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Book part
Publication date: 1 January 2005

L. Adele Jinadu

It is useful to provide a context for the elaboration of this argument by referring to the historical and intellectual roots of Nigerian federalism, the nature of…

Abstract

It is useful to provide a context for the elaboration of this argument by referring to the historical and intellectual roots of Nigerian federalism, the nature of Nigeria's ethnic mosaic, and the influence or impact of ethnicity on the architecture of Nigerian federalism. The foundational or theoretical building block of Nigerian federalism was and continues to be ethnic, as opposed to geographical, diversity. The artisanal design and construction of this ethnicized federalism was informed by the imperative of elite accommodation initially between the departing British colonial administration and the emergent leadership of the inheritance elite and thereafter, at various times between 1960 and the present time, among the political leadership of the various fractions of the politically significant and mobilized ethnic groups (Jinadu, 1985, 2002).

Details

Higher Education in a Global Society: Achieving Diversity, Equity and Excellence
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-182-8

Book part
Publication date: 5 February 2016

Irwin Feller

Since at least the 1970s, the American research university system has experienced episodic periods of austerity, frequently accompanied by expressions of concern about the…

Abstract

Since at least the 1970s, the American research university system has experienced episodic periods of austerity, frequently accompanied by expressions of concern about the threats that these conditions pose to U.S. scientific and technological leadership. In general, austerity has been tied to fluctuations in Federal Government funding of academic research and macroeconomic fluctuations that have shrunk state government budget revenues. Even amidst these episodes, the system has continued to expand and decentralize. The issue at present is whether this historic resiliency, of being a marvelous invalid, will overcome adverse contemporary trends in Federal and state government funding, as well as political trends that eat away at the societal bonds between universities and their broader publics. The paper juxtaposes examinations of the organizational and political influences that have given rise to the American research university system, trends in research revenues and research costs, and contemporary efforts by universities to balance the two. It singles out the secular decline in state government’s support of public universities as the principal reason why this period of contraction is different from those of the past. Rather though then these trends portending a market shakeout, as some at times have predicted, the projection here is that the academic research system will continue to be characterized by excess capacity and recurrent downward pressures on research costs. Because the adverse impacts are concentrated in the public university sector, they may also spill over into political threats to the current system of awarding academic research grants primarily via competitive, merit review arrangements.

Details

The University Under Pressure
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-831-5

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 July 2020

Promise Ifeoma Ilo, Victor N. Nwachukwu and Roland Izuagbe

The study examined library personnel awareness of the availability of emergency response plans, their forms and roles in safety routine preparedness and control in federal

Abstract

Purpose

The study examined library personnel awareness of the availability of emergency response plans, their forms and roles in safety routine preparedness and control in federal and state university libraries in Southwest Nigeria.

Design/methodology/approach

The survey research design alongside a multi-stage sampling procedure comprising purposive, randomisation and total enumeration techniques guided the study. The population consisted of 327 library personnel drawn from 12 federal and state university libraries (i.e., six each). The questionnaire and structured interview methods were used for data gathering. Of the 327 copies of the questionnaire administered, 249 copies, representing 76.1%, were duly completed and found valid for analysis. Whereas the acceptance threshold of ≥90% response rate and a criterion mean of 2.50 were adopted for making judgements regarding the research questions, while the hypothesis was tested using chi-square statistics with cross-tabulation.

Findings

The state university libraries in the studied region are extremely lagging behind their federal counterpart in terms of emergency preparedness, judging by the availability of emergency response plan (ERPs). However, documenting the plans for routine emergency response is not widespread among the university libraries; thus, the extent of response preparedness is both simplistic and doubtful. Despite the seemingly proactive nature of the federal university libraries over their state counterpart, librarians in both settings do not perceive effectiveness and preference in either the written emergency response plan (WERP) or unwritten emergency response plan (UERP) as an emergency preparedness and control measure.

Originality/value

The research increases knowledge of emergency preparedness in university libraries beyond the mere availability of ERPs. Through a comparative empirical analysis, the desirability of the WERP as a measure of emergency response preparedness in university libraries has been strengthened.

