filament for the RepRap from waste plastic material made in a distributed recycling device.

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Article
Publication date: 12 August 2019

Xia Gao, Daijun Zhang, Xiangning Wen, Shunxin Qi, Yunlan Su and Xia Dong

This work aims to develop a new kind of semicrystalline polymer filament and optimize its printing parameters in the fused deposition modeling process. The purpose of this…

Abstract

Purpose

This work aims to develop a new kind of semicrystalline polymer filament and optimize its printing parameters in the fused deposition modeling process. The purpose of this work also includes producing FDM parts with good ductility.

Design/methodology/approach

A new kind of semicrystalline filaments composed of long-chain polyamide (PA)1012 was prepared by controlling screw speed and pulling speed carefully. The optimal printing parameters for PA1012 filaments were explored through investigating dimensional accuracy and bonding strength of FDM parts. Furthermore, the mechanical properties of PA1012 specimens were also evaluated by varying nozzle temperatures and raster angles.

Findings

It is found that PA1012 filaments can accommodate for FDM process under suitable printing parameters. The print quality and mechanical properties of FDM parts highly depend on nozzle temperature and bed temperature. Even though higher temperatures facilitate stronger interlayer bonding, FDM parts with excellent tensile strength were obtained at a moderate nozzle temperature. Moreover, a bed temperature well above the glass transition temperature of PA1012 can eliminate shrinkage and distortion of FDM parts. As expected, FDM parts prepared with PA1012 filaments exhibit good ductility.

Originality/value

Results in this work demonstrate that the PA1012 filament allows the production of FDM parts with desired mechanical performance. This indicates the potential for overcoming the dependence on amorphous thermoplastics as a feedstock in the FDM technique. This work also provides insight into the effect of materials properties on the mechanical performance of FDM-printed parts.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 25 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

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Article
Publication date: 17 October 2017

Hao Li, Shuai Zhang, Zhiran Yi, Jie Li, Aihua Sun, Jianjun Guo and Gaojie Xu

This work aims to evaluate the influence of rheological properties of building materials on the bonding quality and ultimate tensile strength in the fused deposition…

Abstract

Purpose

This work aims to evaluate the influence of rheological properties of building materials on the bonding quality and ultimate tensile strength in the fused deposition modeling (FDM) process, through the investigation of parts printed by semi-crystalline and amorphous resins. Little information is currently available about the influence of the crystalline nature on FDM-printed part quality.

Design/methodology/approach

Semi-crystalline polyamide 12 and amorphous acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) were used to assess the influence of rheological properties on bonding quality and the tensile strength, by varying three important process parameters: materials, liquefier temperature and raster orientation. A fractography of both tensile and freeze-fractured samples was also investigated.

Findings

The rheological properties, mainly the melt viscosity, were found to have a significant influence on the bonding quality of fused filaments. Better bonding quality and higher tensile strength of FDM parts printed with semi-crystalline PA12, as compared with amorphous ABS, are suggested to be a result of higher initial sintering rates owing to the lower melt viscosity of PA12 at low shear rates. Near-full dense PA12 parts were obtained by FDM.

Originality/value

This project provides a variety of data and insight regarding the effect of materials properties on the mechanical performance of FDM-printed parts. The results showed that FDM technique allows the production of PA12 parts with adequate mechanical performance, overcoming the greatest limitation of a dependence on amorphous thermoplastics as a feedstock for the production of prototypes.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 23 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

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Article
Publication date: 30 January 2020

Sathies T., Senthil P. and Anoop M.S.

Fabrication of customized products in low volume through conventional manufacturing incurs a high cost, longer processing time and huge material waste. Hence, the concept…

Abstract

Purpose

Fabrication of customized products in low volume through conventional manufacturing incurs a high cost, longer processing time and huge material waste. Hence, the concept of additive manufacturing (AM) comes into existence and fused deposition modelling (FDM), is at the forefront of researches related to polymer-based additive manufacturing. The purpose of this paper is to summarize the research works carried on the applications of FDM.

Design/methodology/approach

In the present paper, an extensive review has been performed related to major application areas (such as a sensor, shielding, scaffolding, drug delivery devices, microfluidic devices, rapid tooling, four-dimensional printing, automotive and aerospace, prosthetics and orthosis, fashion and architecture) where FDM has been tested. Finally, a roadmap for future research work in the FDM application has been discussed. As an example for future research scope, a case study on the usage of FDM printed ABS-carbon black composite for solvent sensing is demonstrated.

