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Article
Publication date: 5 November 2010

Sandra Ma Sánchez Cañizares and Fernando J. Fuentes García

The main objective of this article is to analyse, in depth, the role of gender differences among potential entrepreneurs, their psycho‐sociological traits and the…

Abstract

Purpose

The main objective of this article is to analyse, in depth, the role of gender differences among potential entrepreneurs, their psycho‐sociological traits and the incentives and principal obstacles women encounter when initiating a business activity.

Design/methodology/approach

The approach adopted in this study focuses on university students as a fundamental source of potential future entrepreneurs. The fieldwork is based on a sample of 1,400 students at the University of Córdoba (Spain).

Findings

The results suggest that women are less prone to initiate entrepreneurial activity and that fear of failure is a major obstacle to setting up a company. Furthermore, gender attributes were correlated to a higher probability of embarking on a venture of this type in the future.

Practical implications

The Organization for Economic Co‐operation and Development (OECD) considers research in this area to be crucial for understanding the economic and social phenomenon of growing female entrepreneurship due to its enormous potential for innovation and job creation. Programmes to promote entrepreneurial activity must take into account differences between men and women in terms of their perceptions and entrepreneurial culture.

Originality/value

Research into the gender perspective of entrepreneurial intention is key to gaining deeper insight into the economic and social phenomenon of female entrepreneurship. This study focuses on education, namely the elements that influence the entrepreneurial attitudes and culture of young people and the differences in perception between women and men.

Details

Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, vol. 29 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7149

Keywords

Abstract

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 12 no. 4/5/6/7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

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Article
Publication date: 18 July 2019

Fernando E. García-Muiña, Laura Fuentes-Moraleda, Trinidad Vacas-Guerrero and Juan José Rienda-Gómez

The hostile environments in which museums operate force them to be innovative. Most of them have fewer resources and are publicly owned. Because these factors may hinder…

Abstract

Purpose

The hostile environments in which museums operate force them to be innovative. Most of them have fewer resources and are publicly owned. Because these factors may hinder their innovative potential, this paper aims to propose an open innovation model adapted to this type of organization to improve visitors’ experience.

Design/methodology/approach

A qualitative method based on a thematic analysis is carried out. Data sources are: (i) focus group with stakeholders from the destination and (ii) in-depth interviews with museums experts.

Findings

This new framework is important because it brings something new to a field that previous research had barely considered. The study of the implementation of open innovation in publicly owned small and medium-sized museums brings to light the growing importance of the relational, organizational, technological and experiential dimensions, their interactions and their main constituent factors.

Research limitations/implications

The study is limited to a specific type of institution, and results should not be extrapolated to other contexts. The construct of open innovation is highly complex, and that advises future research to include other players. Quantitative methods and longitudinal techniques will contribute to tackling new challenges in future research works.

Practical implications

Results are helpful for museum managers and policymakers. Stakeholders improve their comprehension of how an open innovation model works because the paper offers a few guidelines for its active designing. A solid networking based on trust and the emphasis on improving the visitor experience determine making-decision processes.

Originality/value

The paper provides a systemic innovation management model for museums, where there is almost no previous research. It is theoretically supported in the open innovation paradigm, as well as the absorptive capacity framework. The emerging and central role of the experiential dimension constitutes another notable contribution to literature.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 31 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 4 May 2020

Henriette Klavenes, Alicia Orea-Giner, Fernando E. García-Muiña and Laura Fuentes-Moraleda

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of the #MeToo movement in the work environment of professional football organizations in Spain. It also explores the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of the #MeToo movement in the work environment of professional football organizations in Spain. It also explores the current situation of the professional career of women working in this industry to know if the opportunities are equal for men and women to reach management or executive positions.

Design/methodology/approach

From a gender approach and considering gender as a social structure (Risman, 2004), the authors are going to analyse men and women’s professional careers in football organizations from a three-dimensional gender perspective (individual, interactional and institutional). The objective is twofold: to know the effect of the #MeToo movement in these organizations; and also to know the opinion of both men and women of these organizations concerning gender influence for women’s career progression. The methodology implemented in this investigation is qualitative; 24 in-depth interviews (12 men and 12 women) have been carried out with professionals from different executive positions in both football clubs and organizations.

Findings

The gender approach improves current knowledge about women’s roles in the football industry. The exploratory analysis of the results shows that although the #MeToo phenomenon is relatively known it has had an indirect impact in Spanish football, where its consequences have not been as visible as in other sectors.

