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1 – 10 of over 2000
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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2000

Geetha C. Jayan and Joseph H. Herbein

The purposes of this study were to identify exogenous factors that would depress synthesis of saturated fats and enhance synthesis of unsaturated fats in the dairy cow’s…

Abstract

The purposes of this study were to identify exogenous factors that would depress synthesis of saturated fats and enhance synthesis of unsaturated fats in the dairy cow’s mammary gland. Certain long‐chain exogenous fatty acids are known to modulate endogenous fat synthesis within tissues. We analyzed the effects of two different long‐chain monounsaturated fatty acids, namely oleic acid and trans‐vaccenic acid (TVA), on activities of acetyl‐CoA carboxylase (ACC), fatty acid synthetase (FAS) and stearoyl‐CoA desaturase (SCD) in bovine mammary epithelial cell cultures. The study was done using an established bovine mammary epithelial cell line, the MacT cells. ACC (EC 6.4.1.2) and FAS (EC 2.3.1.85) are two major enzymes involved in biosynthesis of saturated fatty acids in eucaryotic cells. SCD (EC 1.14.99.5) is the enzyme catalyzing the critical committed step in biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids from their saturated precursors. Data indicated depression of activity of enzymes responsible for mammary synthesis of saturated fatty acids (ACC and FAS), along with a simultaneous enhancement of mammary desaturase activity, by TVA.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 30 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 24 April 2007

Shamina Azeez

The objective of this work is to study the fatty acid profile of coconut oil in the kernel in relation to maturity of the nut and season of fertilization in five selected…

Abstract

Purpose

The objective of this work is to study the fatty acid profile of coconut oil in the kernel in relation to maturity of the nut and season of fertilization in five selected varieties of coconut.

Design/methodology/approach

The coconut oil from the popular cultivars/hybrids were studied in post‐monsoon, pre‐monsoon and monsoon seasons at 7, 8, 10 and 12 months after fertilization.

Findings

Nuts that fertilized in the post monsoon season were found to have higher oil contents. Of the five varieties, COD×WCT had lesser amounts of caprylic, capric and lauric acids and greater amounts of the long chain fatty acids. Though significant differences were observed in fatty acid concentrations in nuts differing in their variety and season of tagging, the trend remained the same.

Originality/value

The study helps to ensure the safety of the usage of coconut oil as dietary oil, from the nature of fatty acids present.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 109 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 13 November 2017

Iraj Khodadadi, Ali Heshmati and Manoochehr Karami

Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the most common causes of death worldwide. Diets rich in saturated and trans-fatty acids are nutritional risk factors that foster the…

Abstract

Purpose

Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the most common causes of death worldwide. Diets rich in saturated and trans-fatty acids are nutritional risk factors that foster the development of CVDs. The aim of this experimental study was to investigate the effects of dietary feta cheese and butter on serum lipid profile and fatty acid composition.

Design/methodology/approach

In all, 24 Wistar rats (eight weeks old) were fed with balanced high fat diets (24 per cent fat) including canola (control group) and either cheese or butter (experimental groups) for eight weeks. At the end of the experiment, body weights were determined, and the amount of food intake was calculated. Blood samples were collected at the beginning and at the end of the experiment, and lipid profile including total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and triglyceride as well as serum fatty acid composition were determined.

Findings

Consumption of the butter-based diet resulted in a significant increase in serum triglycerides (p < 0.05), whereas no substantial changes were observed in rats that received a cheese-based diet. The butter-based diet significantly increased serum total cholesterol and LDL-C (p < 0.05), whereas remarkably reduced HDL-C level. In contrast, cheese-based diet resulted in a magnificent increase in HDL-C and a significant decrease in LDL-C/HDL-C ratio (p < 0.05). Serum saturated fatty acids increased and polyunsaturated fatty acids decreased by the consumption of butter, whereas the intake of cheese caused relatively minor alterations in serum fatty acid composition.

Originality/value

Butter lowered HDL-C and increased LDL-C, whereas cheese strongly enhanced HDL-C. Therefore, it can be concluded that cheese is a beneficially healthier dairy product than butter.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 47 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 5 September 2016

Yu-Mi Lee, Na-Young Lee, Myung-Sub Chung, Sang-Do Ha and Dong-Ho Bae

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the fat, saturated fatty acid and trans fatty acid contents in ready-to-eat foods distributed at amusement parks to develop an…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the fat, saturated fatty acid and trans fatty acid contents in ready-to-eat foods distributed at amusement parks to develop an appropriate food safety management system for children.

Design/methodology/approach

In all, 322 ready-to-eat food samples categorized into 17 types were collected from nine Korean amusement parks and their fat, saturated fatty acid and trans fatty acid contents were assessed.

