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Article
Publication date: 11 November 2019

Seok-Tyug Tan and Seok-Shin Tan

Non-communicable diseases such as type 2 diabetes, hypertension, cancers and cardiovascular diseases have become a major health concern globally. As literature claims that…

Abstract

Purpose

Non-communicable diseases such as type 2 diabetes, hypertension, cancers and cardiovascular diseases have become a major health concern globally. As literature claims that frequent consumption of fruits and vegetables can delay the onset of type 2 diabetes and its complications, this paper aims to evaluate the potential hypoglycemic properties in five types of non-leafy vegetables (pumpkin, sweet potato, bitter gourd, onion and lady’s finger), which are commonly available in Malaysia.

Design/methodology/approach

Articles were identified through several main search engines, including Pubmed, Google Scholar, Taylor and Francis Online, EDS, Wiley, ScienceDirect and Scopus. The search was limited to selected keywords to refine the outcome.

Findings

All the five types of non-leafy vegetables demonstrate hypoglycemic properties to some extent. Emerging findings indicate that there are several phytonutrients in the non-leafy vegetables contributing to the hypoglycemic effects. To date, the underlying mechanism of action remains to be elucidated, although a number of potential mechanisms of action have been proposed in the literature.

Originality/value

This review provides some insights into the hypoglycemic properties in non-leafy vegetables. In addition, phytonutrients that are responsible for the hypoglycemic effects and their mechanism of action are also highlighted.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science , vol. 49 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 3 July 2018

Peace Nwanneka Ani and Precious Chisom Aginam

This paper aims to investigate the effect of Citrus maxima juice on fasting blood glucose, lipid profile, liver enzyme and body weight of alloxan-induced diabetic adult…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the effect of Citrus maxima juice on fasting blood glucose, lipid profile, liver enzyme and body weight of alloxan-induced diabetic adult wistar rats.

Design/methodology/approach

The fruits were thoroughly washed with potable water. They were peeled; the epicarp and seeds were removed. Fruit juice was extracted from the pulp. Animal experiment was carried out using 21 adult male wistar rats weighing about 110-130 g. The rats were categorized into three groups (A-C), with each group consisting of seven rats of similar body weights. Diabetes was induced using alloxan. Rats in Groups A and B were administered 300 mg and 600 mg of C. maxima fruit juice/kg body weight/day, respectively, for 14 days, while Group C rats acted as control and received placebo. Biochemical analysis was performed using standard procedures. Data were analyzed using SPSS, version 21.

Findings

Blood glucose of rats in the treated groups decreased significantly (p < 0.05) from 454.7 and 569.7 mg/dl to 149.3 and 297.3 mg/dl, respectively, while the control increased from 257.0 to 46.57 mg/dl. Total cholesterol and triglyceride levels of Group B rats reduced significantly (p < 0.05), while the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level increased (p < 0.05). Body weight of rats in the treated groups increased significantly (p < 0.05) by 30.1 and 20.2 per cent in Groups A and B, respectively, compared to the control group, which reduced by 0.21 per cent. There was no significant effect on markers of liver damage.

Practical implications

The rate at which diabetes and other non-communicable diseases increase recently calls for affordable and sustainable management.

Social implications

Diabetes is one of the major health and development challenges of the 21st century, its complications are disabling and life threatening.

Originality/value

The hypoglycemic and hypocholesterolemic properties demonstrated by C. maxima fruit juice suggest its potential contribution in reducing/stabilizing blood glucose level and managing complications of diabetes.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 48 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 November 2016

Juciane de Abreu Ribeiro Pereira, Maria de Fátima Piccolo Barcelos, Eric Batista Ferreira, Rafaela Corrêa Pereira and Michel Cardoso de Angelis-Pereira

As studies investigating the effects of fructan sources, such as yacon, on glucose and lipid metabolism showed different results, additional research is required to…

Abstract

Purpose

As studies investigating the effects of fructan sources, such as yacon, on glucose and lipid metabolism showed different results, additional research is required to establish a clear relationship between them. Thus, this paper aims to evaluate possible effects of the consumption of the yacon pulp flour (YPF) on biological and metabolic parameters such as food consumption, weight gain, serum glucose levels and fecal lipid excretion of rats, as well as determine the role of glycemic index (GI) of the diets added of this ingredient on those parameters.

