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Article
Publication date: 2 February 2018

Felix Otto and Christopher Rumpf

Visual animation of sponsorship signage has become a frequently used technique at televised sports with the aim to increase viewer attention. The purpose of this paper is…

Abstract

Purpose

Visual animation of sponsorship signage has become a frequently used technique at televised sports with the aim to increase viewer attention. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of animation intensity of sponsorship signage on sport viewers’ attention and to examine viewers’ visual confusion as a reaction to increasing animation intensity.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on a lab experiment, eye-tracking methodology was applied to analyze the participants’ visual attention to animated sponsorship signage. The stimulus films showed a highlight video clip of a tennis match and included five different intensity levels of animated signage. The hypothesized causal relationships were tested by using linear regression analysis and structural equation modeling.

Findings

The results demonstrate that animation intensity of sponsorship signage positively influences sport viewers’ attention. The findings also reveal that animation intensity has no significant effect on sport viewers’ visual confusion.

Practical implications

The findings suggest the use of higher animation intensity levels for effective sponsorship communication in sports broadcasts. Furthermore, there is still more potential to improve sponsorship communication at televised tennis events as viewer confusion was not affected by animation intensity.

Originality/value

This research contributes to the body of knowledge by taking into account different intensity levels of animated sponsorship signage in a tennis event context. It is the first study that demonstrates the impact of animation intensity to improve sponsorship communication at televised sporting events.

Details

Sport, Business and Management: An International Journal, vol. 8 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-678X

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 1997

María J. López‐huertas

The need for thesauri to help users in their search for information in online information systems has been discussed for several decades. Many wide‐ranging contributions…

Abstract

The need for thesauri to help users in their search for information in online information systems has been discussed for several decades. Many wide‐ranging contributions have been made to solve this problem. Nevertheless, investigation is needed to design a thesaurus structure based on what is relevant for users and generators of information within a specific subject domain. This paper explores the possibility of creating a thesaurus from the cognitive viewpoint. This approach is based on a system (in this case represented by a thesaurus) that organises its representation of knowledge or its classification as closely as possible to the authors‘ and users’ images of the subject domain with the objective of increasing the interaction between users and texts, and thus the communication in a given information retrieval system. From this point of view, the thesaurus structure is considered as the essential foundation on which to base such an interactive thesaurus. Furthermore, this structure is conceived as representing the merging point for both the generators‘ and the users’ models of the subject domain and for their information needs. This paper is dedicated mainly to the generators‘ side involved in this process. It demonstrates how an author’s writings can be used to identify the generators‘ model and perception of the subject domain, and how these can later be inserted in the thesaurus structure. Discourse analysis is used as a main method to identify the categories and its relevance for building such a structure is discussed. It also outlines a general approach for the user side to set up different methods of getting the users’ information needs into the thesaurus structure.

Details

Journal of Documentation, vol. 53 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0022-0418

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Book part
Publication date: 8 September 2017

Kenneth J. Smith, David J. Emerson and George S. Everly

This paper examines the influence of stress arousal and burnout as mediators of the negative relations between role stressors and job outcomes (satisfaction, performance…

Abstract

This paper examines the influence of stress arousal and burnout as mediators of the negative relations between role stressors and job outcomes (satisfaction, performance, and turnover intentions) among a sample of AICPA members working in public accounting. It extends prior research which examined these linkages (Chong & Monroe, 2015; Fogarty, Singh, Rhoads, & Moore, 2000; Smith, Davy, & Everly, 2007) by evaluating a model that simultaneously incorporates stress arousal and the three fundamental dimensions of burnout, i.e., emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and reduced personal accomplishment. This paper also utilizes a recently validated stress arousal measure designed to capture the worry and rumination aspects of arousal posited to be responsible for a number of negative personal outcomes.

The results indicate that role stressors, mediated by stress arousal and the individual burnout dimensions, have a negative influence on job outcomes. In line with predictions regarding the temporal ordering of stress arousal and burnout in the model, each of the job stressors had a significant positive influence on accountants’ stress arousal, and the influence of the individual role stressors on each burnout dimension was either partially or fully mediated via their relations with stress arousal. In turn, the influence of stress arousal on each of the job outcomes was either partially or fully mediated through its relations with emotional exhaustion.

Details

Advances in Accounting Behavioral Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-527-6

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2001

Marianne Lykke Nielsen

Design and construction of indexing languages require thorough knowledge and understanding of the information environment. This empirical study investigated a mixed set of…

Abstract

Design and construction of indexing languages require thorough knowledge and understanding of the information environment. This empirical study investigated a mixed set of methods (group interviews, recollection of information needs and word association tests to collect data; content analysis and discourse analysis to analyse data) to evaluate whether these methods collected the data needed for work domain oriented thesaurus design. The findings showed that the study methods together provided the domain knowledge needed to define the role of the thesaurus and design its content and structure. The study was carried out from a person‐insituation perspective. The findings reflected the information environment and made it possible to develop a thesaurus according to the characteristics of the work domain. It seemed more difficult to capture the needs of the individual user and adapt the thesaurus to individual characteristics.

