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Article
Publication date: 28 June 2013

Hanna Li Kusterer, Torun Lindholm and Henry Montgomery

The purpose of this paper is to examine gender‐related management stereotypes, perceived gender bias and evaluations of actual managers, and to directly compare stereotypes

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine gender‐related management stereotypes, perceived gender bias and evaluations of actual managers, and to directly compare stereotypes and ratings of actual managers.

Design/methodology/approach

Questionnaires were distributed to employees in the bank and insurance sector, and 240 participants rated their actual managers and stereotypes of male and female managers.

Findings

Men evaluated the female manager stereotype more positively on communal attributes, and the male manager stereotype more positively on agentic attributes. Women evaluated the female manager stereotype more positively on both communal and agentic attributes, but perceived a higher degree of gender bias in favor of male managers than men did. Actual male and female managers were rated similarly. Still, ratings of actual male managers corresponded more with stereotypes of male than female managers, and ratings of actual female managers corresponded more with stereotypes of female than male managers.

Research limitations/implications

Future research needs to determine the direction of association between stereotypes and evaluations of actual managers, and the relative importance of agentic over communal attributes.

Practical implications

While women appeared biased in favor of their own gender, men may underestimate the difficulties that female managers encounter. Managers and human resource practitioners should notice these different views, and recognize that gender equality is not achieved in Sweden.

Originality/value

The present study contributes with data from an egalitarian society with a positive view of female managers, and a direct comparison of stereotypes and workplace evaluations.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 28 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

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Article
Publication date: 2 November 2012

Maura J. Mills, Satoris S. Culbertson, Ann H. Huffman and Angela R. Connell

The purpose of this research is to develop and validate a new gender role stereotypes scale intended to be a short, effective, and modern measure of gender role attitudes.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this research is to develop and validate a new gender role stereotypes scale intended to be a short, effective, and modern measure of gender role attitudes.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 800 participants completed an online survey, with 546 completing a second survey one week later. Recommended scale development procedures were utilized throughout in order to design and test the proposed instrument.

Findings

Item analyses determined a final set of most effective items, while exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses provided support for the eight‐item, two‐dimensional (female stereotypes, male stereotypes) scale (Gender Role Stereotypes Scale – GRSS). Additionally, internal consistency and test‐retest reliabilities were acceptable, as was the construct‐related validity. This study also finds that gender role stereotypes are best examined as a two‐factor construct (male, female), rather than conceptualized as two poles of a unidimensional continuum.

Practical implications

The GRSS has advantages over similar measures, including that it assesses attitudes toward both men and women with only eight items, and includes items that are easily understandable, cross‐culturally appropriate, and modern. Practitioners can use the GRSS to assess potential gender role stereotypes held by management. If managers are found to have highly traditional gender role stereotypes, organizations may be able to intervene before stereotypes affect performance ratings or task assignments.

Originality/value

This paper yields an updated and sound measurement scale to replace outdated scales assessing similar constructs and/or assessing only one gender role stereotype (male or female, versus both). The GRSS allows for the parsimonious, comprehensive, and effective measurement of gender role stereotypes in research and practice alike.

Details

Gender in Management: An International Journal, vol. 27 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2413

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Article
Publication date: 25 January 2013

Prokopis K. Theodoridis, Antigone G. Kyrousi, Athina Y. Zotou and George G. Panigyrakis

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the differences in male and female attitudes and establish a causal relationship between general (a priori) attitudes towards…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the differences in male and female attitudes and establish a causal relationship between general (a priori) attitudes towards female stereotypical advertisements and attitudes towards specific advertising stimuli, providing evidence from Greece and Cyprus.

Design/methodology/approach

Male and female respondents (158 in Cyprus and 156 in Greece) indicated their general attitudes towards female stereotypes in advertising and were subsequently exposed to three stereotypical advertisements, to which they expressed their specific attitudes.

