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Book part
Publication date: 23 November 2020

Tekalign Gutu Sakketa and Nicolas Gerber

Within the framework of potential efforts and strategies to employment generation for young people in Africa in general and Ethiopia in particular, the agricultural sector…

Abstract

Within the framework of potential efforts and strategies to employment generation for young people in Africa in general and Ethiopia in particular, the agricultural sector is increasingly considered as an important sector and a valuable means for poverty reduction, the promotion of economic development, and youth's economic independence. Renewed hope is placed on the sector to offer sustainable livelihood prospects for the rural youth. Yet, the success and sustainability of the sector require a proper understanding of how households allocate youth labor time in the sector and whether agricultural labor supply is responsive to economic incentives such as shadow wages. Using gender- and age-specific plot-level panel data, we systematically analyze the impacts of shadow wages of each household member on youth agricultural labor supply across types of farms. The results indicate that agricultural shadow wages matter for the youth's labor supply in the sector, but the impact differs for male and female youth. We also show that trends and patterns of youth labor supply vary across gender and whether they work on their own farm, and so do their labor returns. The results are consistent after controlling for individual heterogeneity and instrumenting for possible endogeneity. Taking into account the intensity of youth's actual involvement in the family farm, own farm or off-farm work instead of their stated intentions, the results challenge the presumption that youth are abandoning agriculture, at least in agricultural potential areas of Ethiopia. Instead, the frequent narrative of youth disengaging from agriculture may be a result of methodological flaws or data limitations. The findings suggest that it is necessary to invest in agricultural development to enhance labor productivity and employability of young people in agriculture.

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Change at Home, in the Labor Market, and On the Job
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-933-5

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Article
Publication date: 13 June 2016

Emma Alleyne and Elizabeth Pritchard

Research has demonstrated that girls are involved in gangs as members and affiliates. However, the psychological processes related to female gang membership has, to date…

Abstract

Purpose

Research has demonstrated that girls are involved in gangs as members and affiliates. However, the psychological processes related to female gang membership has, to date, not been examined using a rigorous comparative design. The purpose of this paper is to assess whether female gang members exhibit distinct psychological and behavioral features when compared to female non-gang youth.

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 117 female students were recruited from all-girls’ secondary schools in London, UK. Gang members (n=22; identified using the Eurogang definition) were compared to non-gang youth (n=95) on self-report measures of criminal activity, sexual activity, self-esteem, anti-authority attitudes, their perceived importance of social status, and hypermasculinity, using a series of MANCOVAs.

Findings

The results found that gang members reported significantly more criminal activity, sexual activity, unwanted sexual contact, and held more anti-authority attitudes when compared to their non-gang counterparts.

Practical implications

These findings support Pyrooz et al.’s (2014) findings that gang membership contributes to the theoretical conceptualization of the victim-offender overlap. Practitioners need to take this into consideration when working with female gang members.

Originality/value

There is very little research that explicitly examines the characteristics of female gang members with suitable comparison groups. This study adds to the growing literature on female involvement in gangs and highlights the distinct psychological and behavioral characteristics of this group. In summary, these findings support the notion that female gang members are both at risk of being sexually exploited and engaging in criminal activities.

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Journal of Criminological Research, Policy and Practice, vol. 2 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-3841

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Book part
Publication date: 14 February 2022

Rosa Nelly Trevinyo-Rodríguez and Miguel Ángel Gallo

How do families-in-business deal with intergenerational female succession in their company’s corporate governance structures, i.e., the board of directors? How is female

Abstract

How do families-in-business deal with intergenerational female succession in their company’s corporate governance structures, i.e., the board of directors? How is female boardroom capital built up? This chapter explores the boardroom immersion processes and mentorship programs followed by 44 Mexican and Spanish next-gen women owners of 2nd, 3rd, and 4th generation, privately-owned, national and international firms, who were appointed for the first time to their family business’ board of directors between 2005 and 2020.

Our outcomes show that intergenerational female corporate governance succession is driven more by particular families-in-business matters, like the inheritance of ownership rights, than by corporate governance codes or soft legislation. We discovered that next-generation women owners are more likely to be appointed for the first time to their family business boardroom when they’re between ages of 38 and 47. Ninety percent (90%) of them will be appointed at or before 57. Our findings also reveal that 4th generation female owners are immersed in the boardroom at a younger age.

