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Article
Publication date: 16 August 2021

Gulay Unal

The purpose of this study is to present a new integrated structure for a fault tolerant aircraft control system because fault diagnosis of flight control systems is…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to present a new integrated structure for a fault tolerant aircraft control system because fault diagnosis of flight control systems is extremely important in obtaining healthy flight. An approach to detect and isolate aircraft sensor faults is proposed, and a new integrated structure for a fault tolerant aircraft control system is presented.

Design/methodology/approach

As disturbance and sensor faults are mixed together in a flight control system, it is difficult to isolate any fault from the disturbance. This paper proposes a robust unknown input observer for state estimation and fault detection as well as isolation using fuzzy logic.

Findings

The dedicated observer scheme (DOS) and generalized observer scheme (GOS) are used for fault detection and isolation in an observer-based approach. Using the DOS, it has been shown through simulation that sensor fault detection and isolation can be made, but here the threshold value must be well chosen; if not, the faulty sensor cannot be correctly isolated. On the other hand, the GOS is more usable and flexible than the DOS and allows isolation of faults more correctly and for a fuzzy logic-based controller to be used to realize fault isolation completely.

Originality/value

The fuzzy logic approach applied to the flight control system adds an important key for sensor fault isolation because it reduces the effect of false alarms and allows the identification of different kinds of sensor faults. The proposed approach can be used for similar systems.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 93 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1748-8842

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 19 June 2017

Jingli Yang, Zhen Sun and Yinsheng Chen

This paper aims to enhance the reliability of self-validating multifunctional sensors.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to enhance the reliability of self-validating multifunctional sensors.

Design/methodology/approach

An effective fault detection, isolation and data recovery (FDIR) strategy by using kernel principal component analysis (KPCA) coupled with gray bootstrap and fault reconstruction methods.

Findings

The proposed FDIR strategy is able to the address fault detection, isolation and data recovery problem of self-validating multifunctional sensors efficiently.

Originality/value

A KPCA-based model which can overcome the limitation of existing linear-based models is used to achieve the fault detection task. By using gray bootstrap method, the position of all faulty sensitive units can be calculated even under the multiple faults situation. A reconstruction-based contribution method is adopted to evaluate the amplitudes of the fault signals, and the fault-free output of the faulty sensitive units can be used to replace the fault output.

Article
Publication date: 3 October 2022

Chingiz Hajiyev

The purpose of the paper is to present an innovation-based new actuator/surface fault detection and isolation (FDI) method, which is sensitive to the changes in the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the paper is to present an innovation-based new actuator/surface fault detection and isolation (FDI) method, which is sensitive to the changes in the innovation mean of the Kalman filter (KF) and the KF tuning method for the case of actuator/surface failure.

Design/methodology/approach

The multiple system noise scale factors (MSNSFs) are used in this method as the monitoring statistics. MSNSFs are determined to make it possible to perform the actuator/surface FDI operations simultaneously.

Findings

The introduced FDI algorithm can detect and isolate the loss of effectiveness type actuator/surface faults in real time. The proposed KF tuning method works effectively against actuator/surface fault. The actuator/surface fault detection, isolation and filter tuning are achieved by just using a simple modification over the conventional KF.

Originality/value

The MSNSF-based actuator/surface fault detection, isolation and filter tuning algorithms are investigated together for the first time. The actuator/surface FDI operations are performed simultaneously.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1748-8842

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 4 June 2021

Gulay Unal

Fault detection, isolation and reconfiguration of the flight control system is an important problem to obtain healthy flight. This paper aims to propose an integrated…

Abstract

Purpose

Fault detection, isolation and reconfiguration of the flight control system is an important problem to obtain healthy flight. This paper aims to propose an integrated approach for aircraft fault-tolerant control.

Design/methodology/approach

The integrated structure includes a Kalman filter to obtain without noise, a full order observer for sensor fault detection, a GOS (generalized observer scheme) for sensor fault isolation and a fuzzy controller to reconfigure of the healthy sensor. This combination is simulated using the state space model of a lateral flight control system in case of disturbance and under sensor fault scenario.

