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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1983

P.N. RASTOGI

This paper describes the interrelated nature of explanation, prediction and problem‐solving in social systems. Cybernetic analysis of social phenomena provides a unifying…

Abstract

This paper describes the interrelated nature of explanation, prediction and problem‐solving in social systems. Cybernetic analysis of social phenomena provides a unifying framework in this context. The analytic framework is briefly considered with reference to the problem of ethnic tensions in national societies. The first part of the paper discusses the conceptual apparatus of analysis and develops an integrated multi‐feedback loop model of the complex social phenomenon of ethnic tensions.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. 12 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

Article
Publication date: 1 May 1989

Janna Woiceshyn

Based on a comparative case study of nine firms in the Canadian graphic arts industry in 1964–86, this paper suggests that managerial conduct plays a significant role in…

Abstract

Based on a comparative case study of nine firms in the Canadian graphic arts industry in 1964–86, this paper suggests that managerial conduct plays a significant role in technological change. There were clear differences in managerial conduct between technological leaders and followers, and managerial conduct was influenced by firm performance, managerial capacities and attitudes and contextual conditions. These four elements, managerial conduct, firm performance, managerial capacities and attitudes, and contextual conditions, constituted feedback cycles of technological change. Firm performance induced managerial conduct that was influenced by managerial capacities and attitudes and by contextual conditions and led to technological change, depending on the intensity and extent of conduct, and technological change further affected firm performance. The paper focuses on managerial work processes as they cause differences in technological change in technological leaders and followers, but other elements of the feedback cycles are considered as well. Technological change has increased productivity growth and standard of living, but technological development also “destroys the economic viability of certain industries, firms, and jobs, as it creates new ones” (Nelson, 1981: 1054). This kind of impact has created a need to predict and control technological change, and thereby to understand the phenomenon better. Despite the fact that technological change takes place in firms (Moss, 1981: 51–53), most of the economics research explains technological development at the aggregate level (see Kamien & Schwartz, 1982 for a review), and the majority of the so called innovation studies concentrate on individual adoption behaviour (see Rogers, 1983 for a review). However, in order to understand the process of technological change, we must go inside the firms where the change takes place. A useful starting point seems to be a comparison between firms that are technological leaders and followers (Schumpeter, 1934; Porter, 1983). This would increase understanding of the factors facilitating and preventing technological change. Technology can be defined as the tangible production process of converting inputs to outputs (Shen, 1981), and it is often embodied in physical capital (Nelson, 1981). Changes in production processes via production equipment are the main concern here. The central question of this paper is: Why do some firms become technological leaders while others are followers? And more specifically: How does managerial conduct differ between technological leaders and followers? The answers were sought through a comparative case study of Canadian graphic arts firms. The results indicate that the crucial factor determining leadership and followership was managerial conduct, shaped by firm performance and by the context of the firm. The role of managerial conduct in technological leadership and followership is focused on in this report.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 9 no. 5/6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

Article
Publication date: 19 February 2020

Yu-Ting L.V., Yong Li, De-Xing Yang, Zhenhua Bai, Jinlong Li and Rui Wang

Continuous annealing (CA) units usually lack a physical shapemeter; consequently, real-time display and closed-loop control of the strip shape are impossible to achieve.

Abstract

Purpose

Continuous annealing (CA) units usually lack a physical shapemeter; consequently, real-time display and closed-loop control of the strip shape are impossible to achieve.

Design/methodology/approach

A shape model for the CA process is established in this study. Specifically, a virtual shapemeter and closed-loop control system based on the advanced parameter acquisition system and information transmission of CA units are developed in C++ programming language. This system realises real-time dynamic shape display, closed-loop control and shape prediction by collecting raw data of steel coils and parameters during CA.

Findings

Field test results show that the shape predicted by the virtual shapemeter coincides with the measured shape by over 90 per cent, which fully meets the precision requirement of industrial applications.