Design/methodology/approach

For this purpose, 24 male albino Wistar rats were divided into four groups, which received the following treatments for 17 days: Group 1 (G1) (Control) – American Institute of Nutrition (AIN)-M; Group 2 (G2) – AIN-M added 5 per cent YPF; Group 3 (G3) – AIN-M added 10 per cent YPF and Group 4 (G4) – AIN-M added 15 per cent YPF. Analysis of fasting and postprandial glycemia was conducted for elaboration of the glycemic curve and calculation of the GI of the diets. Lipids loss was measured by quantification of crude fat in feces after consumption of the diet.

Findings

YPF, regarding the concentration in the diets, did not elevate the fasting glucose among the groups. The postprandial glucose of the animals declined in different postprandial glucose peaks of the groups ingesting YPF in relation to the control one, especially in group treated with 15 per cent YPF, between 30 and 60 min (p <0,05), confirming the influence of the dietary fiber on the absorption of the glucose. The ingestion of YPF increased dragging of lipids to the animal feces, proportional to the amounts of YPF added to the diets. According to the regression analysis, followed by regression testing to 5 per cent, there was a significant difference between the experimental groups, being that the elevation of the percentage of YPF added to the diet caused a proportional increase in the lipid levels in the animal feces.

Originality/value

YPF could be an alimentary source of interest, mainly when the focus is on disease risk prevention such as diabetes, obesity and dyslipidemias.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 46 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 July 2016

Michel Cardoso de Angelis-Pereira, Maria de Fátima Piccolo Barcelos, Rafaela Corrêa Pereira, Juciane de Abreu Ribeiro Pereira and Raimundo Vicente de Sousa

Flours obtained from pulps and peels of unripe banana were evaluated regarding their chemical composition and glycemic responses in rats. Moreover, this study aims to…

Abstract

Purpose

Flours obtained from pulps and peels of unripe banana were evaluated regarding their chemical composition and glycemic responses in rats. Moreover, this study aims to propose a new assay to measure glycemic responses using animals.

Design/methodology/approach

Proximal composition, total dietary fiber and its insoluble and soluble fractions, mineral content and tannins were evaluated. Glycemic responses were measured using albino Wistar rats (seven animals/group).

Findings

Flours from pulp and peel of unripe banana presented high content of carbohydrates and minerals. Moreover, flour from peel was rich in insoluble fiber, whereas flour from pulp had adequate proportion of insoluble and soluble fractions. Consumption of banana flours from peel and pulp did not affect fasting blood glucose of normoglycemic rats. Flour from pulp, when consumed in concentrations of 10 and 15 per cent of the diet, significantly stimulated lower glycemic responses in the animals.

Originality/value

Results presented in this study disclose unripe banana flour as an interesting food source, which may be indicated for preventing some types of diseases, such as diabetes, obesity and dyslipidemia. Moreover, the glycemic index assay using animals promoted accurate answers, as the diets were standardized, unlike studies with humans, which do not control variations related to omission and distortion of information regarding food intake.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 46 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 May 2016

Harry Freitag Luglio, Anisa Lailatul Fitria, Dewi Ayu Kusumawardhani, Rinta Amalia, Desy Dwi Hapsari, Rina Susilowati and Sunarti Sunarti

This study aims to examine the effect of lesser yam-based cookies on glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), blood glucose and lipid profile in overweight and obese individuals.

257

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the effect of lesser yam-based cookies on glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), blood glucose and lipid profile in overweight and obese individuals.

Design/methodology/approach

This was an experimental study on overweight or obese adults aged 21-50 years old. The intervention was done by giving 87g of cookies made with lesser yam flour in combination with wheat flour (80 and 20 per cent, respectively) for six weeks. Anthropometric measures, fasting plasma glucose, lipid and GLP-1 were measured before and after the intervention.

Findings

There were no changes in anthropometric measurements and glucose level after the intervention (p > 0.05). However, plasma low density lipoprotein (LDL) and total cholesterol decreased after the intervention (p = 0.033 and p = 0.035, respectively). Although fasting GLP-1 level (p = 0.121) was unchanged, we found that the slight changes in GLP-1 concentration was associated with changes in LDL and total cholesterol (p = 0.002 and p = 0.001, respectively).

