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Book part
Publication date: 7 June 2016

Riitta Hekkala and Mari-Klara Stein

This study examines emotionologies (Stearns & Stearns, 1985), that is, attitudes that members of an inter-organizational information systems (IOIS) project hold toward…

Abstract

Purpose

This study examines emotionologies (Stearns & Stearns, 1985), that is, attitudes that members of an inter-organizational information systems (IOIS) project hold toward emotions and their appropriate expression and regulation in this project. In order to understand attitudes toward emotions and emotion regulation, we suggest the adoption of the concept of emotion structure, consisting of emotion rules and resources (Callahan, 2004).

Methodology/approach

To investigate the kinds of emotionologies present in this IOIS development project, we have chosen a qualitative case study approach. Our data consists of 41 qualitative interviews, collected in two phases.

Findings

We trace how emotion rules and corresponding emotion regulation strategies change among the sub-groups working in the project throughout their first year of collaborating. We show that organizational actors are skilled emotion managers, whose behavior is guided not only by many collective emotion rules (professional, organizational, social) but also by personal emotion rules. Our findings also suggest the need to critically reflect on certain emotion rules, such as those pertaining to the expression of fear and anger, and their potential positive and negative implications on project work.

Research implications

We argue that group emotionologies with their professional, organizational, and social emotion rules interact with personal emotion rules, resulting in interesting emotion regulation strategies that often try to minimize emotional dissonance, sometimes at the expense of risking open conflict among project members. With this in mind, one theoretical and practical suggestion is to further explore the potential constructive implications of experiencing and expressing fear in projects.

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Article
Publication date: 18 September 2019

Emilie Morwenna Whitaker

The purpose of this paper is to explore how feeling rules are constructed, experienced and contested within personalised social work practice. It considers how…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore how feeling rules are constructed, experienced and contested within personalised social work practice. It considers how organisations seek to shape practitioners towards certain forms of emotional display in increasingly market-oriented conditions. It contributes to our understanding of the place of “backstage” emotional labour in seeking to shape and direct social work practice.

Design/methodology/approach

A single immersive ethnographic case study of an English social work department was undertaken over a period of six months.

Findings

This paper reveals embedded tensions that emerge when practitioners are caught between traditional bureaucratic function, the incursions of the market and feeling rules of relatability, commitment and creativity.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to the scant literature on frontline experiences of personalisation in children’s services and the importance of “backstage” emotional labour for shaping and directing social work practice. Importantly, it considers the complexity of emotional labour within an organisational context, which is neither fully marketised, nor fully welfarised, a position many welfare organisations now find themselves in.

Details

Journal of Organizational Ethnography, vol. 8 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-6749

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Article
Publication date: 19 February 2021

Tommaso Gravante and Alice Poma

The purpose of this paper is to empirically investigate the role of emotions in the polarization that emerged during the first months of the pandemic. So, the authors will…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to empirically investigate the role of emotions in the polarization that emerged during the first months of the pandemic. So, the authors will analyze the social response of two opposing social actors: political elites that have minimized the risks of the pandemic and grassroots groups that have promoted mutual support for vulnerable people suffering from the various effects of the pandemic.

Design/methodology/approach

For the analysis, the authors will primarily refer to Hochschild's proposal and the recent literature on emotions and protest. The method is to analyze official statements by politicians from the UK, USA, Mexico, Brazil, Spain and Italy and the social responses that have emerged from different mutual support groups and solidarity networks in those countries, as well as in Chile and Argentina.

Findings

The authors will show how the conflicting responses can exacerbate social polarization in our societies. This polarization goes beyond the political spectrum, and in some cases even social classes, and reaches into the realms of values, emotions and practices. The authors will also show how the response from grassroots activism makes it possible to overcome guilt, shame and other emotions of trauma, among other things.