Findings

Using a dedicated observer scheme, the detection and time of sensor fault are correct, but the sensor fault isolation is evaluated incorrectly while the faulty sensor is isolated correctly using GOS. The simulation results show that the suggested approach works affectively for sensor faults with disturbance.

Originality/value

This paper proposes an integrated approach for aircraft fault-tolerant control. Under this framework, three units are designed, one is Kalman filter for filtering and the other is GOS for sensor fault isolation and another is fuzzy logic for reconfiguration. An integrated approach is sensitive to faults that have disturbances. The simulation results show the proposed integrated approach can be used for any linear system.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 93 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1748-8842

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 2 July 2018

Hamed Pourazad, Javad Askari and Saeed Hosseinnia

Increasing commercial applications for small unmanned aircraft create growing challenges in providing safe flight conditions. The conventional measures to detect icing are…

Abstract

Purpose

Increasing commercial applications for small unmanned aircraft create growing challenges in providing safe flight conditions. The conventional measures to detect icing are either expensive, energy consuming or heavy. The purpose of this paper is to develop a fault identification and isolation scheme using unknown input observers to detect and isolate actuator and structural faults in simultaneous occurrence.

Design/methodology/approach

The fault detection scheme is based on a deviation in system parameters due to icing and lock-in-place (LIP), two faults from different categories with similar indications that require different reconfiguration actions. The obtained residual signals are selected to be triggered by desired faults, while insensitive to others.

Findings

The proposed observer is sensitive to both actuator and structural faults, and distinguishes simultaneous occurrences by insensitivity to LIP in selected residue signals. Simulation results confirm the success of the proposed system in the presence of uncertainty and disturbance.

Research limitations/implications

The fault detection and isolation scheme proposed here is based on the linear model of a winged aircraft, the Aerosonde. Moreover, the faults are applied to rudder and aileron in simulations, but the design procedure for other models is provided. The designed scheme could be further implemented on a non-linear aircraft model.

Practical implications

Applying the proposed icing detection scheme increases detection system reliability, since fault isolation enables timely reconfiguration schemes.

Originality/value

The observers proposed in previous papers detected icing fault but were not insensitive to actuator faults.

Details

International Journal of Intelligent Unmanned Systems, vol. 6 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2049-6427

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 January 2019

Soumava Boral, Sanjay Kumar Chaturvedi and V.N.A. Naikan

Usually, the machinery in process plants is exposed to harsh and uncontrolled environmental conditions. Even after taking different types of preventive measures to detect…

Abstract

Purpose

Usually, the machinery in process plants is exposed to harsh and uncontrolled environmental conditions. Even after taking different types of preventive measures to detect and isolate the faults at the earliest possible opportunity becomes a complex decision-making process that often requires experts’ opinions and judicious decisions. The purpose of this paper is to propose a framework to detect, isolate and to suggest appropriate maintenance tasks for large-scale complex machinery (i.e. gearboxes of steel processing plant) in a simplified and structured manner by utilizing the prior fault histories available with the organization in conjunction with case-based reasoning (CBR) approach. It is also demonstrated that the proposed framework can easily be implemented by using today’s graphical user interface enabled tools such as Microsoft Visual Basic and similar.

Design/methodology/approach

CBR, an amalgamated domain of artificial intelligence and human cognitive process, has been applied to carry out the task of fault detection and isolation (FDI).

Findings

The equipment failure history and actions taken along with the pertinent health indicators are sufficient to detect and isolate the existing fault(s) and to suggest proper maintenance actions to minimize associated losses. The complex decision-making process of maintaining such equipment can exploit the principle of CBR and overcome the limitations of the techniques such as artificial neural networks and expert systems. The proposed CBR-based framework is able to provide inference with minimum or even with some missing information to take appropriate actions. This proposed framework would alleviate from the frequent requirement of expert’s interventions and in-depth knowledge of various analysis techniques expected to be known to process engineers.