Details

Journal of Documentation, vol. 57 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0022-0418

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Book part
Publication date: 2 December 2013

David Norman Smith

The aim of this chapter is to argue that charisma is a collective representation, and that charismatic authority is a social status that derives more from the…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this chapter is to argue that charisma is a collective representation, and that charismatic authority is a social status that derives more from the “recognition” of the followers than from the “magnetism” of the leaders. I contend further that a close reading of Max Weber shows that he, too, saw charisma in this light.

Approach

I develop my argument by a close reading of many of the most relevant texts on the subject. This includes not only the renowned texts on this subject by Max Weber, but also many books and articles that interpret or criticize Weber’s views.

Findings

I pay exceptionally close attention to key arguments and texts, several of which have been overlooked in the past.

Implications

Writers for whom charisma is personal magnetism tend to assume that charismatic rule is natural and that the full realization of democratic norms is unlikely. Authority, in this view, emanates from rulers unbound by popular constraint. I argue that, in fact, authority draws both its mandate and its energy from the public, and that rulers depend on the loyalty of their subjects, which is never assured. So charismatic claimants are dependent on popular choice, not vice versa.

Originality

I advocate a “culturalist” interpretation of Weber, which runs counter to the dominant “personalist” account. Conventional interpreters, under the sway of theology or mass psychology, misread Weber as a romantic, for whom charisma is primal and undemocratic rule is destiny. This essay offers a counter-reading.

Details

Social Theories of History and Histories of Social Theory
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-219-6

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1993

BRIAN VICKERY and ALINA VICKERY

There is a huge amount of information and data stored in publicly available online databases that consist of large text files accessed by Boolean search techniques. It is…

Abstract

There is a huge amount of information and data stored in publicly available online databases that consist of large text files accessed by Boolean search techniques. It is widely held that less use is made of these databases than could or should be the case, and that one reason for this is that potential users find it difficult to identify which databases to search, to use the various command languages of the hosts and to construct the Boolean search statements required. This reasoning has stimulated a considerable amount of exploration and development work on the construction of search interfaces, to aid the inexperienced user to gain effective access to these databases. The aim of our paper is to review aspects of the design of such interfaces: to indicate the requirements that must be met if maximum aid is to be offered to the inexperienced searcher; to spell out the knowledge that must be incorporated in an interface if such aid is to be given; to describe some of the solutions that have been implemented in experimental and operational interfaces; and to discuss some of the problems encountered. The paper closes with an extensive bibliography of references relevant to online search aids, going well beyond the items explicitly mentioned in the text. An index to software appears after the bibliography at the end of the paper.

Details

Journal of Documentation, vol. 49 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0022-0418

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Article
Publication date: 5 September 2017

Julio César Puche Regaliza, Alfredo Jiménez and Pablo Arranz Val

The purpose of this paper is to identify the principal success factors of a software project structured upon the basis of the viable system model (VSM).

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify the principal success factors of a software project structured upon the basis of the viable system model (VSM).

Design/methodology/approach

To do so, an exploratory empirical analysis is conducted of a set of software projects, in which the degree of compliance with the requirements set down by the VSM and the success rating of their development are identified.

Findings

The results of the study indicate that the most influential factors in achieving global viability in a software project are the local environment, the organizational units and the intelligent system. Building on those factors, a mathematical prediction model is developed, reaching an accuracy of 63.16 percent in its predictions.

Research limitations/implications

The authors wish to point out that due to the number of projects employed in the statistical analysis, the results have to be interpreted with caution and are of an exploratory nature.

Practical implications

The authors seek to show that the VSM is an extremely useful tool for the management of software projects and, by extension, projects of a general nature. The authors therefore suggest that knowledge of VSM would be of incalculable value for managers wishing to manage projects successfully and to survive in such a complex and rapidly changing environment as the software project environment is. Its application allows us to diagnose and to detect the critical factors to achieve such success.

Social implications

In addition, the research seeks to increase the universality of VSM, contributing to a better understanding of it and a better and greater formalization of it in favor of its acceptance and its practical use, seeking in this way to palliate some critical principals related to its abstraction and limited applicability and to increase its rigor and validity as an instrument for the diagnosis and the design of viable organizations.

Originality/value

The novelty of this study is therefore principally found in the application of the VSM to the organizational structure of a software project in such a way that it allows us to detect key factors in its success. Besides, building on the validation of this proposal through the completion of a quantitative empirical analysis, this study also offers a prediction mathematical model that relates key factors with the success of the project.

