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Book part
Publication date: 6 September 2019

Robert A. Peterson and David Altounian

This chapter reports the results of an empirical study on the “gender–performance gap,” the alleged difference in business performance between firms started or owned by…

Abstract

This chapter reports the results of an empirical study on the “gender–performance gap,” the alleged difference in business performance between firms started or owned by females and males. Although numerous studies have compared the business performance of firms started by or owned by female and male entrepreneurs, most research to date has employed financial performance metrics and has often produced inconsistent results. The present research compared gender-based business performance by examining self-perceptions of a large sample of female and male Black and Mexican-American entrepreneurs. As such, the present study overcame several limitations of prior gender–performance gap research and addressed entrepreneurial groups seldom studied. While there were no perceptual differences between female and male entrepreneurs surveyed regarding the performance of their respective businesses, Mexican-American entrepreneurs surveyed perceived the performance of their business as being better than Black entrepreneurs surveyed, and this result held for both females and males. Findings from the study provide insights into the perceptions held by Black and Mexican-American female and male entrepreneurs and provide a context for further race and gender studies.

Book part
Publication date: 11 July 2017

Ayana Allen-Handy and Abiola Farinde-Wu

This introductory chapter frames the discussion of Black female teachers, and centers their experiences as the sole site for discussion and analysis. In addition, this…

Abstract

This introductory chapter frames the discussion of Black female teachers, and centers their experiences as the sole site for discussion and analysis. In addition, this chapter provides an overview of the three sections of the book and the corresponding chapters. Within the pages of this volume, contributing authors discuss the historical and contemporary landscapes of Black female teachers, examine the underrepresentation of Black women in the US teacher workforce, as well as discuss innovative strategies to increase the recruitment and retention of Black female teachers in PK-12 classrooms. Ultimately, this chapter provides insight into the salience of Black female teachers in the diversification of the US teacher workforce. Moreover, highlighting implications and recommendations for a variety of educational stakeholders.

Details

Black Female Teachers
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-462-0

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 30 November 2022

Mohamed M. El-Dyasty and Ahmed A. Elamer

Many countries are enacting regulations or/and recommendations to promote gender equality in the workplace, especially in the top leadership and management positions…

Abstract

Purpose

Many countries are enacting regulations or/and recommendations to promote gender equality in the workplace, especially in the top leadership and management positions. However, despite current research on gender diversity and firm outcomes, the authors know comparatively little about how different female leadership roles drive such outcomes. This study explores this notion in an emerging market by examining the effect of female leadership on financial reporting quality in Egypt.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses multiple regression analyses for a sample of 1,686 firm-year observations listed on the Egyptian Stock Exchange over the period 2011–2020.

Findings

This study’s results show that female directors, female executives and females on audit committees are positively associated with financial reporting quality. Further, the results suggest that executive female directors are less involved in income decreasing earnings management practices. The findings are robust to possible omitted variables bias, alternative measurements and endogeneity issues. Taken together, the results are in line with the view that gender diversity is an effective monitoring instrument, which attenuates agency conflict and thus upholds financial reporting quality.

Research limitations/implications

Future research may expand the analysis performed in this study by using other proxies of financial reporting quality (e.g. earnings persistence, earnings predictability, conservatism and restatements). Also, the authors did not investigate the characteristics related to female directors (e.g. education, experience and age) due to data availability. Future research may examine the effect of these characteristics on female directors regarding financial reporting quality.

Practical implications

The evidence about the importance of female leadership in shaping financial reporting quality may inform future policy and regulatory initiatives.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the growing literature related to gender diversity. First, this study extensively investigates the leadership aspects related to female directors in both mentoring and executive positions. Second, the evidence reached is based on three different proxies of financial reporting quality. Thus, unlike previous studies, conclusions were reached based on a solid basis to support the reliability of the results. These findings should be of great interest to policymakers, academics and stakeholders.

Details

Journal of Applied Accounting Research, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0967-5426

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Open Access
Article
Publication date: 28 November 2022

Ileana Zeler, Cristina Fuentes-Lara and Ángeles Moreno

This paper aims to explore the position of women in the communication management sector in Spain from their own experiences. The study examines female communication and…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to explore the position of women in the communication management sector in Spain from their own experiences. The study examines female communication and leadership styles, emphasising the cost of leadership in which they are leaders or led.

Design/methodology/approach

This study used a qualitative methodology based on in-depth interviews with 22 women actively working in top companies and agencies: female communication directors, female employees with a female leader and female employees with a male leader. Data were analysed through thematic analysis.

Findings

Results show mixed communication and leadership styles. In addition, the high level of self-demand of female communication managers stands out, making it challenging to achieve a work-life balance and the implementation of successful role models.

Social implications

Exploring the factors of female leadership remains necessary to understand and make their situation in various industries and positions visible. It also helps remove barriers to leadership, guide organisations in addressing gender discrimination issues and develop mechanisms for the internal promotion of female professionals.

