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Book part
Publication date: 23 November 2020

Tekalign Gutu Sakketa and Nicolas Gerber

Within the framework of potential efforts and strategies to employment generation for young people in Africa in general and Ethiopia in particular, the agricultural sector…

Abstract

Within the framework of potential efforts and strategies to employment generation for young people in Africa in general and Ethiopia in particular, the agricultural sector is increasingly considered as an important sector and a valuable means for poverty reduction, the promotion of economic development, and youth's economic independence. Renewed hope is placed on the sector to offer sustainable livelihood prospects for the rural youth. Yet, the success and sustainability of the sector require a proper understanding of how households allocate youth labor time in the sector and whether agricultural labor supply is responsive to economic incentives such as shadow wages. Using gender- and age-specific plot-level panel data, we systematically analyze the impacts of shadow wages of each household member on youth agricultural labor supply across types of farms. The results indicate that agricultural shadow wages matter for the youth's labor supply in the sector, but the impact differs for male and female youth. We also show that trends and patterns of youth labor supply vary across gender and whether they work on their own farm, and so do their labor returns. The results are consistent after controlling for individual heterogeneity and instrumenting for possible endogeneity. Taking into account the intensity of youth's actual involvement in the family farm, own farm or off-farm work instead of their stated intentions, the results challenge the presumption that youth are abandoning agriculture, at least in agricultural potential areas of Ethiopia. Instead, the frequent narrative of youth disengaging from agriculture may be a result of methodological flaws or data limitations. The findings suggest that it is necessary to invest in agricultural development to enhance labor productivity and employability of young people in agriculture.

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Change at Home, in the Labor Market, and On the Job
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-933-5

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Book part
Publication date: 23 November 2020

Judith Liu

This chapter estimates the impact of a transitory reduction in hours during physicians' early career on their long-term labor supply, using the work-hour regulations on…

Abstract

This chapter estimates the impact of a transitory reduction in hours during physicians' early career on their long-term labor supply, using the work-hour regulations on medical residents as the source of exogenous variation. The results show that exposure to the regulations significantly decreases practicing physicians' labor supply by about 4 hours per week on average, with female physicians being more responsive to a given reduction in early career hours. Distributional results using a changes-in-changes model confirm that the regulations primarily affect the upper end of the work-hour distribution. To reveal potential mechanisms of these effects, this study finds that the reform increases the probabilities of marriage and having a child, as well as the total number of children, for female physicians. In contrast, it does not have a significant impact on marriage and fertility outcomes for male physicians. These findings provide a better understanding of physicians' hours of work in response to the reform over time and the role of gender with respect to labor supply behavior and family formation decisions.

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Change at Home, in the Labor Market, and On the Job
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-933-5

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1990

Eileen Drew

The subject of part‐time work is one which has become increasingly important in industrialised economies where it accounts for a substantial and growing proportion of…

Abstract

The subject of part‐time work is one which has become increasingly important in industrialised economies where it accounts for a substantial and growing proportion of total employment. It is estimated that in 1970, average annual hours worked per employee amounted to only 60% of those for 1870. Two major factors are attributed to explaining the underlying trend towards a reduction in working time: (a) the increase in the number of voluntary part‐time employees and (b) the decrease in average annual number of days worked per employee (Kok and de Neubourg, 1986). The authors noted that the growth rate of part‐time employment in many countries was greater than the corresponding rate of growth in full‐time employment.

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Equal Opportunities International, vol. 9 no. 3/4/5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0261-0159

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Article
Publication date: 8 July 2020

Lixin Cai

The purpose of this study is to enhance understanding labour supply dynamics of the UK workers by examining whether and to what extent there is state dependence in the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to enhance understanding labour supply dynamics of the UK workers by examining whether and to what extent there is state dependence in the labour supply at both the extensive and intensive margins.

Design/methodology/approach

A dynamic two-tiered Tobit model is applied to the first seven waves of Understanding Society: the UK Household Longitudinal Study. The model used accounts for observed and unobserved individual heterogeneity and serially correlated transitory shocks to labour supply to draw inferences on state dependence.

Findings

The results show that both observed and unobserved individual heterogeneity contributes to observed inter-temporal persistence of the labour supply of the UK workers, and the persistence remains after these factors are controlled for, suggesting true state dependence at both the extensive and intensive margins of the labour supply. The study also finds that at both the margins, the state dependence of labour supply is larger for females than for males and that for both genders the state dependence is larger for people with low education, mature aged workers and people with long-standing illness or impairment. The results also show that estimates from a conventional Tobit model may produce misleading inferences regarding labour supply at the extensive and intensive margins.

Originality/value

This study adds to the international literature on labour supply dynamics by providing empirical evidence for both the extensive and intensive margins of labour supply, while previous studies tend to focus on the extensive margin of labour force participation only. Also, unlike earlier studies that often focus on females, this study compares labour supply dynamics between males and females. The study also compares the estimates from the more flexible two-tiered Tobit model with that from the conventional Tobit model.

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International Journal of Manpower, vol. 42 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

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Article
Publication date: 9 April 2018

Ujjaini Mukhopadhyay

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of trade liberalization on gender earning differentials and female labour force participation by considering the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of trade liberalization on gender earning differentials and female labour force participation by considering the interaction between changes in relative wages, intra-household bargaining power and social norms.

Design/methodology/approach

A three-sector general equilibrium model is developed where female labour supply is determined as a collective household decision and depends on male and female wages and intra-household power distribution. On the other hand, the effect of power distribution on female labour supply depends on social norms.