Originality/value

The paper provides an exploratory approach by analysing the effects of the #MeToo movement in the football sector, an area where almost no previous research has been done. Also, it presents the main factors that influence women’s professional careers in this sector and the significance of the recent #MeToo phenomenon in the football industry.

Details

Gender in Management: An International Journal , vol. 35 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2413

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 19 February 2020

Javier San Julián Arrupe

Since the early modern age, the debt of the State was a constant source for concern to the Spanish governments. Episodes of defaults caused by enormous expenditure to keep…

Abstract

Since the early modern age, the debt of the State was a constant source for concern to the Spanish governments. Episodes of defaults caused by enormous expenditure to keep the Empire slowly faded out until a certain reorganization of public finance was attained in the central decades of the nineteenth century. The core idea that finance ministers and economists, in general, had at that time was to balance the public budget controlling expenses, in order to handle the problem of public debt. However, alternative views on government finance existed. Focusing on a crucial period for the consolidation of Spanish liberal regime and its public finance, this chapter shows that, among a predominant concern for reducing public expenditure as the best way to stabilize the economy and promote economic growth, the character of Luis María Pastor emerges to support government expansionary policies financed with credit. Far from fearing deficit, Pastor, one of the leaders of the Spanish liberal school of economic thought, believed that investment in infrastructures financed through debt was the key to economic growth. Through a multiplicative effect, a program of public investment would enhance economic growth, eventually solving the long-term insufficiency of Spanish finance. This gives evidence that ideas on public finance of classical liberal economists were far from uniform, contributing to a more precise view on the body of doctrines of this school.

Details

Research in the History of Economic Thought and Methodology: Including a Symposium on Public Finance in the History of Economic Thought
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-699-5

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 19 September 2018

Lida Esperanza Villa Castaño, Jesús Perdomo-Ortiz, William Fernando Durán León, Sebastián Dueñas Ocampo and Florina Guadalupe Arredondo Trapero

The purpose of this paper is to find evidence of construct validity in a Mexican population for a socially responsible consumption (SRC) measurement scale originally…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to find evidence of construct validity in a Mexican population for a socially responsible consumption (SRC) measurement scale originally proposed for Colombia.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a quantitative approach and a correlational scope, factorial invariance and differential item functioning analyses were performed on the SRC measurement scale based on data from 323 Colombian graduate students and 456 Mexican students.

Findings

The empirical evidence confirms that the factor structure of the SRC measurement scale applied in Colombia remains valid in the Mexican context.

Research limitations/implications

Limitations pertain to the attitudinal measurement scale and the non-representativeness of the chosen samples.

Practical implications

When identifying a structure for SRC, particularly considering the formulation of marketing strategies and business reputation, companies should consider the new criteria of buying consumption.

Originality/value

For the first time in Latin America, an SRC measurement scale is constructed, and its construct validity is evaluated for two countries: Mexico and Colombia. The authors thus provide empirical evidence for the hypothesis that SRC measurement is contingent on the expression of measurement considering the socioeconomic and cultural context in which the study is conducted.

Propósito

Buscar evidencia de validez de constructo en una población mexicana para la escala de medida del Consumo Socialmente Responsable (CSR) propuesta para Colombia.

Diseño/metodología/enfoque

Con un enfoque cuantitativo y alcance correlacional se realiza un análisis de invarianza factorial y de funcionamiento diferencial del ítem (DIF), de la escala de medida del CSR en 323 estudiantes de posgrado colombianos y 456 mexicanos.

Hallazgos

La evidencia empírica confirma que la estructura factorial de la escala de medida del CSR aplicado en Colombia se mantiene en el contexto mexicano.

Limitaciones de la investigación/implicaciones

Las propias de las escalas de medida actitudinal y de la no representatividad de las muestras elegidas.

Implicaciones prácticas

Cuando se identifica una estructura de un CSR, las empresas en la formulación de estrategias de mercadeo y reputación empresarial, deben considerar los nuevos criterios de compra de consumo.

Originalidad/valor

Por primera vez en Latinoamérica se construye una escala de medida del CSR y se realiza una validez de constructo considerando dos países como lo son México y Colombia. En este sentido, se aporta evidencia empírica a la hipótesis según la cual la medición del CSR es contingente en su expresión de medida al contexto socioeconómico y cultural donde se realice el estudio.