Findings

The printability of composite filament through FDM enhanced its application range. Sensors developed using FDM incurs a low cost and produces a result comparable to those conventional techniques. EMI shielding manufactured by FDM is light and non-oxidative. Biodegradable and biocompatible scaffolds of complex shapes are possible to manufacture by FDM. Further, FDM enables the fabrication of on-demand and customized prosthetics and orthosis. Tooling time and cost involved in the manufacturing of low volume customized products are reduced by FDM based rapid tooling technique. Results of the solvent sensing case study indicate that three-dimensional printed conductive polymer composites can sense different solvents. The sensors with a lower thickness (0.6 mm) exhibit better sensitivity.

Originality/value

This paper outlines the capabilities of FDM and provides information to the user about the different applications possible with FDM.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 26 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 12 November 2018

Piotr Czyżewski, Marek Bieliński, Dariusz Sykutera, Marcin Jurek, Marcin Gronowski, Łukasz Ryl and Hubert Hoppe

The aim of this paper is presenting a new application of material obtained from the acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) recycling process from electronic equipment…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this paper is presenting a new application of material obtained from the acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) recycling process from electronic equipment housings. Elements of computer monitors were used to prepare re-granulate, which in turn was used to manufacture a filament for fused filament fabrication (FFF) additive manufacturing technology.

Design/methodology/approach

The geometry of test samples (i.e. dumbbell and bar) was obtained in accordance with the PN-EN standards. Samples made with the FFF technology were used to determine selected mechanical properties and to compare the results obtained with the properties of ABS re-granulate mould pieces made with the injection moulding technology. The GATE device manufactured by 3Novatica was used to make the prototypes with the FFF technology. Processing parameters were tested with the use of an Aflow extrusion plastometer manufactured by Zwick/Roell and other original testing facilities. Tests of mechanical properties were performed with a Z030 universal testing machine, a HIT 50P pendulum impact tester and a Z3106 hardness tester manufactured by Zwick/Roell.

Findings

The paper presents results of tests performed on a filament obtained from the ABS re-granulate and indicates characteristic processing properties of that material. The properties of the new secondary material were compared with the available original ABS materials that are commonly used in the additive technology of manufacturing geometrical objects. The study also presents selected results of tests of functional properties of ABS products made in the FFF technology.

Originality/value

The test results allowed authors to assess the possibility of a secondary application of used elements of electronic equipment housings in the FFF technology and to compare the strength properties of products obtained with similar products made with the standard injection moulding technology.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 24 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 8 July 2019

Isaac Ferreira, Margarida Machado, Fernando Alves and António Torres Marques

In industry, fused filament fabrication (FFF) offers flexibility and agility by promoting a reduction in costs and in the lead-time (i.e. time-to-market). Nevertheless…

Abstract

Purpose

In industry, fused filament fabrication (FFF) offers flexibility and agility by promoting a reduction in costs and in the lead-time (i.e. time-to-market). Nevertheless, FFF parts exhibit some limitations such as lack of accuracy and/or lower mechanical performance. As a result, some alternatives have been developed to overcome some of these restrictions, namely, the formulation of high performance polymers, the creation of fibre-reinforced materials by FFF process and/or the design of new FFF-based technologies for printing composite materials. This work aims to analyze these technologies.

Design/methodology/approach

This work aims to study and understand the advances in the behaviour of 3D printed parts with enhanced performance by its reinforcement with several shapes and types of fibres from nanoparticles to continuous fibre roving. Thus, a comprehensive survey of significant research studies carried out regarding FFF of fibre-reinforced thermoplastics is provided, giving emphasis to the most relevant and innovative developments or adaptations undergone at hardware level and/or on the production process of the feedstock.

Findings

It is shown that the different types of reinforcement present different challenges for the printing process with different outcomes in the part performance.

Originality/value

This review is focused on joining the most important researches dedicated to the process of FFF-printed parts with different types reinforcing materials. By dividing the reinforcements in categories by shape/geometry and method of processing, it is possible to better quantify performance improvements.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 25 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 28 December 2020

Pierandrea Dal Fabbro, Andrea La Gala, Willem Van De Steene, Dagmar R. D’hooge, Giovanni Lucchetta, Ludwig Cardon and Rudinei Fiorio

This study aims to evaluate and compare the macroscopic properties of commercial acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) processed by two different types of additive…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to evaluate and compare the macroscopic properties of commercial acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) processed by two different types of additive manufacturing (AM) machines. The focus is also on the effect of multiple closed-loop recycling of ABS.

Design/methodology/approach

A conventional direct-drive, Cartesian-type machine and a Bowden, Delta-type machine with an infrared radiant heating system are used to manufacture test specimens molded in ABS. Afterward, multiple closed-loop recycling cycles are conducted, involving consecutive AM (four times) and recycling (three times). The rheological, mechanical, morphological and physicochemical properties are investigated.