Originality/value

An analysis of the emotional dimension of two opposing responses to the pandemic will show how these responses have a deep impact on society, ranging from demands for values and practices that legitimize a status quo, to discussing, breaking away from or overcoming social behavior based on individualism and social determinism.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

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Book part
Publication date: 17 December 2003

Russell Cropanzano, Howard M Weiss and Steven M Elias

Display rules are formal and informal norms that regulate the expression of workplace emotion. Organizations impose display rules to meet at least three objectives: please…

Abstract

Display rules are formal and informal norms that regulate the expression of workplace emotion. Organizations impose display rules to meet at least three objectives: please customers, maintain internal harmony, and promote employee well-being. Despite these valid intentions, display rules can engender emotional labor, a potentially deleterious phenomenon. We review three mechanisms by which emotional labor can create worker alienation, burnout, stress, and low performance. Though not as widely discussed, emotional labor sometimes has propitious consequences. We discuss the potential benefits of emotional labor as well.

Details

Emotional and Physiological Processes and Positive Intervention Strategies
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-238-2

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Book part
Publication date: 29 July 2011

William J. Becker and Russell Cropanzano

Previous research on emotional labor has typically been conducted at the individual level of analysis, despite the fact that many organizations have incorporated work…

Abstract

Previous research on emotional labor has typically been conducted at the individual level of analysis, despite the fact that many organizations have incorporated work teams into their business model. The use of work teams turns emotional management into a group task on which employees work as a collective. The present chapter proposes a conceptual model that describes the antecedents and consequences of team-level emotional labor. We propose that work groups often impose positive display rules (express integrative emotion) and negative display rules (suppress differentiating emotions) on their members. Positive display rules generally trigger group-level deep acting, whereby teammates seek to change their internal feelings. Negative display rules generally trigger surface acting, whereby teammates retain their actual emotions but do not actually express differentiating feelings. These two dimensions of emotional labor, for their part, impact emotional exhaustion. Deep acting one's positive emotions lowers emotional exhaustion and surface acting increases it. We discuss the consequences of our model for workplace behavior, such as performance. We also discuss how the relationships involving emotional labor change when one considers these constructs at the group-level of analysis.

Details

What Have We Learned? Ten Years On
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-208-1

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Article
Publication date: 4 November 2014

Ola Strandler, Thomas Johansson, Gina Wisker and Silwa Claesson

The aim of this article was to focus on how supervisors relate to and handle the emotional work involved in the supervision process. These emotional issues are related to…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this article was to focus on how supervisors relate to and handle the emotional work involved in the supervision process. These emotional issues are related to changes in the academic system, such as an increasing emphasis on efficacy and quality assurance.

Design/methodology/approach

Interviews with supervisors are discussed using a theoretical framework built on the concepts of emotional boundary work and feeling rules. A narrative approach was used to make connections between individual stories and the institutional level of the academic system.

Findings

The findings show how emotions challenge and condition supervision, and how the micro-processes of supervision and the wider university systems are tightly connected. A paradox is illuminated where emotional aspects are both recognized as an important feature of supervision and as a threat, which could affect it in the context of regulation and increasing demands on efficiency.

Practical implications

The findings suggest that a mediating role of supervisors and emotional boundary work needs to be considered in supervision, which demands certain amount of flexibility in regulations. Also, the risks of associating supervision with private issues are acknowledged.

Originality/value

The findings suggest that supervision is a highly emotional process, and that supervisors, on the one hand, tend to downplay the emotional side of this process, but on the other hand, are well aware of the complexity of the supervision process and its demands on them. Although supervisor–student interactions have become more regulated, they also include more attention to human interactions, feelings and emotional boundary work.

Details

International Journal for Researcher Development, vol. 5 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2048-8696

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Article
Publication date: 10 August 2015

Gerhard Fink and Maurice Yolles

While emotions and feelings arise in the singular personality, they may also develop a normative dimensionality in a plural agency. The authors identify the cybernetic…

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Abstract

Purpose

While emotions and feelings arise in the singular personality, they may also develop a normative dimensionality in a plural agency. The authors identify the cybernetic systemic principles of how emotions might be normatively regulated and affect plural agency performance. The purpose of this paper is to develop a generic cultural socio-cognitive trait theory of plural affective agency (the emotional organization), involving interactive cognitive and affective traits, and these play a role within the contexts of Mergers and Acquisitions (M & A).

Design/methodology/approach

The authors integrate James Gross’ model of emotion regulation with the earlier work on normative personality in the context of Mindset Agency Theory. The agency is a socio-cognitive entity with attitude, and operates through traits that control thinking and decision making. These traits are epistemically independent and operate on a bipolar scale; with the alternate poles having an auxiliary function to each other – where the traits may take intermediary “balanced” states between the poles.