Originality/value

To the best of authors' knowledge, this is the first study exploring the leadership and communication styles of women in the Spanish Public Relations (PR) and communication management industries. It also highlights the aspects influencing the cost of leadership.

Details

Corporate Communications: An International Journal, vol. 27 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-3289

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Article
Publication date: 21 November 2022

Mohamed Osman Shereif Mahdi Abaker, Helen Louise Patterson and Boo Yun Cho

The purpose of this study is to report empirical research on gender managerial obstacles in UAE private organizations. It identifies the barriers that limit opportunities…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to report empirical research on gender managerial obstacles in UAE private organizations. It identifies the barriers that limit opportunities for gender equality promotion in managerial level positions.

Design/methodology/approach

Primary data were gathered from 384 female managers operating in UAE organizations using Survey Monkey and ANOVA for statistical analysis. Two variables (years of experience and industry) were used to compare the average means across the responses and the differences among the group.

Findings

The situation of gender equality in UAE management currently shows a positive trend. The females who participated in the survey have considerable work experience and jobs in a vital economic sector of the UAE industry. The earlier cultural stereotypes that worked against the interests of women in the UAE society are no longer relevant except for informal barriers and the level of cooperation among female leaders. We found differences among industry, service and transportation sectors in which gender managerial level in a private industry is dependent upon the number of years of experience for female managers.

Research limitations/implications

The limitation of the study is the online survey was affected by the COVID-19 pandemic during the lockdown period in the spring of 2020, which led to a low number of participants responding to the questionnaire. Additionally, the survey did not include a nationality question to distinguish Emiratis from non-Emirati.

Social implications

This study indicates a need to coordinate UAE female leaders' actions to protect their rights, develop formal and informal mechanisms of gender inequality realization in business and promote professional skills, orientation on social networks, and mentoring programs for female leaders. These initiatives improve the positions of female leaders.

Originality/value

The study of the UAE case adds to the existing literature on gender studies because the survey-based research in the UAE context contributes to the limited knowledge of Middle Eastern countries. The females’ employment and their representation in managerial levels remain lower compared to males. Differences exist among the industry, service and transportation sectors.

Details

Gender in Management: An International Journal , vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2413

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Article
Publication date: 6 December 2022

Mohamed Mousa

Through addressing female academics in four public universities in Egypt, the author of this paper aims to answer the question: How do female academics cope with the…

Abstract

Purpose

Through addressing female academics in four public universities in Egypt, the author of this paper aims to answer the question: How do female academics cope with the career shock resulting from the spread of COVID-19?

Design/methodology/approach

The author used a qualitative research method through semi-structured interviews with 32 female academics from four public universities selected from among 26 public institutions of higher education in Egypt. Thematic analysis was subsequently used to determine the main ideas in the transcripts.

Findings

The findings assert that the following three strategies: heroism, cronyism and temporalism are used by female academics in the Egyptian context to cope with the career shocks they feel during the time of COVID-19. The findings assert that female academics try to reassert their professionalism in their academic duties and familial obligations even after the spread of COVID-19. Moreover, they tend to use forms of cronyism behaviour to alleviate the effect of the career shock, mostly via hypocritical phrases. Furthermore, the thought that COVID-19 is a temporary stage helps female academics to actively accept their challenging new work conditions.

Originality/value

This paper contributes by filling a gap in human resources management and higher education in which empirical studies on the career shock of female academics have been limited so far.

Details

European Journal of Training and Development, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-9012

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Article
Publication date: 5 December 2022

Yalin Wang, Yaokuang Li, Juan Wu, Lihua Fu and Ruixin Liang

Emerging evidence regarding crowdfunding challenges long-standing “gender gap” views of traditional entrepreneurial financing and indicates that female entrepreneurs may…

Abstract

Purpose

Emerging evidence regarding crowdfunding challenges long-standing “gender gap” views of traditional entrepreneurial financing and indicates that female entrepreneurs may have an advantage in crowdfunding. Yet, the literature primarily focuses on influences at the individual level, largely overlooking the interaction between gender and higher-level culture. Drawing on Hofstede's cultural dimensions, this paper aims to investigate the associations among entrepreneurs' gender, culture and crowdfunding performance, particularly in how entrepreneurs' gender and culture interact to affect crowdfunding performance.

Design/methodology/approach

Leveraging a sample of 21,730 Kickstarter crowdfunding campaigns and combining these data with data from Hofstede's study, the World Bank (WB) and the International Telecommunication Union (ITU), this study applies multilevel models to empirically investigate this question across 22 countries/regions.