Originality/value

Moreover, shape quality is effectively improved without increasing hardware investments.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 37 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 13 July 2021

Murray Lane and Deanna Meth

Feedback is usually given for the primary benefit of the feedback recipient and often involves the unidirectional delivery of information. The purpose of this paper is to…

Abstract

Purpose

Feedback is usually given for the primary benefit of the feedback recipient and often involves the unidirectional delivery of information. The purpose of this paper is to reverse this emphasis and examines the impacts on students of giving feedback to staff as an ongoing dialogue in the delivery of a teaching unit.

Design/methodology/approach

This novel study uses surveys and focus groups for an in-depth case study of the impact of students giving feedback to staff. It examines different aspects of students’ experiences related to their sense of being supported and valued, together with issues of relevance, timeliness and the actionability of feedback.

Findings

Results show that the regular giving of feedback by students and their subsequent academic actions can help increase students’ sense of being supported and valued. The strongest correlations occurred between the responses of those who felt valued and supported and their perception that their own feedback was acted upon during the semester. There is also some evidence suggesting that students felt valued when observing that other students’ feedback was acted upon either immediately or in the future.

Research limitations/implications

The single case study approach to this research means that only one cohort of students was tested. Research on further cohorts would help to validate the findings.

Practical implications

This study could have implications for teaching quality and practice in better directing, communicating, engaging and following up on student feedback.

Originality/value

Whilst the benefit to the staff of student feedback is well documented, there is little evidence documenting benefits to students. This study addresses this gap in existing research.

Details

Quality Assurance in Education, vol. 29 no. 2/3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0968-4883

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 January 1988

P.N. Rastogi

Inferences concerning analysis, explanation, prediction, problem‐solving, policy formulation and decision‐making are systematically derived by means of a social cybernetic…

Abstract

Inferences concerning analysis, explanation, prediction, problem‐solving, policy formulation and decision‐making are systematically derived by means of a social cybernetic methodology. The basis of the methodology lies in the construction of a multi‐feedback loop model of the social phenomenon/situation investigated. Salient variables of the system are then identified as those located at the intersection of several feedback cycles. They represent analogs of Ashby's “essential variables”. Their measurement in terms of a scale of “regulatedness” or viability (λ), permits an estimation of time‐varying states of the system's “health” and defines the specific goals of a problem solution. The λ ‐ equivalence of salient variables in terms of Wiener's Principle of Entrainment of Frequencies, yields verifiable predictive inferences. Their hierarchic disaggregation generates a “morphological map” of the problem/phenomenon. This map shows the micro‐level requirements of policies and/or problem‐solving. Maximisation of the viability of decision alternatives provides a logically simple approach to multi‐criteria/attribute decision‐making.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. 17 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 17 July 2011

Luis Felipe Gómez and Dawna I. Ballard

The concept that an organization's actions or inactions constrain or enhance its future options and outcomes and – ultimately – its long-term survival, is here referred to…

Abstract

The concept that an organization's actions or inactions constrain or enhance its future options and outcomes and – ultimately – its long-term survival, is here referred to as the organization's viability. Following a dynamic capabilities framework, we identify two communication practices that help develop both transactive memory systems and a firm's long-term viability, information allocation and collective reflexivity, and call for the development of others. We discuss the interrelationship of these two practices as nurturing the development of transactive memory systems critical for organizational long-term viability. We then discuss organizational structures that prompt or constrain the development of these two communication practices – organizational members’ perceived environmental uncertainty, perceptions of time as scarce, feedback cycles between actions and outcomes, and organizational members’ temporal focus – and offer propositions concerning these relationships. We emphasize the relevance of TMS through the exploration of three characteristics of the relationship between TMS and the long-term viability of organizations. Finally, we conclude with recommendations for organizational development practitioners for fostering TMS through the facilitation of sites for collective reflexivity.