When analyzing the immersion processes, we noticed too that due to limited business socialization during their upbringing, some of these well-­educated, professionally qualified females had to cope with holding legal ownership (potestas) in the family firm but missing business decision-making legitimacy (auctoritas) in the governance structure. Based on our results, we developed a families-in-business female boardroom capital development framework to help them achieve both: potestas and auctoritas, as well as to facilitate next-generation women owners’ boardroom incorporation in family enterprises.

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Book part
Publication date: 14 November 2003

Cathryn Johnson

In this paper, I show how a consideration of legitimacy processes is of theoretical use in addressing two current issues in status research. First, I investigate under…

Abstract

In this paper, I show how a consideration of legitimacy processes is of theoretical use in addressing two current issues in status research. First, I investigate under what conditions the contrast between the sex composition of a work group and the sex composition of an organization’s authority structure may trigger the salience of gender status in task groups. I argue that this contrast will make gender status salient when an evaluation from an authority figure outside the group creates inconsistency and uncertainty in the current status structure within the group. Delegitimation of a superior is one such process that produces this inconsistency and uncertainty. Second, I examine under what conditions status position compared to identity will more likely stimulate behavior among work group members. I argue that the legitimation of the superior and the group’s status order reduce the likelihood that group members will pursue status inconsistent, identity behaviors. Delegitimation, however, increases opportunities for acting in identity consistent ways and reduces the costs for doing so, thus enhancing the likelihood of identity-based behaviors.

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Power and Status
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-030-2

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Article
Publication date: 5 October 2015

Thoranna Jonsdottir, Val Singh, Siri Terjesen and Susan Vinnicombe

The purpose of this paper is to examine how directors’ roles and social identities are shaped by gender and board life stage, using pre- and post-crisis Iceland as the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine how directors’ roles and social identities are shaped by gender and board life stage, using pre- and post-crisis Iceland as the setting. Recent theoretical work suggests the importance of directors’ monitoring and resource provision roles at certain board life stages; however, there is limited empirical evidence of directors’ identification with these roles as well as social role identification as a member of the board.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors contribute empirical evidence from interviews with 23 corporate directors in Iceland on individual identification with the director role of monitoring and resource provision, relational identification with the CEO role and social identification as a member of the board.

Findings

Prior to the crisis, male directors identified more strongly with resource provision and with their social roles and less strongly with monitoring roles. Compared to their male counterparts, pre-crisis female directors identified more strongly with monitoring and did not identify with their social roles. After the crisis, mature boards’ male director role identities were little changed; male directors continued to identify with resource provision and social identification, rather than monitoring, roles. Compared to pre-crisis, post-crisis female directors described greater identity with their resource provision roles and reported that male directors resented their attempts to fulfill their monitoring roles. In post-crisis, newly formed diverse boards, male and female directors reported very similar role identities which reflected balanced monitoring and resource provision roles, for example providing the board with ethical individual identities and unblemished reputations. The findings of this paper indicate that board composition and life cycle stage might have more impact on director identity than a pre- or post-crisis setting. These findings suggest implications for theory, practice and future research.

Originality/value

This paper provides further empirical evidence of the roles male and female directors identify with on corporate boards. Its originality lies in the context of the board work in terms of newly formed and mature boards, before and after the financial crisis, with differing gender composition (male-dominated and gender-balanced boards).

Details

Gender in Management: An International Journal, vol. 30 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2413

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Article
Publication date: 5 October 2015

Maretno Agus Harjoto, Indrarini Laksmana and Robert Lee

– The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of gender and ethnicity of CEO and audit committee members (directors) on audit fees and audit delay in the US firms.

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of gender and ethnicity of CEO and audit committee members (directors) on audit fees and audit delay in the US firms.

Design/methodology/approach

Audit-related corporate governance literature has extensively examined the determinants of audit fees and audit delay by focusing on board characteristics, specifically board independence, diligence and expertise. The authors provide empirical evidence that gender and ethnicity diversity in corporate leadership and boardrooms influence a firm’s audit fees and audit delay.