Originality/value

The CBR approach has demonstrated its usefulness in many areas of practical applications. The authors perceive its application potentiality to FDI with suggested maintenance actions to alleviate an end-user from the frequent requirement of an expert for diagnosis or inference. The proposed framework can serve as a useful tool/aid to the process engineers to detect and isolate the fault of large-scale complex machinery with suggested actions in a simplified way.

Details

Journal of Quality in Maintenance Engineering, vol. 25 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2511

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 2 May 2017

Isil Yazar, Fikret Caliskan and Emre Kiyak

Condition monitoring and health management of an aircraft engine is of importance due to engine’s critical position in aircraft. Missions require uninterrupted and safer…

Abstract

Purpose

Condition monitoring and health management of an aircraft engine is of importance due to engine’s critical position in aircraft. Missions require uninterrupted and safer conditions during the flight or taxi operations. Hence, the deviations, abnormal situations or failures have to be under control. This paper aims to propose a cascade connected approach for an aircraft engine fault tolerant control.

Design/methodology/approach

The cascade connected structure includes a full-order unknown input observer for fault detection and eliminating the unknown disturbance effect on system, a generalized observer scheme for fault isolation and a Boolean logic mechanism for decision-making in reconfiguration process, respectively. This combination is simulated on a linear turbojet engine model in case of unknown input disturbance and under various sensor failure scenarios.

Findings

The simulation results show that the suggested fault detection isolation reconfiguration (FDIR) approach works effectively for multiple sensor failures with various amplitudes.

Originality/value

Different from other studies, the proposed model is sensitive to unknown input disturbance and failures that have unknown amplitudes. One another notable feature of suggested FDIR approach is adaptability of structure against multiple sensor failures. Here, it is assumed that only a single fault is to be detected and isolated at a time. The simulation results show that the proposed structure can be suggested for linear models especially for physical redundancy-based real-time applications easily, quickly and effectively.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 89 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1748-8842

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 18 December 2019

Muhammad Taimoor and Li Aijun

The purpose of this paper is to propose an adaptive neural-sliding mode-based observer for the estimation and reconstruction of unknown faults and disturbances for…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to propose an adaptive neural-sliding mode-based observer for the estimation and reconstruction of unknown faults and disturbances for time-varying nonlinear systems such as aircraft, to ensure preciseness in the diagnosis of fault magnitude as well as the shape without enhancement of system complexity and cost. Fault-tolerant control (FTC) strategy based on adaptive neural-sliding mode is also proposed in the existence of faults for ensuring the stability of the faulty system.

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper, three strategies are presented: adaptive radial basis functions neural network (ARBFNN), conventional radial basis functions neural network (CRBFNN) and integral-chain differentiator. For the purpose of enhancement of fault diagnosis and isolation, a new sliding mode-based concept is introduced for the weight updating parameters of radial basis functions neural network (RBFNN).The main objective of updating the weight parameters adaptively is to enhance the effectiveness of fault diagnosis and isolation without increasing the computational complexities of the system. Results depict the effectiveness of the proposed ARBFNN approach in fault detection (FD) and approximation compared to CRBFNN, integral-chain differentiator and schemes existing in literature. In the second step, the FTC strategy is presented separately for each observer in the presence of unknown faults and failures for ensuring the stability of the system, which is validated on Boeing 747 100/200 aircraft.

Findings

The proposed adaptive neural-sliding mode approach is investigated, which depicts more effectiveness in numerous situations such as faults, disturbances and uncertainties compared to algorithms used in literature. In this paper, both the fault approximation and isolation and the fault tolerance approaches are studied.

Practical implications

For the enhancement of safety level as well as for avoiding any kind of damage, timely FD and fault tolerance have always had a significant role; therefore, the algorithms proposed in this research ensure the tolerance of faults and failures, which plays a vital role in practical life for avoiding any kind of damage.