Findings

Fat, saturated fatty acid and trans fatty acid contents were relatively high in flour-based products. On the basis of the Korea Food and Drug Administration classification, the samples in 12 categories were classified as high-fat foods. The samples in nine categories were classified as high-saturated fatty acid foods. Most samples also contained non-negligible levels of trans fatty acids. The fat, saturated fatty acid and trans fatty acid contents of samples even in the same category varied markedly.

Social implications

This research will inform the necessity of an appropriate safety management system for ready-to-eat foods distributed at amusement.

Originality/value

Although the fat contents of foods distributed around school area were often observed, the potential risk of those in ready-to-eat foods distributed at amusement parks have rarely been assessed. As patterns of food intakes vary world-widely, a periodic monitoring data like this study may be useful for international organizations and researchers.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 118 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 1 November 2006

Priyanka Rastogi, Beena Mathur, Shweta Rastogi, V.P. Gupta and Rajeev Gupta

Cooking can adversely affect chemical characteristics of edible oils. The purpose of this paper is to determine biochemical changes due to cooking in commonly used Indian…

Abstract

Purpose

Cooking can adversely affect chemical characteristics of edible oils. The purpose of this paper is to determine biochemical changes due to cooking in commonly used Indian fats and oils through an experimental study.

Design/methodology/approach

Changes in chemical properties of various edible oils [Indian ghee (clarified butter), hydrogenated oil, coconut oil, mustard‐rapeseed oil, groundnut oil, soyabean oil, cottonseed oil and sunflower oil] were studied. Oils were subjected to various cooking methods (shallow frying, sautéing, single deep frying and multiple deep fryings) using an inert substance. Peroxide content was estimated as index of fattyacid oxidation, free fatty acids, iodine value for determination of fattyacid unsaturation and trans‐fatty acids at baseline and after cooking using colorimetric and gas‐liquid chromatography methods. Three samples were analyzed for each process (n = 144). Significance of change was determined using t‐test.

Findings

There was a significant increase in peroxide content (mEq/L) of Indian ghee from 1.83±0.03 at baseline to 4.5–6.6 by different cooking methods, hydrogenated oil (0.45±0.07 to 1.7–8.5), coconut oil (1.01±0.01 to 3.2–9.2), mustard‐rapeseed oil (0.90±0.01 to 2.1–5.3), groundnut oil (0.96±0.01 to 1.9–3.7), soyabean oil (0.86±0.02 to 1.9–3.4), cottonseed oil (0.71±0.01 to 2.9–6.4) and sunflower oil (1.09±0.01 to 2.3–10.2) (p<0.05). Free fatty acid content (g/100 g) was in undetectable amounts in all the fats at baseline and increased in Indian ghee (0.16–0.22), hydrogenated oil (0.09–0.23), coconut oil (0.09–1.39), mustard‐rapeseed oil (0.07–0.19), groundnut oil (0.09–0.18), soyabean oil (0.06–0.12), cottonseed oil (0.09–0.22) and sunflower oil (0.08–0.13). Trans‐fatty acids increased from 0.1% at baseline to 14.5% after sautéing and shallow frying and 15.8–16.8% after deep frying in hydrogenated oils (p<0.01). The iodine value decreased, indicating a decrease in unsaturated fats, insignificantly. The largest amount of oxidation was observed by shallow frying and free‐fattyacid formation by multiple deep frying. Hydrogenated, coconut and sunflower oils were the most susceptible to oxidation and soyabean oil the most resistant. Single deep frying caused the least changes in chemical composition of various fats and oils. Indian cooking practices significantly increase the peroxides, free fatty acids and trans‐fatty acids in edible oils and fats. Single deep frying appears to be the least harmful method and soyabean oil the least susceptible to degradation.

Originality/value

The paper offers an experimental study to determine biochemical changes due to cooking in commonly used Indian fats and oils.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 36 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2011

Veera Kristiina Salomaa and Ihab Tewfik

Purpose: Evidence of adverse health effects of artificial trans fatty acids (TFAs) have accumulated since 1990s, yet TFAs are widely used by several food manufacturers…

Abstract

Purpose: Evidence of adverse health effects of artificial trans fatty acids (TFAs) have accumulated since 1990s, yet TFAs are widely used by several food manufacturers around the world. This review aimed to: ascertain the available evidence of the known unfavourable biochemical properties of artificial TFAs, their metabolic functions and health consequences; estimate their average intake levels and trends in different countries in order to critically evaluate whether more action is required to eliminate them from the diet. Methodology: The published evidence was searched by employing: Medline, Pubmed, InterScience, BioMed Central and Annual Reviews. Findings: With reference to human health, evidences from epidemiological, retrospective and observational studies revealed that the consumption of TFAs could outweigh the health risks posed by saturated fat consumption. The main health concerns included unfavourably altered blood cholesterol concentrations, insulin resistance, foetal brain and neural disturbances, proinflammatory and carcinogenic responses. Great variation exists in the global trends of industrial TFAs intake, being low in Mediterranean region, Japan and Scandinavia and high in parts of United States of America and Iceland. Besides the intense use of TFAs by food manufacturers and in eateries, the use of TFAs in food products is often poorly regulated and ill‐informed to consumers. Value: Since competitive alternatives to TFAs have made them non‐mandatory a broad public health intervention at government level to regulate or completely eliminate them from the national diet is warranted.