Details

Research in Organizational Change and Development
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-022-3

Book part
Publication date: 12 October 2016

Arch G. Woodside

Business realities include delays, unintended downstream consequences, exponential versus linear relationships, “hidden demons,” and virtuous and viscous feedback cycles

Abstract

Business realities include delays, unintended downstream consequences, exponential versus linear relationships, “hidden demons,” and virtuous and viscous feedback cycles. Executives often respond to these realities by applying nearsighted short-term solutions that contribute to long-run business failure. We provide core propositions and a framework for causal mapping and testing “micro-worlds” of real-life marketing-buying realities. A microworld is a set of explicit assumptions about how things get done, that is, how each variable in a marketing-buying system relates to other variables in the system. The framework suggests applying eight steps linking systems-thinking cause mapping, policy mapping, and systems dynamics modeling. The chapter reviews case research studies that apply the eight steps. Modeling system dynamics of business relationships aims to run simulations of the resulting microworld model of a specific reality; the main aim goes beyond description and explanation to offer prescriptions that reduce the occurrence of viscous cycles and encourage decisions leading to virtuous cycles. Hopefully, this chapter serves to awareness and use of system dynamics tools among case study researchers and executives in business and industrial marketing.

Details

Making Tough Decisions Well and Badly: Framing, Deciding, Implementing, Assessing
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-120-3

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 28 July 2017

Jeff Stambaugh and Ronald Mitchell

The purpose of this paper is to explain how the process that occurs before an entrepreneurial failure event provides a coached learning setting that creates…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explain how the process that occurs before an entrepreneurial failure event provides a coached learning setting that creates entrepreneurial expertise.

Design/methodology/approach

This is a conceptual paper drawing on the literatures of expert information processing theory and deliberate-practice expertise development to suggest a model and propositions that flow from the analysis.

Findings

Adding to the expert performance literature – specifically the introduction of the notion of emergent practice – this paper proposes that the intensity of the fight to avoid entrepreneurial failure, the duration of the fight, the content required in that fight, and the clarity and rapidity of feedback received, are associated with the creation of entrepreneurial expertise.

Research limitations/implications

This paper complements research on learning from failure by exploring how significant learning before entrepreneurial failure either occurs or is avoided, can lead to the creation of entrepreneurial expertise.

Practical implications

This research provides guidance for entrepreneurs engaged in the fight to avoid entrepreneurial failure, and suggests ways for prospective supporters to better assess entrepreneurs with failed ventures in their history.

Originality/value

The paper applies the deliberate-practice concept, common in sports, games, and the arts, to an “emergent practice” setting; that is, within a real-life (marketplace) setting within which the “fight” to avoid entrepreneurial failure functions as the “coach”; and it describes how the learning necessary for the creation of entrepreneurial expertise likely takes place.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 24 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 30 December 2004

Toon W. Taris and Michiel A.J. Kompier

This chapter examines employee learning behavior as a function of work characteristics. Karasek’s Demand-Control (DC) model proposes that high job demands and high job…

Abstract

This chapter examines employee learning behavior as a function of work characteristics. Karasek’s Demand-Control (DC) model proposes that high job demands and high job control are conducive to employee learning behavior. A review of 18 studies revealed that whereas most of these supported these predictions, methodological and conceptual shortcomings necessitate further study. Perhaps the most important weakness of the DC-based research on learning is that the conceptual foundations of the DC model regarding employee learning behavior are quite rudimentary, while the role of interpersonal differences in the learning process is largely neglected. The second part of this chapter explores the relationship between work characteristics and learning behavior from the perspective of German Action Theory (AT). AT explicitly discusses how work characteristics affect learning behavior and assigns a role to interpersonal differences. We conclude by presenting a model that integrates action-theoretical insights on learning with DC-based empirical results.

Details

Exploring Interpersonal Dynamics
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-153-8

Article
Publication date: 1 June 1996

William J. Heisler

Uses a case‐study approach. Asserts that for successful implementation multi‐source feedback must be viewed from an integrated perspective and that 360‐degree feedback

1889

Abstract

Uses a case‐study approach. Asserts that for successful implementation multi‐source feedback must be viewed from an integrated perspective and that 360‐degree feedback must be seen as more than a data collection and feedback system. Suggests that the measured characteristics and behaviours must be related to the organization’s strategic objectives and culture and that the feedback process must be supported by tools which facilitate the analysis and interpretation of the data and developmental planning.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 1 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

Keywords

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