Findings

The type of machine affects the quality of the produced parts. The machine containing an infrared radiant system in a temperature-controlled chamber produces parts showing higher mechanical properties and filling fraction, although it increases the yellowing. Closed-loop recycling of ABS for AM is applicable for at least two cycles, inducing a slight increase in tensile modulus (ca. 5%) and in tensile strength (ca. 13%) and a decrease in the impact strength (ca. 14%) and melt viscosity. An increase in the filling fraction of the AM parts promotes an increase in tensile strength and tensile modulus, although it does not influence the impact strength. Furthermore, multiple closed-loop recycling does not affect the overall chemical structure of ABS.

Practical implications

Controlling the environmental temperature and using infrared radiant heating during AM of ABS improves the quality of the produced parts. Closed-loop recycling of ABS used in AM is feasible up to at least two recycling steps, supporting the implementation of a circular economy for polymer-based AM.

Originality/value

This study shows original results regarding the assessment of the effect of different types of AM machines on the main end-use properties of ABS parts and the influence of multiple closed-loop recycling on the characteristics of ABS fabricated by the most suited AM machine with an infrared radiant heating system and a temperature-controlled environment.

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Article
Publication date: 20 April 2015

Ganemulle Lekamalage Dharmasri Wickramasinghe and Peter William Foster

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the use of steam in order to replace air in the production of spun-like textured yarns. Further, this paper analyse the effect…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the use of steam in order to replace air in the production of spun-like textured yarns. Further, this paper analyse the effect of production speed on process and textured yarn properties.

Design/methodology/approach

An existing air-jet texturing machine was modified to supply either air or steam to the texturing nozzle. Using standard commercial nozzles, both air-jet and steam-jet textured yarns were manufactured by varying production speed.

Findings

It can be concluded that steam can be used as an alternative fluid for air in making spun-like textured yarns. Results show that yarn parameters for steam-jet texturing show a similar trend to those of air-jet texturing relative to the production speed. Further, sewing threads made from steam-jet textured yarns showed good sewability up to the speeds of 350 m/min.

Research limitations/implications

Only the effect of production speed on process and yarn parameters is discussed in this paper. Production speed was limited to 350 m/min due to machine constraints.

Practical implications

Steam is more economical than air to manufacture spun-like textured yarn at commercial pressures such as 8 bar. Steam-jet textured yarns could be used for commercial applications such as sewing threads at competitive speeds. Further, steam could be generated using sustainable and renewable fuel sources such as biomass.

Originality/value

This research introduced steam as an alternative fluid for air in manufacturing spun-like textured yarns.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 27 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 25 February 2021

G.L.D. Wickramasinghe G.L.D. Wickramasinghe, Sameera Umesh Dolawatte, Isuru Udayanga Thebuwana and W.W.S. Sampath Botheju

The main objectives of this research work were to investigate the effect of production speed on intermingled yarn properties and melange fabric properties with special…

Abstract

Purpose

The main objectives of this research work were to investigate the effect of production speed on intermingled yarn properties and melange fabric properties with special reference to melange appearance.

Design/methodology/approach

Polyester/nylon intermingled yarns were produced using an SSM DP3-C air-intermingling machine using commercial process parameters and Heberlein P212 nozzle. Melange fabric samples were knitted from polyester/nylon intermingled yarns while maintaining the same parameters to avoid knitting variations. The fabric samples were dyed using a sample dyeing machine while maintaining dye recipe and dyeing parameters constant to avoid dyeing variations.

Findings

The production speed has significant effect on intermingled yarn and melange fabric properties. When the production speed is increased, mingle points, mingle stability, linear density, strength and the elongation of the intermingled yarns decreases. When the production speed is increased, fabric weight decreases and the melange effect varies from dot-like appearance to line-like appearance.

Research limitations/implications

Only the effect of production speed on intermingled yarn and melange fabric properties is discussed in this paper. Appearance evaluating systems developed in this research are limited to melange fabrics produced using air-intermingled yarns with two colour components.

Practical implications

Results indicate that the intermingled yarns for the application of melange fabrics should be developed with optimum intermingling speeds, and it should not be changed during the production since production speed has significant effect on yarn and fabric parameters. Therefore, melange appearance and fabric weight may vary between fabric lots with different production speeds even though all the other parameters are kept constant. Further, melange appearance evaluation method developed in this research could be used as a guide in developing melange fabrics.

Originality/value

This research introduced a qualitative and a quantitative method to analyse melange fabric appearance. This melange appearance evaluation method can be used as a guide to achieve specific melange effect in the sample development stage. Further, when a melange sample appearance catalogue is developed for all the variables for a particular fabric type using this evaluation method, customer requested appearance can be achieved in minimum sample trials which save time, capacity, money and customer credibility.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

Keywords

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