Article
Publication date: 11 July 2008

R.A. Alani and Gboyega Ilusanya

In response to the challenges of enhancing quality, the agency of government which is responsible for coordinating university education in Nigeria, the National…

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Abstract

Purpose

In response to the challenges of enhancing quality, the agency of government which is responsible for coordinating university education in Nigeria, the National Universities Commission, evolved a system of academic programme accreditation in 1991 to ensure conformity with minimum standards and to promote quality. The purpose of this paper is to examine the outcomes of some of those accreditation exercises and how they have influenced the quality of and access to university education.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper analyses secondary source data from accreditation reports of 1999, mop up exercises and accreditation re‐visitation of 2000‐2005 and that of November 2005.

Findings

The mean percentage of programmes with full accreditation status was found to have increased from 12.6 in 1999 to 48.5 in 2005, that of programmes which got interim accreditation decreased from 72.66 in 1999 to 48.30 in 2005, while the one for programmes which were denied accreditation decreased from 17.9 in 1999 to 9.5 in 2005. Federal universities had more programmes with full accreditation and less programmes with denied accreditation status. State universities had less number of programmes with full accreditation and higher number with denied accreditation status. Generally, the results showed that accreditation status of most academic programmes improved in subsequent accreditation exercises, meaning that the deficiencies noticed were remedied. The programmes that were denied accreditation caused a reduction in the number of vacancies for student admission.

Research limitations/implications

The paper focuses on federal and state universities only. Private universities are excluded.

Practical implications

The paper suggests that the universities in Nigeria should be closely monitored for their academic programmes to scale the accreditation hurdle.

Originality/value

The paper shows that accreditation of academic programmes helps to improve the quality of university education.

Details

Quality Assurance in Education, vol. 16 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0968-4883

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 19 October 2018

Nathália de Souza Lara, Maísa Mancini Matioli de Sousa, Fernanda Paola de Pádua Gandra, Michel Cardoso de Angelis-Pereira, João de Deus Souza Carneiro and Rosemary Gualberto Fonseca Alvarenga Pereira

The purpose of this paper is to develop a cereal bar supplemented with coffee beverage that has health benefits.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop a cereal bar supplemented with coffee beverage that has health benefits.

Design/methodology/approach

Six types of cereal bars containing raisins or prunes with different concentrations of coffee were developed. Acceptability tests and physicochemical characterizations were performed by analysis of moisture, ash, protein, lipids, fibres and carbohydrates. Moreover, the levels of phenolic compounds, the fatty acid profile and the in vitro antioxidant activity were evaluated by the DPPH free radical scavenging and iron-chelating activity methods. The bars were assessed using the check-all-that-apply (CATA) methodology. The phenolic compound and antioxidant activity data were evaluated by analysis of variance. Averages were compared by the Scott–Knott test. To verify the characteristics of the food bar per the attributes cited in CATA, main component analysis was performed using the SensoMaker software.

Findings

The concentration of coffee did not affect the centesimal composition values. The highest percentage of scavenging activity of free radicals was observed in the food bar containing raisins, with a maximum concentration of coffee beverage equivalent to 10 mL. These values were higher in cereal bars containing raisins than in bars containing prunes with the same concentrations of coffee. The acceptance sensory test showed good acceptability ratios, ranging from 74.33 to 85.22 among different food bar formulations.

Practical implications

The bar consisting raisins and 100 per cent coffee presented high values of protection against oxidative stress, phenolic content and satisfying acceptability, thereby making it a novel possible alternative as a differentiated product with possible health-beneficial effects.

Social implications

This paper provides a differentiated product, through healthy ingredients, with convenience of purchase, besides having added value and possible health beneficial effects.

Originality/value

The bar consisting of raisins and 100 per cent coffee presented high values of phenolic content and protection against oxidative stress, as well as satisfying acceptability, thereby making it a novel possible alternative as a differentiated product with possible health-beneficial effects.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 121 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 13 March 2019

Promise Ifeoma Ilo, Margaret Ngwuchukwu, Happiness Chijioke Michael-Onuoha and Chidi Segun-Adeniran

The purpose of this paper is to identify the challenges affecting disaster training in federal and state university libraries in Southwest Nigeria with a view to finding…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify the challenges affecting disaster training in federal and state university libraries in Southwest Nigeria with a view to finding ways of overcoming them.