Findings

The results of the study prove that in countries with similar cultural backgrounds, such as Greece and Cyprus, general attitudes towards stereotypes in advertising do not have significant differences. General attitudes towards sex role portrayal in advertising directly impact attitudes towards specific advertisements. Further, it was demonstrated that respondents' gender plays a key role in attitude formation. The age of the respondents is also of interest, given that differences exist in general attitudes towards stereotypes in advertising and in attitudes towards specific stereotypical advertisements within respondents of the same gender, but of a different age bracket.

Originality/value

The key potential contribution of this study is threefold. First, it investigates the effect of gender and age on attitudes towards stereotypes in advertising. Second, it establishes a causal relationship between general attitudes towards stereotypical advertisements and attitudes towards specific advertising stimuli. Third, the study further validates the established relationship and the relevant measures across culturally similar countries.

Details

Corporate Communications: An International Journal, vol. 18 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-3289

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Article
Publication date: 21 September 2015

Benjamin E. Liberman and Frank D. Golom

The purpose of this paper is to extend the “think manager, think male” research paradigm by examining managerial stereotypes as a function of both gender and sexual…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to extend the “think manager, think male” research paradigm by examining managerial stereotypes as a function of both gender and sexual orientation, thus comparing the similarity of managerial stereotypes against the stereotypes of male (heterosexual and gay) and female (heterosexual and lesbian) managers.

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 163 heterosexual participants used the 92-item Descriptive Index attribute inventory to rate one of five target groups: successful managers, heterosexual male managers, heterosexual female managers, gay male managers, and lesbian female managers. Intraclass correlation coefficients were calculated to assess the degree of correspondence between ratings of the target groups.

Findings

The findings showed a higher correspondence between the descriptions of heterosexual male or female managers and the successful manager prototype than between the descriptions of gay male managers and the successful manager prototype. Additionally, results showed that the stereotypes of lesbian female managers were seen as having a moderate level of fit with the successful manager prototype.

Practical implications

The results of this study suggest that heterosexuals’ beliefs about gay male and lesbian female managers’ abilities are important. In particular, heterosexuals’ stereotypes that gay males lack the qualities of being a successful manager can limit gay men’s access to positions with managerial responsibilities and impede their progress into leadership positions.

Originality/value

This study addresses a critical gap in the management literature as it is the first empirical investigation to assess whether the “think manager, think male” phenomenon holds for managers who are members of sexual minority groups.

Details

Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, vol. 34 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7149

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 14 September 2012

Arijit Sikdar and Sumit Mitra

The extant literature on leadership in the Arab world reflects the traditional bias of leadership being a male domain. Arising out of a patriarchal social structure, men…

Abstract

Purpose

The extant literature on leadership in the Arab world reflects the traditional bias of leadership being a male domain. Arising out of a patriarchal social structure, men assume leadership in organizations while women are often confined to work at home. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the emergence of women leaders in UAE organizations by going beyond biological sex role biases to identify leadership as masculine or feminine gendered role stereotypes in organizations.

Design/methodology/approach

The data collected over two periods comprised two sets of Schein Descriptive Index (SDI) together with those of leadership intention and behaviour style; correlations thereof were computed to test hypotheses constructed from the literature.

Findings

The findings indicate that within organizations in the UAE, employee feedback highlights gender‐role stereotypes as defining leadership roles, rather than individual biological sex and their traditional family and social role. The findings reveal that in the UAE, gender stereotypes influence leadership intention and behaviour rather than individual biological sex and related traditions. Accordingly, women leaders having higher proportions of “agentic” characteristics of male gender stereotype together with lower proportions of “people orientation” of female gender stereotype, which makes successful leaders in the UAE break the proverbial “glass ceiling”. This explains the emergence of an increasing number of women leaders in the UAE.

Research limitations/implications

Generalizability of the findings is limited by non‐representation of countries with high gender egalitarianism, as well as the geographical limitation of the study to the UAE only. In the context of traditional male‐dominated organizations in the UAE, the findings on gender‐role stereotypes of leaders in these organizations cannot only help organizations take informed decisions in choosing leaders without the “glass ceiling” biases, but can go further to identify and nurture potential leaders, including women leaders, within organizations. These findings are of considerable significance to the Middle East and the Arab world in general, in the wake of the developments witnessed there.