Originality/value

The lesser yam-based cookies reduced fasting plasma LDL and total cholesterol, but not glucose level after six weeks of intervention. Additionally, reduction of LDL and total cholesterol level was negatively associated with the changes in GLP-1 level.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 46 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 July 2019

Mehdi Fasihi, Mohammad Yousefi, Abdolrasoul Safaiyan, Mahdi Mousavi Mele, Mohammadreza Rostami and Ali Barzegar

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of green coffee extract on anthropometric index and lipid profile, fasting blood sugar, chemerin and malondialdehyde on…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of green coffee extract on anthropometric index and lipid profile, fasting blood sugar, chemerin and malondialdehyde on subjects with metabolic syndrome.

Design/methodology/approach

A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted in Sheikh Al Raise Clinic from September 2016 to March 2017. The participants were randomly divided into green coffee group and placebo group. Green coffee group (n = 24) received green coffee extract (GCE), while placebo group (n = 24) took cellulose as a placebo, two capsules (400 mg) two times each day for eight weeks. The anthropometric index and lipid profile, fasting blood sugar, chemerin and malondialdehyde were measured at the beginning of the study and after eight weeks of treatment with GCE. Blood samples were collected before and after eight weeks of supplementation.

Findings

Significant weight loss, from 84.80 ± 2.12 kg to 80.94 ± 2.10 kg (ptime = 0.030, pGC = 0.007), as well as decreases in body mass index (ptime = 0.034, pGC = 0.006) were detected in the green coffee group after eight weeks. Also, the green coffee group has significant lower (pgroup = 0.029, ptime = 0.013) malondialdehyde (MDA) compared to the placebo group, and there was a significant difference between two groups at the insulin level and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (ptime = 0.001, pgroup = 0.048), (ptime = 0.012, pgroup = 0.007). However, there was no significant difference in lipid profile, fasting blood sugar and serum chemerin between two groups after eight weeks of supplementation.

Originality/value

This paper showed the statistical difference in body weight, malondialdehyde, insulin and insulin resistance after eight weeks of treatment. GCE might be associated to reduction in the carbohydrate absorption and the enhancement of lipid metabolism.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science , vol. 50 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 13 July 2015

Prisana Suwannaporn, Richard Frank Tester, Farage H. Al-Ghazzewi and Paponpat Artitdit

– This paper aims to evaluate the effect of depolymerised glucomannan in regulating blood lipid and glucose concentrations.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to evaluate the effect of depolymerised glucomannan in regulating blood lipid and glucose concentrations.

Design/methodology/approach

Twenty adult volunteers were recruited. Blood samples were taken at Day 0. The volunteers consumed drinks containing 3.0 g active glucomannan hydrolysates (AMH) for 14 days, after which time blood samples were retaken (Day 15). Blood samples were analysed to determine the blood lipid and glucose concentrations.

Findings

The average fasting blood glucose at the start of the trial was 2.54 mmol/L but reduced slightly to 2.49 mmol/L after consumption of the glucomannan. The total average cholesterol at the start of the trial was higher (6.69 mmol/L) than desirable ( < 5.0 mmol/L). This was reduced after consuming the glucomannan to 6.44 mmol/L (3.74 per cent). The triglyceride content was also higher initially than recommended (2.88 mmol/L) but was reduced by 11.5 per cent. The high-density lipoprotein (HDL) was within the desirable range before and after consumption (1.57 and 1.52 mmol/L, respectively), while the average low-density lipoprotein (LDL) was higher than recommended ( < 3.0 mmol/L), representing 4.55 mmol/L and 4.40 mmol/L before and after consumption, respectively. Both parameters were reduced by over 3.0 per cent. The consumption of the glucomannan hydrolysates also reduced the total cholesterol/HDL and LDL/HDL ratios.