Details

World Journal of Science, Technology and Sustainable Development, vol. 8 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-5945

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1992

Richard W. Lacey

Intensive methods of farming and food processing are particularlylikely to result in food inadequate in n‐3 polyunsaturated fatty acids,and also in folic acid. These fatty

Abstract

Intensive methods of farming and food processing are particularly likely to result in food inadequate in n‐3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and also in folic acid. These fatty acids are required for numerous metabolic functions including protection against heart attacks. Folic acid is essential for a baby′s developing nervous system.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 94 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 1979

R.R. Engelhardt

This paper details the use of isophthalic acid and trimellitic anhydride for the design and production of water reducible alkyd coatings. The performance of these systems…

Abstract

This paper details the use of isophthalic acid and trimellitic anhydride for the design and production of water reducible alkyd coatings. The performance of these systems is equal to or better than conventional solvent based systems. The use of special processing, compounding or application equipment is not required for the production of these coatings, however, the raw materials must be carefully selected to ensure optimum performance. Both water reducible alkyds and water reducible acrylated alkyds for air drying and force cured applications will be discussed. Coatings manufacturers in the United States have commercialized these systems for applications varying from air dry implement enamels to interior can coatings.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 8 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1995

Lars Ovesen and Torben Leth

Trans fatty acids arise as a result of hydrogenation processes inmargarine manufacture, and in nature in the rumen of ruminant animals.Concern that high intake of trans…

Abstract

Trans fatty acids arise as a result of hydrogenation processes in margarine manufacture, and in nature in the rumen of ruminant animals. Concern that high intake of trans fatty acids may increase the risk of coronary heart disease has been strengthened by recent studies. Further, there is evidence that trans fatty acids may adversely affect foetal and neonatal growth and development. Therefore, a reduced intake of trans fatty acids seems prudent. Certain foods, particularly stick margarines, shortenings and hydrogenated frying fats, contain large amounts of trans fatty acids, and are the main reason for the rather high intake of trans fatty acids in the USA and northern European countries, including Denmark. Therefore, the National Food Agency is presently working on a legal provision to reduce the level of trans fatty acids in these products.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 95 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 28 September 2010

Afnan Mahmood Freije and Maysoon Nedham Awadh

The purpose of this paper is to determine the fatty acid composition of the edible snail Turbo coronatus from the Bahrain sea.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to determine the fatty acid composition of the edible snail Turbo coronatus from the Bahrain sea.

Design/methodology/approach

Total lipid content was extracted and methyl esters of fatty acids (FAMEs) were prepared and analyzed by gas chromatography.

Findings

Gas‐liquid chromatography shows that saturated fatty acids (SFA) are the major forms of fatty acids, followed by polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA). The most abundant PUFA are linolenic acid (18:3n‐3), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA 20:5n‐3), linoleic acid (18:2n‐6), and arachidonic acid (ARA 20:4n‐6), the MUFA 16:1 (n‐7), and the SFA 16:0, 14:0, 18:0 and 20:0. The sum of EPA and DHA is 8.04 per cent. The n‐3/n‐6 fatty acids ratio approximately (2:1) is within the range of marine molluscs. The principle differences in the fatty acid composition of Turbo coronatus than most marine molluscs is their low DHA (0.23±0.01 per cent), low PUFA (40.92 per cent), and high SFA contents (49.25 per cent). The principle differences in the fatty acid composition of Turbo coronatus from most marine molluscs is their low DHA (0.23±0.01 per cent), low PUFA (40.92 per cent), and high SFA contents (49.25 per cent).

Research limitations/implications

The Turbo coronatus samples were collected from Shaikh Ebrahim Island; however, further studies regarding the fatty acid composition of Turbo coronatus from other locations are required.

Practical implications

The results suggest that Turbo coronatus feeds on bacteria‐enriched detritic matter as well as phytoplankton and algae. The low concentration of PUFA in relation to SFA in Turbo coronatus can be attributed to warm water, high salinity, and food availability.

Originality/value

The paper provides valuable information about the fatty acid contents in Turbo coronatus, and its feeding habits, and nutritional values.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 112 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

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