Originality/value

The paper explains women leadership in organizations in the UAE, a part of the Arab world of the Middle East, from the perspective of gender‐role stereotypes, as opposed to traditional sex‐role biases, to bring women leaders there into the mainstream gender literature.

Details

Education, Business and Society: Contemporary Middle Eastern Issues, vol. 5 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-7983

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Article
Publication date: 23 August 2013

Bianca Bush and Adrian Furnham

The study which this paper documents aimed to test nine hypotheses through the use of content analysis of gender stereotypes within the advertising of…

Abstract

Purpose

The study which this paper documents aimed to test nine hypotheses through the use of content analysis of gender stereotypes within the advertising of educational/non‐educational children's games.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 130 UK adverts, fitting the time period of 1970‐2011, were used. Then 17 dimensions of each advertisement were coded and chi‐squared analyses were carried out. Additional comparisons were carried out examining differences in pre‐1990 and post‐1990 adverts, age and game categories.

Findings

Nine hypotheses were tested and most were supported, including: males being shown as the main characters in educational adverts compared to non‐educational adverts; gender stereotypes occurring within advertising ‐ adverts aimed at males consisted of males being the main characters, female‐orientated adverts consisted of females presenting the majority of adverts; and young males were displayed alone whereas females were either alone or supervised by another female.

Originality/value

This study is possibly the first to conduct a thorough content analysis of television advertisements for games aimed at children. It reveals the amount of stereotyping found in general advertisements aimed at adults in many western countries.

Details

Young Consumers, vol. 14 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-3616

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2006

Emília Fernandes and Carlos Cabral‐Cardoso

The purpose of this paper is to examine the social stereotypes of the male and the female manager and their implications for the persistent inequalities between men and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the social stereotypes of the male and the female manager and their implications for the persistent inequalities between men and women in the management context.

Design/methodology/approach

The study was conducted using a sample of undergraduate management students who were asked to fill in a questionnaire containing a comprehensive list of descriptors of male and female managers.

Findings

The social stereotypes of the female and the male manager appear to be relatively close and reflecting the dimensions of instrumentality and rationality associated with the work and the management contexts. The similarity is explained by the adoption of the masculine subcategory as the referent to the female manager. In contrast with what was obtained for the female manager, respondents tend to associate the male manager exclusively with the public context. Female students, in particular, seem to assume the social constraints inherent to women as a social category, while perceiving the female manager as an outstanding individual who goes beyond what is expected for her gender group.

Research limitations/implications

Future research needs to overcome thinking about gender as a dichotomy and start voicing the diversity of women and men managers as individuals.

Practical implications

The recognition and acceptance of women in management will not be achieved simply by the demographic feminisation of management. It requires questioning the symbolic meanings embedded in the management discourse and social practices that keep the masculine as the referent.

Originality/value

The findings point towards an asymmetric relationship between the meanings associated with the female and the male manager subcategories that lead to additional difficulties in the acceptance of women as managers and help to understand the inequalities that persist between men and women in management.

Details

Women in Management Review, vol. 21 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0964-9425

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 18 March 2019

Asif Hussain Samo, Sarah Wali Qazi and Wafa Mansoor Buriro

The purpose of this paper is to discover stereotypical beliefs of followers about female leadership and their possible outcomes in an organizational setting.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to discover stereotypical beliefs of followers about female leadership and their possible outcomes in an organizational setting.

Design/methodology/approach

With phenomenological methodology, this study used a qualitative approach, and credible data were gathered through semi-structured interviews from the employees of the education industry of Pakistan. Stereotypical beliefs and their outcomes were extracted through thematic analysis.

Findings

The results show that female leaders are considered less fit for leadership role, which results in a reluctance in followership, the gap in communication and ineffective performance. Followers also tend to believe that women are less fit for pressure, resulting in a lack of trust and an intergroup conflict. The third stereotype that emerged from the results is that women are considered less fit for professionalism, which culminates in personal expectations, adverse effect on tasks and miscommunications.