Findings

This study finds that firms with female and ethnic minority CEOs pay significantly higher audit fees than those with male Caucasian CEOs. The authors also find that firms with a higher percentage of ethnic minority directors on their audit committee pay significantly higher audit fees. Further, the authors find that firms with female CEOs have shorter audit delay than firms with male CEOs and firms with a higher percentage of female and ethnic minority directors on their audit committee are associated with shorter audit delay. Results indicate that female CEOs and both female and ethnic minority directors are sensitive to the market pressure to avoid audit delay.

Research limitations/implications

The results suggest that gender and ethnic diversity could improve audit quality and the firms’ overall financial reporting quality.

Practical implications

This study provides insights to regulators and policy-makers interested in increasing diversity within a firm’s board and top executives. Recently, the US Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) and the European Commission have been pressing publicly traded companies to improve diversity among their directors. This study provides evidence and perspective on how diversity can enhance financial reporting quality measured by audit fees and audit delay.

Originality/value

Previous studies have not given much attention on the impact of racial ethnicity in addition to gender characteristics of top executives and audit committee directors on audit fees and audit delay.

Details

Managerial Auditing Journal, vol. 30 no. 8/9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-6902

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Article
Publication date: 6 April 2012

Isabel Metz and Anne‐Wil Harzing

This study aims to update knowledge of women's representation on the boards of scholarly management journals with a longitudinal analysis of the same over two decades.

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Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to update knowledge of women's representation on the boards of scholarly management journals with a longitudinal analysis of the same over two decades.

Design/methodology/approach

This study extends the work of Metz and Harzing on women's representation in the editorial boards of 57 management journals from 1989 to 2004 by focusing on the development of gender diversity in editorial board membership over time. The authors first add another time period (2005‐2009) to Metz and Harzing's data. They then add empirical richness by conducting a more fine‐grained analysis of women's representation at the various editorial board levels over time. In addition, this study analyses the development of female editorial board memberships over time for five management fields, journals of four different ranks, and two geographic regions. As a result, this study examines women's representation in the editorial boards of 57 management journals over a period of 20 years (from 1989 to 2009).

Findings

The results showed an overall increase in women's representation in the editorial boards of these 57 management journals (at Board Member, Associate Editor and Editor in Chief levels) in the last five years (2004‐2009) to 22.4 per cent. Despite several positive trends identified in this follow‐up study, women's representation as editorial board members continues to be inconsistent across five management fields, across four journal rankings and across two geographic regions.

Practical implications

This study's findings clearly indicate that there is still much that can be done to narrow the gender imbalance in most editorial boards of management journals. Monitoring women's representation in editorial boards of management journals is only one of the steps needed for successful change to occur.

Social implications

This study's findings matter for our society because editorial board membership is a sign of one's scholarly recognition and valued in academic promotion processes. It is important, therefore, that this promotion criterion be evaluated in the context of up‐to‐date knowledge of the representation of women in editorial boards of management journals, otherwise its impact on women's promotion could exacerbate an already discriminatory system of academic scholarship.

Originality/value

It is important to monitor women's (under)representation on the boards of scholarly management journals regularly to raise awareness that might lead to or sustain positive change. This follow‐up study serves that purpose in the field of management, a largely neglected field until recently.

Details

Personnel Review, vol. 41 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

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Article
Publication date: 17 November 2021

Zeshan Ghafoor, Irfan Ahmed and Arshad Hassan

This study aims to examine the impact of audit committee (AC) characteristics and enterprise risk management (ERM) on stock price synchronicity (SYNCH).

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the impact of audit committee (AC) characteristics and enterprise risk management (ERM) on stock price synchronicity (SYNCH).

Design/methodology/approach

Based on a sample of 437 US-based firms over the period 2010 to 2017, the current study uses fixed-effect and ordinary least square to test the formulated hypotheses. Majority of the sample firms are based on the S&P 500 index. This study also performs a battery of robustness checks.

Findings

The authors find that overall female members and female financial experts and female chairpersons of the AC are negatively associated with SYNCH. Similarly, the study endorses the monitoring role of financial experts and the diligence of the AC (threshold of four annual meetings), as both are negatively associated with SYNCH. However, the authors find that the AC chaired by the financial expert is also negative but insignificantly associated with SYNCH. Finally, the study finds that ERM is also negatively linked with SYNCH.