Findings

Comparative static analysis shows that a tariff cut may reduce female labour force participation and widen gender earning inequality if (i) the agricultural sector is more male labour-intensive than the informal sector, and the marginal utility of the woman from household work is higher than that of the man or (ii) the agricultural sector is more female labour-intensive than the informal sector, and the marginal utility of the woman’s household work is higher to the man than the woman. Policies to raise the empowerment of women might lead to favourable labour market outcomes for women if the marginal utility of the woman’s household work is higher to the man than the woman irrespective of the factor intensity condition.

Research limitations/implications

The results signify that the effect of trade liberalization hinges on both factor intensity conditions and the relative work preferences of women vis-à-vis men, which in turn is shaped by social norms.

Originality/value

The paper contributes to the scant theoretical literature on labour market consequences of trade liberalization by considering the gender equality implications of trade liberalization from a supply side perspective. The results of the model are used to explain the recent gendered labour market consequences in India in the aftermath of trade liberalization.

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Indian Growth and Development Review, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8254

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 1984

Kathleen Wray

A micro level study was undertaken in a local labour market (LLM) comprising one small town and two industrial villages, each within commuting distance of the town. The…

Abstract

A micro level study was undertaken in a local labour market (LLM) comprising one small town and two industrial villages, each within commuting distance of the town. The boundary of the LLM was clearly defined in that it was surrounded by open countryside free of industry. Analysis of collected data shows that commuting to any other neighbouring industrial settlement was rare, and that the LLM was characterised by relatively high female participation. The aim of the research was to identify the relationships of demand for female in‐factory manual workers and to compare these with those of twilight workers and homeworkers who performed identical work for the same employers. The major industry, that of hosiery and knitwear manufacture, was surveyed to provide a large body of information, but this article extracts only those data relevant to recruitment practices. A pre‐pilot study of a hosiery and knitwear manufacturing company in a different LLM, and a pilot study of footwear manufacturing establishments in the same LLM, revealed that the industry was likely to generate sexually segregated labour forces. Consequently, it was necessary to collect some data for men in order to put into perspective the demands for women.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 11 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Book part
Publication date: 13 December 2013

Eugene Choo and Shannon Seitz

We develop and estimate an empirical collective model with endogenous marriage formation, participation, and family labor supply. Intra-household transfers arise…

Abstract

We develop and estimate an empirical collective model with endogenous marriage formation, participation, and family labor supply. Intra-household transfers arise endogenously as the transfers that clear the marriage market. The intra-household allocation can be recovered from observations on marriage decisions. Introducing the marriage market in the collective model allows us to independently estimate transfers from labor supplies and from marriage decisions. We estimate a semiparametric version of our model using 1980, 1990, and 2000 US Census data. Estimates of the model using marriage data are much more consistent with the theoretical predictions than estimates derived from labor supply.

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Structural Econometric Models
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-052-9

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Abstract

In this paper we provide estimates of the short-run elasticity of substitution between male and female workers, using data from Italian provinces for the period 1993–2006. Our identification strategy relies on a natural experiment. In 2000, the Italian Parliament passed a law to abolish compulsory military service. The reform was implemented through a gradual reduction in the number of draftees; compulsory drafting was eventually terminated in 2004. We use data on the (planned) maximum number of draftees at the national level (as stated in the annual budgetary law), interacted with sex-ratios at births at the provincial level, as instruments for (relative) female labor supply. Our results suggest that young males and females (who are those mainly affected by the reform) are imperfect substitutes, with an implied elasticity of substitution ranging between 1.0 and 1.4. Our results have important implications for the evaluation of policies aimed at increasing female labor market participation.

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Gender Convergence in the Labor Market
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-456-6

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2003

Magda Kandil and Jeffrey G. Woods

Using unpublished time‐series data for three specific age/gender groups, we first determine the percentage of female employment to total employment for nine sectors of the…

Abstract

Using unpublished time‐series data for three specific age/gender groups, we first determine the percentage of female employment to total employment for nine sectors of the U.S. economy. Second, we estimate the cyclical change in hours of employment for each age/gender group within each sector. Third, we estimate the cyclical behavior of the nominal wage for each sectoral gender group. The paper’s evidence does not support, in general, a more cyclical response of female hours worked in the service‐producing sectors that are dominated by women. We find partial evidence that hours worked by men are more cyclical compared with hours worked by women in the male‐dominated goods‐producing sectors. Given the evidence of no pronounced difference in the cyclical behavior of hours and wages for men and women, the business cycle is gender‐neutral.That is, the elastic female labor supply is washed out over the business cycle across major sectors of the U.S. Economy. Observational evidence suggests supply‐side and structural factors in the economy have attenuated the business cycle, especially in the service‐producing sectors.

Details

Equal Opportunities International, vol. 22 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0261-0159

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1979

John Ermisch

Antecedents The development of labour supply over the next fifteen years has its roots firmly implanted in the past. This dynamic characteristic of labour supply changes…

Abstract

Antecedents The development of labour supply over the next fifteen years has its roots firmly implanted in the past. This dynamic characteristic of labour supply changes extends to labour force participation rates as well as to changes in labour supply attributable to purely demographic changes, so we shall initially examine both of these components of labour force change over the post‐war period. Changes in the size of the labour force which would occur as a result of changes in the age/sex structure of the population and the propensity of women to many if age/sex/marital status‐specific labour force participation rates were constant is denoted as demographic, and Table I shows its contribution to labour force growth in the post‐war period. The primary force behind the demographically‐induced change in the male labour supply is earlier movements in fertility, but both past fertility and contemporary marriage behaviour affect the magnitude of the demographically‐induced change in the female labour supply. In particular, up to the early 1970s the increase in the proportion of women under the age of 70 who are married restrained labour force growth because of the generally higher labour force participation rates of unmarried women; the size of this negative impact did, however, decline over time.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 17 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

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