Research limitations/implications

This study is confined to the local context, and the results suggest that while female leaders are mild and a personal approach may have a positive effect on followers but in Pakistani society, they are considered less fit for an overall leadership role. Moreover, these stereotypes breed prejudgment and overshadow women’s identity as leaders. This paves the way forward for further exploratory inquiry of female leadership and the empirical test of these stereotypes and their outcomes.

Practical implications

This study is a standpoint for organizations, present and potential female leaders to be conscious of existing stereotypes and their dire outcomes. It can also be used in government policymaking for initiatives to mitigate these stereotypes to harvest diversity and female empowerment. The leading leadership trainers of Pakistan can also be benefited from the contextual scientific information about female leadership.

Social implications

A society like that of Pakistan, which is striving to mitigate the gender inequality gap in every walk of life, needs to scientifically know the assumptions in the minds of people regarding women. The present study serves this purpose for women in a leadership capacity in an organizational setting.

Originality/value

This study is the first of its kind in the local context and paves the way for further research in diversity in leadership.

Details

Management Research Review, vol. 42 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8269

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 10 February 2012

Lori D. Paris and Diane L. Decker

Studies indicate that a managerial pro‐male bias still exists. While managers and females have begun to view women as possessing managerial attributes, male students, on…

Abstract

Purpose

Studies indicate that a managerial pro‐male bias still exists. While managers and females have begun to view women as possessing managerial attributes, male students, on average, still tend to stereotype the managerial role using a pro‐male bias. Based on research by Heilman and by Lord and Maher, the purpose of this paper is to propose that business students, who are exposed to a curriculum that emphasizes the importance of diversity, as recommended by AACSB, will exhibit fewer gender stereotypes.

Design/methodology/approach

Using the Schein Descriptive Index, three groups of university students were surveyed to determine whether individuals exposed to formal management education experience a reduction in “men as manager” stereotypes. The hypothesis was tested using interclass correlation coefficients (r′) from two randomized‐groups analysis of variance.

Findings

The hypothesis was not supported and the findings indicate that students in the business administration program stereotyped the managerial role to a greater degree than those not enrolled in the business administration program.

Research limitations/implications

Further studies should be conducted to determine if the findings of this particular study are universal across college campuses.

Practical implications

Business schools must evaluate the methods that are being used to teach diversity in management education.

Originality/value

The authors' unique approach focuses on the sample as an important element when studying gender bias in management. Given the state of the economy and the cuts to university programs, by determining where bias occurs, diversity education in the university environment can be better utilized for optimal impact.

Details

Gender in Management: An International Journal, vol. 27 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2413

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Article
Publication date: 9 March 2012

Gary N. Powell

The purpose of this paper is to review six different ways that have been used to “see the elephant” that constitutes the intersection of sex, gender, and leadership.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to review six different ways that have been used to “see the elephant” that constitutes the intersection of sex, gender, and leadership.

Design/methodology/approach

The proportions of women in positions of power and authority, leader preferences, leader stereotypes, attitudes toward women as leaders, linkages of leadership theories to gender stereotypes, and sex differences in leader behaviour and effectiveness are reviewed.

Findings

The managerial playing field continues to be tilted in favor of men and behaviours associated with the masculine gender stereotype, a phenomenon that occurs despite what leadership theories and field evidence would suggest.

Research limitations/implications

Future research should continue to track trends in proportions, preferences, stereotypes, attitudes, behaviour, and effectiveness pertaining to the intersection of sex, gender, and leadership. Scholars should not limit themselves in the kinds of research methods they apply to this task.

Practical implications

The challenge for organisations is to take advantage of and develop the capabilities of all individuals in leader roles and then create conditions that give leaders of both sexes an equal chance to succeed. The goal should be to enhance the likelihood that all people, women and men, will be effective in leader roles.

Social implications

Leader behaviour should have no gender.

Originality/value

This review encourages scholars to share what they have learned from their own ways of seeing, in this journal and elsewhere, and to listen carefully to what other scholars have to share.

Details

Gender in Management: An International Journal, vol. 27 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2413

Keywords

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