Originality/value

In this study, a new neural-sliding mode concept is adopted for the adaptive faults approximation and reconstruction, and then the FTC algorithms are studied for each observer separately, whereas in previous studies, only the fault detection and isolation (FDI) or the fault tolerance problems were studied. Results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed strategy compared to the approaches given in the literature.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 92 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1748-8842

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 29 June 2010

Sanjay Jayaram

The purpose of the paper is to present an approach to detect and isolate the sensor failures, using a bank of extended Kalman filters (EKF) using an innovative…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the paper is to present an approach to detect and isolate the sensor failures, using a bank of extended Kalman filters (EKF) using an innovative initialization of covariance matrix using system dynamics.

Design/methodology/approach

The EKF is developed for nonlinear flight dynamic estimation of a spacecraft and the effects of the sensor failures using a bank of Kalman filters is investigated. The approach is to develop a fast convergence Kalman filter algorithm based on covariance matrix computation for rapid sensor fault detection. The proposed nonlinear filter has been tested and compared with the classical Kalman filter schemes via simulations performed on the model of a space vehicle; this simulation activity has shown the benefits of the novel approach.

Findings

In the simulations, the rotational dynamics of a spacecraft dynamic model are considered, and the sensor failures are detected and isolated.

Research limitations/implications

A novel fast convergence Kalman filter for detection and isolation of faulty sensors applied to the three‐axis spacecraft attitude control problem is examined and an effective approach to isolate the faulty sensor measurements is proposed. Advantages of using innovative initialization of covariance matrix are presented in the paper. The proposed scheme enhances the improvement in estimation accuracy. The proposed method takes advantage of both the fast convergence capability and the robustness of numerical stability. Quaternion‐based initialization of the covariance matrix is not considered in this paper.

Originality/value

A new fast converging Kalman filter for sensor fault detection and isolation by innovative initialization of covariance matrix applied to a nonlinear spacecraft dynamic model is examined and an effective approach to isolate the measurements from failed sensors is proposed. An EKF is developed for the nonlinear dynamic estimation of an orbiting spacecraft. The proposed methodology detects and decides if and where a sensor fault has occurred, isolates the faulty sensor, and outputs the corresponding healthy sensor measurement.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 30 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 4 January 2016

Hui Shao, Zhi Xiong, Jianxin Xu, Bing Hua and Song Han

The federated filter created by Carlson has been widely used in multi-sensor integrated navigation. Compared with no-reset federated filter, the reset mode has greater…

Abstract

Purpose

The federated filter created by Carlson has been widely used in multi-sensor integrated navigation. Compared with no-reset federated filter, the reset mode has greater sub-filters’ performance, but faults of any subsystem would affect other healthy subsystems via global fusion and the sub-optimality of sub-filters’ estimation has influence on fault detection sensitivity. It’s a challenge to design a robust reset federated filter.

Design/methodology/approach

The time-varying observation noise is designed to reduce proportions of observation information in faulty sub-filters. A new dynamic information distribution algorithm based on optimal residual chi-square detection function is presented to reduce proportions of faulty sub-filters’ estimation in information fusion filter.

Findings

The robust filtering algorithm represents a filtering strategy for reset federated filter. Compared with fault isolation, the navigation result is smoother by using this algorithm. It has significant benefits in avoiding faulty sensors’ contamination and the performance of federated filter is greatly improved.

Research limitations/implications

The approach described in this paper provides a new method to deal with federated reset filter’s faulty problems. This new robust federated filter algorithm possesses a great potential for various applications.

Practical implications

The approach described in this paper can be used in multi-sensor integrated navigation with no fewer than three sensors.

Originality/value

Compared with conventional approach of fault isolation, the proposed algorithm does not destroy the continuity and integrity of the filtering process. It improves the performance of the federated filter by reducing proportions of faulty observation information. It also reduces the influence of sub-optimality on fault detection sensitivity.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology: An International Journal, vol. 88 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-2667

Keywords

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