Details

Academia Revista Latinoamericana de Administración, vol. 31 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1012-8255

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 4 April 2016

Oriol Sabaté

The substantial resources devoted to warfare in modern times might explain the increasing relevance that military spending has acquired in social sciences. In this regard…

Abstract

The substantial resources devoted to warfare in modern times might explain the increasing relevance that military spending has acquired in social sciences. In this regard, the so-called defence economics has extensively studied the main determinants of military spending and its main consequences in terms of economic performance and institutional transformations. However, one of the main problems for comparative analysis on the causes and effects of military spending is the lack of long-term homogeneous and comparable data in international panel datasets. This paper contributes to fill in this gap by providing new military spending data on Spain from 1850 to 2009 based on NATO methodological criterion. It provides total military spending estimates as well as economic and administrative disaggregated figures for most of the period. These data allow reliable international comparisons while also providing new quantitative evidence to better understand the military history of Spain in modern times.

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1980

Juan R. Freudenthal

“A knowledge of different literatures is the best way to free one's self from the tyranny of any of them.” Jose Marti, Cuban writer, poet and statesman.

Abstract

“A knowledge of different literatures is the best way to free one's self from the tyranny of any of them.” Jose Marti, Cuban writer, poet and statesman.

Details

Collection Building, vol. 2 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0160-4953

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Article
Publication date: 27 July 2021

Eulalia Santos, Vanessa Ratten, Ana Diogo and Fernando Tavares

The COVID-19 pandemic has spread rapidly around the world and Portugal is no exception. Positive and negative effects are extremely important in individual's life…

Abstract

Purpose

The COVID-19 pandemic has spread rapidly around the world and Portugal is no exception. Positive and negative effects are extremely important in individual's life experiences and in particular in the context of the quarantine, in which it is important to maintain the balance between favorable and unfavorable situations. The purpose of this paper is to study in depth the intensity of the affect during the COVID-19 pandemic in Portugal and to validate a scale of positive and negative affect in the context of quarantine and confinement.

Design/methodology/approach

The methodology used is of a quantitative nature, based on a questionnaire survey to measure the intensity of the affects and to analyze some sociodemographic variables. The sample consists of 726 individuals of age 18 years or older, who were in Portugal during the quarantine of the COVID-19 pandemic.

Findings

The results show that respondents were concerned, anxious, well-disposed and impatient. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis applied to affects produced a latent structure with two factors: negative affect and positive affect. The affect scale has adequate convergent and discriminant validity and good internal consistency, with negative affect being experienced by individuals with greater intensity compared to positive affect.

Originality/value

It is hoped that this study contributes to an increase in the scientific knowledge in the field of the affects in the context of delicate situations such as the pandemic COVID-19 so that health professionals can intervene to improve individual’s well-being. This is an important way to provide better health policy that considers in more depth individual wellbeing and emotions during times of crisis. Limitations and suggestions for future research are also stated that highlight the importance of understanding emotional states of individuals during crisis events.

Details

Journal of Science and Technology Policy Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2053-4620

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Article
Publication date: 16 October 2019

Fernando Criado-García, Arturo Calvo-Mora and Silvia Martelo-Landroguez

The purpose of this paper is to identify knowledge as a key strategic resource within the EFQM excellence model. The study also analyses whether the EFQM model helps to…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify knowledge as a key strategic resource within the EFQM excellence model. The study also analyses whether the EFQM model helps to create an adequate context for successful knowledge management (KM). A description is given of the synergies between both management approaches, with the purpose of reaching sustainable competitive advantages within organizations.

Design/methodology/approach

A literature review and a content analysis are carried out which show how the current version of the EFQM model includes the key aspects of the knowledge management systems (KMS) and its process. Also, the relationships and synergies between both considered management approaches are analyzed: quality management and KM.

Findings

After a detailed analysis of KM issues in the EFQM model, important synergies and complementary elements are appreciated between both management frameworks. Evidence is given of how the integration of both frameworks constitutes a dynamic capability that can lead organizations to attain sustainable competitive advantages.

Practical implications

An exhaustive review is given of the elements related to KM present in the EFQM model. In addition, companies are offered guidelines to be able to manage their knowledge through a model that is recognized and widespread in the business sphere.

Originality/value

The research develops the first content analysis of the process elements and KMS present in the whole structure of the EFQM model. Furthermore, it is shown how the integration of excellence and KM constitutes a dynamic capability for organizations based on continuous improvement, innovation and learning.

Details

International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, vol. 37 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-671X

Keywords

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