Findings

This study confirms that the advantageous effect, that female entrepreneurs are likely to obtain better fundraising performance over their male counterparts, does exist in crowdfunding. Furthermore, the findings reveal that this advantageous effect of female entrepreneurs on crowdfunding performance would be reinforced when cultures of individualism and indulgence are high and culture of long-term orientation is low.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the literature on gender gaps in crowdfunding and entrepreneurial financing by adding an important culture-related boundary condition to the gender preference reported in earlier crowdfunding work. Moreover, the paper extends the knowledge about the impact of culture on crowdfunding performance and enlightens future research on leveraging multilevel modeling approach to examine the complex interplay between individuals and situations in crowdfunding.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

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Article
Publication date: 21 October 2022

Madeline N. Neuberger, Richard A. Bernardi, Susan M. Bosco and Erynne E. Landry

The purpose of this study is to extend Landry et al.’s (2016) work and examines the possible association between corporations having three or more female directors and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to extend Landry et al.’s (2016) work and examines the possible association between corporations having three or more female directors and these companies being features on corporate recognition lists.

Design/methodology/approach

This study examines a sample of 335 corporations ranked as Fortune 500 corporations in the period 2013–2019. The authors test for the association between the percent of corporations that had three or more female directors and the percent of these corporations on external recognition lists.

Findings

The data indicate that the percent of corporations with three or more female directors more than doubled between 2013 and 2019; this change was accompanied by an increase in the percent of presence of these companies in corporate recognition lists. The percent of corporations that had three or more female directors was significantly associated with the percent of these corporations on external recognition lists.

Research limitations/implications

The first is the sample selection process; this study used only publicly traded corporations that were included in the Fortune 500 between 2013 through 2019. The second limitation is that this study did not include data on board members considered minorities.

Practical implications

The findings imply that there is a strong link between gender diversity on boards and being featured on corporate recognition lists, which means that firms who care about corporate social responsibility-related works, and more instrumentally, care about being on such lists should reconsider the gender balance on their boards.

Originality/value

This study extends this work for a time period in which the number of corporations with three or more female directors has significantly increased.

Details

Gender in Management: An International Journal , vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2413

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 27 October 2022

Hyondong Kim and Youngsang Kim

This study elaborates on the process through which gender-diverse boards of directors increase representation of females in management positions. This study draws on the…

Abstract

Purpose

This study elaborates on the process through which gender-diverse boards of directors increase representation of females in management positions. This study draws on the gender spillover effect to examine whether gender diversity on boards of directors significantly influences the number of women promoted to managerial positions. The authors also employ implicit quota theory to examine the interaction effects of female board directors and their related strategies to target female customers as a source of female talent on the promotion numbers of female managers.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors draw from female manager panel data surveyed and gathered by the Korean Women Development Institute (KWDI), a Korean government-sponsored research institution, for the period 2008–2014. The total sample, comprising 5 biannual waves, includes 906 Korean companies across four wage rates. The authors apply zero-inflated negative binomial regression analyses to examine the effects of gender diversity on board director positions and its interactions with strategies targeting female markets on the number of female managerial promotions.

Findings

The authors find that gender diversity on boards of directors is positively related to the number of female managers promoted. Furthermore, in corporations where gender is not relevant to firms' strategy and decision-making, broader gender diversity increases the number of female managers promoted at lower- but not higher-level positions.

Originality/value

The current study demonstrates the complex role of gender diversity in board director positions in initiating and promoting the career development of female managers. On the one hand, gender diversity in board director positions has spillover effects on women's representation in management positions. On the other hand, female board directors impede the career progress of senior female managers to maintain their status in quotas when the female market is not critical to firms' competitiveness. Therefore, it is crucial to integrate two different concepts about gender diversity—the gender spillover effect and implicit quota theory—that elaborate on the effects of gender diversity in board director positions on female manager promotion numbers.

Details

Baltic Journal of Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5265

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Article
Publication date: 24 October 2022

Yosra Mnif and Imen Cherif

The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, this study examines the relationship between the presence of a female (rather than a male) audit partner and the client firm’s…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, this study examines the relationship between the presence of a female (rather than a male) audit partner and the client firm’s accruals quality. Second, this study explores whether and how the female audit partners’ specific attributes influence the gendered auditor effect on the quality of the client firm’s accruals quality (if it exists).

Design/methodology/approach

Research hypotheses have been tested by conducting both univariate and multivariate empirical analyses based on a large sample of firm-year observations from the Swedish Corporation for the years 2010–2019. During the sample timeframe, the client firms have been audited by 56 female and 231 male audit partners.

Findings

The research findings first indicate that client firms of female audit partners are associated with downward earnings management, indicating a beneficial female auditor effect on client firm’s accruals quality. Results from the audit partner change analysis exhibit that the adverse female auditor effect on the client firm’s earnings management, and hence, the beneficial female auditor effect on the client firm’s accruals quality occurs from the first year of the assignment of a female audit partner to replace a male audit partner. When looking at how specific attributes of female audit partners influence accruals quality of their audited clients, this study reveals that the favorable female auditor effect on the client firm’s accruals quality holds constant for all the female audit partners’ specific attributes included in the researched models. This underscores that the mere presence of a female audit partner constrains earnings management and enhances, thereby, the client firm’s accruals quality.

Originality/value

This research supports regulators calling for the appointment of more women to the audit firms’ leading ranks (e.g. leadership).

Details

Meditari Accountancy Research, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2049-372X

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1 – 10 of over 74000