Practical implications

The findings of the current study offer some important policy implications. For instance, the shareholders can benefit from the monitoring abilities of women and financial experts by increasing their ratio in the AC. The study also offers some useful insights regarding the financial experts and chair of the AC and ERM.

Originality/value

The current study examines the association of AC characteristics with SYNCH, while the prior literature only assesses the impact of various board characteristics (such as size, independence and gender diversity). The study also contributes to the literature of ERM by providing new insights on the influence of the presence of ERM framework/program on SYNCH.

Details

Managerial Auditing Journal, vol. 37 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-6902

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Book part
Publication date: 6 August 2020

Kate Sylvester and Brent McDonald

Purpose – This chapter illustrates how female university kendo club members participate in kendo-related hegemonic drinking in formal (heterosocial) and informal…

Abstract

Purpose – This chapter illustrates how female university kendo club members participate in kendo-related hegemonic drinking in formal (heterosocial) and informal (homosocial) club settings. An alternative perspective on gender relations and identity politics in Japan is outlined in this chapter by describing the significance of hegemonic drinking for female kendo club members within homosocial spaces.

Methodology – As a participant-observer, an ethnographic method was applied for an 18-month period as a quasi-member of a Japanese Sports University Kendo Club. Key to accessing the female members' lived experience was the primary author's participation in daily training and the consumption of alcohol in various kendo spaces. The data discussed in this chapter were collected via semi-structured interviews, daily self-reflexive descriptive field notes and ethnographic interviews.

Findings – Hegemonic drinking practices in heterosocial university kendo club spaces encompass networking opportunity, transference of knowledge, and fortitude building, all of which are systemized to support the advancement of male members. Although female members are relatively obscured in heterosocial spaces, women mimic and engage in hegemonic drinking practices in homosocial settings to substantiate meaning to their membership.

Research limitations/implication – Research that engages with the intersection of sport and gender needs to consider aspects of social interaction not only of the physical component of the sport but also the other day-to-day activities related to it. The examination of women and kendo-related hegemonic drinking in this chapter provides an insightful perspective and highlights the value of the ethnographic method in unexplored places of enquiry integral to researching physical cultures and body politics in Japan.

Details

Sport, Alcohol and Social Inquiry
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-842-0

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Article
Publication date: 28 March 2013

Chin‐Chung Chao and Dexin Tian

The present study aims at contributing to the knowledge of organizational communication and cross‐cultural female leadership by examining conflict management strategies…

Abstract

Purpose

The present study aims at contributing to the knowledge of organizational communication and cross‐cultural female leadership by examining conflict management strategies between Taiwanese female presidents and their American counterparts in Rotary Clubs.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected through field observations and 25 in‐depth interviews with 14 Taiwanese female presidents and 11 American female presidents in Rotary Clubs. Theme analysis of the interpretive method was used in this research.

Findings

This study revealed that the female presidents in both cultures applied obliging and integrating strategies to handle management conflicts. Yet, due to the interference of past presidents, the Taiwanese women leaders are more likely to follow the traditional norms whereas women leaders in the United States tend to employ new approaches and adopt new conflict management strategies in different situations.

Research limitations/implications

This study has focused on exploring the conflict management strategies of only the female presidents in the Rotary Clubs in Taiwan and the USA rather than male presidents. There may be differences in conflict management between genders.

Practical implications

The application of conflict management strategies may be determined by the factors of face, in‐group relationships, and roles of the invited third party for Taiwanese subjects whereas American subjects usually adopt appropriate strategies according to the nature of the conflicts. That is, the Taiwanese female leaders would endeavor to keep relationships positive or/and keep positive relationships with their members while the American female leaders would strive do things right or/and do the right things for their conflict strategy application.

Originality/value

As the first study of its kind, this study fills a research gap by expanding female conflict management studies to cross‐cultural contexts, thus contributing to the body of human knowledge of cross‐cultural leadership in non‐profit organizations.

Details

Chinese Management Studies, vol. 7 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-614X

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