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This paper analyzes the impact of obesity on the probability of a motor vehicle fatality (highway death rate) and on its component probabilities: the probability of a…
This paper analyzes the impact of obesity on the probability of a motor vehicle fatality (highway death rate) and on its component probabilities: the probability of a fatality, given a crash (vulnerability rate) and the probability of a crash (crash rate).
Using state-level data for 1995–2015, the paper estimates models explaining all three rates. Explanatory factors include obesity and a representative set of potential determinants.
Results indicate that obesity has a statistically significant positive relationship with the highway death rate and the crash rate. Also having a statistically significant positive association with at least one of the three rates are the proportions of young and old drivers, alcohol consumption, the ratio of rural to urban vehicle miles and temperature. Factors with a statistically significant negative relationship with at least one of the rates include primary seat belt laws and precipitation. In 2016, a total of 928 traffic fatalities could have been avoided if obesity rates decreased by one percentage point.
Seat belts and crash dummies should be better designed to fit and represent those with higher BMIs, and education efforts to increase seat belt use should be supplemented with information about the adverse impact of obesity on highway safety.
This paper uses 21 years of state-level information, including socio-economic and regulation data, and contributes to the existing research on the relationship between obesity and highway safety.
Universal helmet laws (UHLs) are widely believed to be effective in reducing motorcycle fatalities. In this chapter, we further investigate the effectiveness of such…
Universal helmet laws (UHLs) are widely believed to be effective in reducing motorcycle fatalities. In this chapter, we further investigate the effectiveness of such policies by focusing on their long-term impact as well as their effect on motorcycle use. Using state-level longitudinal data from 1975 to 2005, we estimate how the adoption and repeal of UHLs influence motorcycle safety. Our results confirm earlier findings that adoption of UHLs prevents fatalities, whereas repeals lead to higher fatality rates. We provide evidence that UHLs operate as intended, decreasing fatalities mainly by improving safety rather than by reducing motorcycle riding. Finally, using dynamic specifications, we show that the long-term effects of both adoption and repeal persist in the years beyond the policy change.
Compares accident injuries and fatalities occurring during a one‐year Michigan emergency response study (MERS) with figures for the state’s general population accidents…
Compares accident injuries and fatalities occurring during a one‐year Michigan emergency response study (MERS) with figures for the state’s general population accidents over three and five years. Finds that significantly higher rates of accidents occur in pursuits than in the general population or in police non‐pursuit experience but that the MERS fatal accident rate was not significantly higher than in the general population. Suggests that this is partly explained by officers having the advantage of defensive driving training and by a Hawthorne effect; also alcohol consumption is a common factor in general accidents. Points out that non‐fatal injuries were significantly higher than comparable groups. Advocates the establishment of a database built on a mandatory police pursuit reporting system.
We study changes in age-specific diabetes-related mortality and annual health care utilization. We find that half of the estimated 16% increase of diabetic mortality falls…
We study changes in age-specific diabetes-related mortality and annual health care utilization. We find that half of the estimated 16% increase of diabetic mortality falls within employable age groups. We estimate that disease combination-specific increase in case fatality has resulted in premature diabetic mortality costing $3.2 billion annually. The estimated annual direct cost of treating high-risk diabetics reaches $36 billion, of which Medicare and Other Federal Programs compensate 54%. Respiratory conditions among diabetics comprise the same proportion of high-risk diabetics as do the disease combinations including coronary heart diseases. Treating of general diabetic conditions has become more efficient as indicated by the estimated declines in per unit health care costs.
Accidents, injuries and fatalities resulting from state police pursuits conducted during the Michigan Emergency Response Study (MERS) were compared with non‐pursuit police…
Accidents, injuries and fatalities resulting from state police pursuits conducted during the Michigan Emergency Response Study (MERS) were compared with non‐pursuit police accidents and three‐ and five‐year means of general population accidents to examine the relative dangerousness of the police pursuits under varying light conditions. The Michigan State Police troopers, who were asked to complete a survey instrument each time a pursuit was conducted during the survey period of June 1991 through May 1992, reported 197 pursuits, 65 accidents with 30 injuries and one fatality. Pursuit accidents were significantly more likely to occur during the hours of darkness than the three comparable groups; however, pursuit injury accidents were more likely to occur during daylight and darkness, but not so during the hours of dusk and dawn. Significant differences in fatalities were not found during daylight, dawn or dusk, but the pursuit fatality rate was higher during darkness when compared with the three groups. Examines accident, injury and fatality rates of previous studies in the review of the literature. Overall, several similarities existed among the studies regardless of the number of pursuits reported.