Details

International Journal of Managing Projects in Business, vol. 10 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8378

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Book part
Publication date: 23 February 2015

Deirdre McCaughey, Jami DelliFraine and Cathleen O. Erwin

Hospitals in North America consistently have employee injury rates ranking among the highest of all industries. Organizations that mandate workplace safety training and…

Abstract

Purpose

Hospitals in North America consistently have employee injury rates ranking among the highest of all industries. Organizations that mandate workplace safety training and emphasize safety compliance tend to have lower injury rates and better employee safety perceptions. However, it is unclear if the work environment in different national health care systems (United States vs. Canada) is associated with different employee safety perceptions or injury rates. This study examines occupational safety and workplace satisfaction in two different countries with employees working for the same organization.

Methodology/approach

Survey data were collected from environmental services employees (n = 148) at three matched hospitals (two in Canada and one in the United States). The relationships that were examined included: (1) safety leadership and safety training with individual/unit safety perceptions; (2) supervisor and coworker support with individual job satisfaction and turnover intention; and (3) unit turnover, labor usage, and injury rates.

Findings

Hierarchical regression analysis and ANOVA found safety leadership and safety training to be positively related to individual safety perceptions, and unit safety grade and effects were similar across all hospitals. Supervisor and coworker support were found to be related to individual and organizational outcomes and significant differences were found across the hospitals. Significant differences were found in injury rates, days missed, and turnover across the hospitals.

Originality/value

This study offers support for occupational safety training as a viable mechanism to reduce employee injury rates and that a codified training program translates across national borders. Significant differences were found between the hospitals with respect to employee and organizational outcomes (e.g., turnover). These findings suggest that work environment differences are reflective of the immediate work group and environment, and may reflect national health care system differences.

Details

International Best Practices in Health Care Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-278-4

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 2020

Benti Gadisa and Hong Zhou

It is well recognized that the construction industry is characterised by inefficient and ineffective service delivery due to various causative factors. Thus this study…

Abstract

Purpose

It is well recognized that the construction industry is characterised by inefficient and ineffective service delivery due to various causative factors. Thus this study aims to examine the influential factors affecting public construction project performance in Ethiopia to improve the industry's service delivery.

Design/methodology/approach

From the extensive literature reviewed, 58 potential factors affecting construction project performance have been compiled. Based on the evidence accumulated, the conceptual model of this paper has been developed. By using survey questionnaires, valuable data were collected from the construction industry professionals in Ethiopia; analysed and interpreted with the use of both SPSS and AMOS software.

Findings

It is concluded that failure factors related to the “performance” of the contractor, the “capability” of the owner, the “project design-procurement process,” and project contract management can significantly contribute to the poor performance of public construction projects in Ethiopia. Ten key factors include inadequate contractor capacity, weak project site management and supervision, weak project management skills and capabilities of the owner, additional work orders, delayed payment, lack of comprehensive project plans between parties and incomplete project design, rising material prices, ineffective project schedules, and cost management, rising market prices and devaluation of the currency.

Research limitations/implications

The scope of this study confined to public projects in Ethiopia. It suggests that further research needs to consider public and private construction from a comprehensive perspective in the developing countries.

Practical implications

It provides practitioners with information and guidance on the factors that affect the performance of construction projects.

Originality/value

It provides inclusive evidence related to many factors that affect the performance of public construction projects.

Details

Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-9988

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Article
Publication date: 7 March 2016

Peter Hosie and Alan Nankervis

The purpose of this paper it to report the findings of an empirical study into managers’ job performance. A new measure was developed from the literature to test and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper it to report the findings of an empirical study into managers’ job performance. A new measure was developed from the literature to test and establish the multidimensional structure of managers’ contextual and task performance.

Design/methodology/approach

Field ratings by executives explicitly and simultaneously measured both managers’ contextual and task performance. A cross-sectional questionnaire was administered to a variety of public and third sector managers from a range of private, public and third sector occupations residing in (Western) Australia. A purposive sample yielded a response rate of 32 percent. Factor analysis was used to determine the items that constitute executives’ perceptions of managers’ performance using downward appraisal (i.e. by the person to whom a manager reports).

Findings

The construct “managers’ job performance” was found to be multidimensional; consisting of four distinct contextual factors (Following, Persisting, Helping, Endorsing) and a further four distinct task factors (Delegating, Monitoring, Technical, Influencing).

Originality/value

Performance appraisals of managers represent new items and factors that more accurately reflect the nature of the broader roles undertaken by managers, including transformative and ethical leadership. Findings from this study assist in establishing the structure for the subsequent appraisal of managers’ contextual and task performance. Future researchers could test the applicability and replicability of this new instrument in more diverse industry contexts using confirmatory statistical analysis.

Details

Personnel Review, vol. 45 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

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