Design/methodology/approach

Having adopted the descriptive research design, 14 university libraries (seven each of federal and state) were selected from the Southwest geo-political zone of Nigeria. The total enumeration sampling technique was employed. Questionnaire and interview methods were used for data collection. The three research questions that guided the study were analyzed using descriptive statistics such as mean, standard deviation and ranking. Judgments were drawn using real limit of numbers and 2.50 as criterion mean.

Findings

Results emanated from the study showed that university libraries in the studied region are more equipped to fight fire disaster than any other emergency which is why fire drills and exercises are the prevailing disaster training received by library staff. It was also found that inadequate disaster facilities and equipment as well as poor funding were the greatest challenges confronting disaster training. The provision of adequate disaster facilities and equipment with the constitution of disaster prevention and response team was found as the most potent strategy for addressing the identified challenges.

Originality/value

The study lends strong empirical evidence for the underlining factors affecting disaster training in federal and state university libraries as well as academic libraries in general. The strategies for addressing the identified challenges are of more significance.

Details

Disaster Prevention and Management: An International Journal, vol. 28 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-3562

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 24 May 2018

Ruslan Aleksandrovich Baryshev, Sergey Vladimirovich Verkhovets and Olga Ivanovna Babina

This paper aims to analyse the phenomenon of smart libraries, which began in the 2000s, alongside the development of computer technology, digital storage the internet and…

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Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to analyse the phenomenon of smart libraries, which began in the 2000s, alongside the development of computer technology, digital storage the internet and human–computer interactions. The smart library is a system of library and information services developed to support research and training activity. This paper describes the need to introduce innovative library and information services at universities through users’ personal accounts.

Design/methodology/approach

An analysis of more than 200 publications mainly written by foreign scientists was conducted, given the dearth of Russian literature on the smart library and its services. The analysis revealed that in Western countries, the term smart library represents a wide range of meanings – from the understanding that it is a typical type of networking to assumptions about the total services provided by libraries in an urban environment.

Findings

The paper presents a review of both classical library services and those that are focused on the needs of modern education and science.

Research limitations/implications

The research results may be the best limited to university libraries.

Practical implications

The research results have practical use in the Library and Publishing Complex of the Siberian Federal University. Consequently, a new library information environment has been developed and integrated into the university’s information space.

Social implications

The research results have social use in Siberian Federal University. The personal account can be regarded as a functioning system of interaction and information exchange among the automated systems of the Library and Publishing Complex, automated learning management system and integrated educational environment.

Originality/value

This paper presents a certain set of technical solutions and some services available through personal accounts.

Details

The Electronic Library, vol. 36 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-0473

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 12 September 2020

Steven DeSimone and Kevin Rich

The purpose of this paper is to identify factors associated with the presence and use of internal audit functions (IAFs) at US colleges and universities, as well as their…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify factors associated with the presence and use of internal audit functions (IAFs) at US colleges and universities, as well as their relationship with financial reporting quality and federal grant outcomes.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a combination of publicly available and manually collected data, this paper uses a two-stage model to examine both the factors associated with the use of IAFs within US institutions of higher education and the consequences therein.

Findings

Results indicate that institutions with larger enrollments and endowments, those that receive public funding and those that have an audit committee are more likely to maintain an IAF. Findings also suggest that the presence of an IAF is negatively associated with reported material weaknesses for major programs at significant levels. Finally, the presence of an IAF is found to have a positive and significant association with federal grants received by the institution, with an even stronger association for IAFs that perform grant-specific procedures.

Originality/value

The study’s findings provide the first large-sample quantitative insights on IAF work within US colleges and universities. Results should be of interest to college/university leadership as they attempt to improve financial reporting quality and grant outcomes, as well as external stakeholders looking to evaluate whether institutions are acting as good stewards over resources. Additionally, the Institute of Internal Auditors may find the results helpful when promoting the profession.

Details

Managerial Auditing Journal, vol. 35 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-6902

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 June 2005

Abdulraheem Sani and Muta Tiamiyu

To evaluate the status of automated information services in selected Nigerian universities with a view to identifying progress and prospects of, and constraints to, the…

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Abstract

Purpose

To evaluate the status of automated information services in selected Nigerian universities with a view to identifying progress and prospects of, and constraints to, the technological transformation of Nigerian universities as the basis of strategic recommendations to the different stakeholders in Nigerian university education.