Findings

Processes of affect regulation are supposed to go through three stages: first, identification (affective situation awareness); second, elaboration of affect is constituted through schemas of emotional feeling, which include emotion ideologies generating emotional responses to distinct contextual situations; third, execution: in the operative system primary emotions are assessed through operative intelligence for any adaptive information and the capacity to organize action; and turned into action, i.e. responses, through cultural feeling rules and socio-cultural display rules, conforming to emotion ideologies.

Research limitations/implications

This new theory provides guidance for framing multilevel interaction where smaller collectives (as social systems) are embedded into larger social systems with a culture, an emotional climate and institutions. Thus, it is providing a generic theoretical frame for M & A analyses, where a smaller social unit (the acquired) is to be integrated into a larger social unit (the acquirer).

Practical implications

Understanding interdependencies between cognition and emotion regulation is a prerequisite of managerial intelligence, which is at demand during M & A processes. While managerial intelligence may be grossly defined as the capacity of management to find an appropriate and fruitful balance between action and learning orientation of an organization, its affective equivalent is the capacity of management to find a fruitful balance between established emotion expression and learning alternate forms of emotion expression.

Social implications

Understanding interdependencies between cognition and emotion is a prerequisite of social, cultural and emotional intelligence. The provided theory can be easily linked with empirical work on the emergence of a cultural climate of fear within societies. Thus, “Affective Agency Theory” also has a bearing for political systems’ analysis, what, however, is beyond the scope of this paper.

Originality/value

The paper builds on the recently developed Mindset Agency Theory, elaborating it through the introduction of the dimension of affect, where cognitive and affective traits interact and become responsible for patterns of behaviour. The model is providing a framework which links emotion expression and emotion regulation with cognitive analysis.

Details

Journal of Organizational Change Management, vol. 28 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0953-4814

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Book part
Publication date: 8 August 2017

Miriam L. Matteson

This chapter provides background information on the human emotions process, differentiating between processes that are spontaneous and automatic and those that can be…

Abstract

This chapter provides background information on the human emotions process, differentiating between processes that are spontaneous and automatic and those that can be regulated with intentional effort. The chapter then also highlights two constructs, emotional labor and emotional intelligence, that naturally derive from the emotion process and are prevalent in the workplace. These two constructs are important to understand from a theoretical and empirical perspective to identify and manage them most effectively in library work settings. The chapter is a general review of some key concepts citing seminal and exemplar literature from the fields of organizational behavior, psychology, and library and information science to support and illustrate the ideas presented. The value of the chapter is first as an orientation to the science behind emotions. To more fully understand how and why emotion is such a force in the workplace, it is necessary to understand the emotion process. Further, the chapter adds practical value by presenting the constructs of emotional labor and emotional intelligence and including suggestions for how employees and managers can most effectively harness the power of emotions in ways that are most productive for individual employees as well as to achieve organizational goals.

Details

Emotion in the Library Workplace
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-083-9

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Abstract

Details

Emotional Self-Management in Academia
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78973-512-3

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Book part
Publication date: 30 December 2004

Alicia A. Grandey and Glenda M. Fisk

The link between emotion display rules and job strain has been well established. This chapter draws upon the organizational justice literature to propose a new individual…

Abstract

The link between emotion display rules and job strain has been well established. This chapter draws upon the organizational justice literature to propose a new individual difference, service emotion rule fairness (SERF), to predict job strain for service workers. We propose that when service workers believe that organizational control of emotional displays is unfair they have poor fit with the job and increased strain. In fact, in the survey and experimental studies presented here, SERF uniquely predicted turnover intentions and emotional exhaustion beyond individual and group characteristics. SERF was rated higher when displays to customers are perceived as a means to gain financial rewards or form relationships with others, supporting a self-interest model of fairness, whereas the extent that display rules made one feel controlled, SERF was lower. We also found evidence that those with more social and organizational power perceived that the requirements were fairer. Practical and research implications are discussed.

Details

Exploring Interpersonal Dynamics
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-153-8

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