Design/methodology/approach

The study assessed the status of automated information systems and services in Nigerian universities in mid‐2002 through site visits, and questionnaire and interview surveys of the views of administrators, teaching/non‐teaching staff, students and researchers in the universities.

Findings

It was found that automated services were far from adequate and that, out of the 29 different automated services that one would expect in a modern university, only about 40 per cent were available and utilized. Federal universities that had enjoyed higher levels of funding for automated systems had higher output of automated services than the non‐federal universities. Major obstacles militating against the automated services in the universities include inadequate funds, electricity supply and telecommunications connectivity, as well as inadequate human resources for the automated systems. Respondents were marginally satisfied with the services of the computerized accounting system and the MIS‐related databases, but were very dissatisfied with the level of automated library services.

Originality/value

Clearly presents the challenges facing the Nigerian university system and individual Nigerian universities in the process of automating their operations.

Details

The Electronic Library, vol. 23 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-0473

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 3 June 2008

Karin Amos, Lúcia Bruno and Marcelo Parreira do Amaral

For the longest period of its history, the university was the guardian and transmitter – not the producer – of knowledge. This relatively recent change of transmitting…

Abstract

For the longest period of its history, the university was the guardian and transmitter – not the producer – of knowledge. This relatively recent change of transmitting canonical knowledge and generating new knowledge is normally associated with Wilhelm von Humboldt. Other highly influential university models were provided by France and Great Britain. The association of certain types of universities with particular countries is a strong indicator of the intricate link between nation-state and education. Hence, the history of tertiary education and its elite institutions, the research universities, must be considered in relation with a sea change in educational history – the gradual emergence of national education systems. Only under the conditions of the by now standard form of organizing modern societies as nation-states did education become a central institution (Meyer, Boli, Thomas, & Ramirez, 1997) collapsing individual perfectibility and national progress. The nationally redefined university was integrated into the education system as its keystone while also being considered the motor of societal development. From a social history perspective, the latter aspect in particular indicates the pragmatic (training professionals, imparting military and technical knowledge, etc.) and symbolic expectations, “myths” of the nation-state that have been so aptly described and analyzed in numerous macro-sociological neo-institutionalist studies (Meyer, Ramirez, & Soysal, 1992; Meyer et al., 1997; Ramirez & Boli, 1987). In a macro-phenomenological perspective, the term “myth” is used to denote a fundamental change in the self-description of European society which since the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries no longer views itself as consisting of separate collectivities divided from each other by social origin – as was the case under feudal conditions – with each collectivity providing itself the necessary education for its members or being provided for by others in the case of neediness. Instead, as a result of a number of material and immaterial changes, society now defines the individual as its key unit, with the nation being consequently the aggregate of individuals and not of collectivities and the state redefined as the guardian of the nation. This conception might be taken as a kind of overlapping area which includes different approaches, such as Michel Foucault's concept of the disciplinary society (Foucault, 1977), Balibar and Wallerstein's (1991) deliberations on the relation between race, class, and nation, and Benedict Anderson's (1991) description of nations as imagined communities. All these studies could be taken as sharing the notion of “constructedness” (cf. Berger & Luckmann, 1972) of modern society with the neo-institutionalist perspective. The concept of a “world polity” which encompasses the “myths” society is based on, the overall notion of a cognitive culture, which takes Max Weber's concept of rationality as a point of departure, is identified as the basis of isomorphic change in the organizational structure of modern education systems (cf. Baker & Wiseman, 2006). However, the strong emphasis on international, world system embeddedness of nation-states and their education systems is not to be taken as a unidirectional dependence on external forces. While modern nation-states originate from and remain tied to international dynamics and developments, they are conceived as unique entities. For most of their history, modern nation-states have been preoccupied with making themselves distinct from each other. Thus, while international competition has always been present, looking abroad traditionally meant reworking, adapting, and reshaping what was imported, or borrowed (Halpin & Troyna, 1995; Steiner-Khamsi, 2004). This is true for education as well as for other areas of society.

Details

The Worldwide Transformation of Higher Education
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-7623-1487-4

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