Originality/value

The AMH was effective in lowering blood cholesterol and glucose concentrations. Consumption of such carbohydrates could prove useful for these physiological disorders. Further studies are desirable to characterise the exact mechanism.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 45 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 28 September 2020

Shirin Hassani Zadeh, Azadeh Nadjarzadeh, Masoud Mirzaei, Amin Salehi-Abargouei and Mahdieh Hosseinzadeh

Dietary intake is a modifiable risk factor for metabolic syndrome (MetS). Therefore, this study aims to evaluate the association between the Healthy Eating Index-2015…

Abstract

Purpose

Dietary intake is a modifiable risk factor for metabolic syndrome (MetS). Therefore, this study aims to evaluate the association between the Healthy Eating Index-2015 (HEI-2015) and MetS.

Design/methodology/approach

MetS was diagnosed among 2,326 adults. Dietary intake was assessed by a validated food frequency questionnaire. The HEI-2015 was administered to assess the diet qualities. Multivariate logistic regression was also used to evaluate the relationship of HEI-2015 with MetS and its components.

Findings

The odds of MetS was lower in women who were in the third quintile of HEI-2015 compared with those in the first quintile after adjusting for age and energy intake (OR: 0.62, CI: 0.41 to 0.93). In addition, moderate adherence to HEI-2015 reduced the odds of high fasting blood glucose levels in both men and women (OR men: 0.30, CI: 0.11 to 0.85 OR women: 0.34, CI: 0.14 to 0.79). However, these relations were not linear. Adherence to HEI-2015 had no significant relationship with the prevalence of MetS and its components in the whole population.

Originality/value

A significant relationship was observed between moderate adherence to HEI-2015 and fasting blood glucose in both men and women. Moreover, moderate adherence to this dietary pattern decreased the prevalence of MetS in women.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science , vol. 51 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 29 July 2014

Sonia Maria de Medeiros Batista, Emilia Addison Machado Moreira, Giovanna Medeiros Rataichesck Fiates, Maria Alice Altemburg de Assis and Evanilda Teixeira

The purpose of the paper is to determine the effects of a hypocaloric diet with a low-glycaemic index (GI) on weight loss and postprandial blood glucose and assess both…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the paper is to determine the effects of a hypocaloric diet with a low-glycaemic index (GI) on weight loss and postprandial blood glucose and assess both the satiety and palatability of the diet.

Design/methodology/approach

A clinical trial was conducted with ten women (mean age: 38.8±11.3 years; body mass index: 27.2±3.5 kg/m2) submitted to a hypocaloric diet, assessments were performed at baseline and after seven days of treatment.

Findings

Significant reductions were found in body weight (1.1±0.7 kg; p=0.001), triccipital skinfold (2.87±3.24 mm; p=0.021) and waist circumference (3.6±4.8 cm; p=0.041). Mean fasting and postprandial blood glucose values were 88.7±6.1 mg/dL and 91.6±9.6 mg/dL, respectively. Responses regarding satiety and palatability of the low-GI diet were predominantly “extremely satisfied” and “I liked it very much,” respectively, for all meals and throughout all seven days of the study.

Originality/value

The present study demonstrated the benefits of a low-GI diet with regard to weight loss, blood glucose control and satiety. The diet proved to be palatable, which could favor compliance with long-term treatment.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 116 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 30 March 2010

Tanefa A. Apekey, Anne J.E. Morris, Shamusi Fagbemi and G.J. Griffiths

Healthy diet and lifestyle have been shown to be important for obese patients in the management of diet‐related diseases especially in the improvement of cardiovascular…

Abstract

Purpose

Healthy diet and lifestyle have been shown to be important for obese patients in the management of diet‐related diseases especially in the improvement of cardiovascular disease risk indicators. The purpose of this paper is to determine the effects of a calorie‐restricted low‐fat diet on body weight, cardiovascular disease risk and liver function indicators in an obese, cardiology outpatient with type II diabetes.

Design/methodology/approach

A male, obese cardiology outpatient was assigned to a calorie‐restricted (6,694.4 kJ/d) low‐fat (not to exceed 20 per cent of total energy intake) diet for 12 weeks. His body mass index (BMI), blood pressure (BP), pulse rate, fasting glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride, low‐density lipoprotein cholesterol, high‐density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, alanine aminotranseferase, aspartate aminotranseferase (AST) concentration and TC/HDL ratio were measured prior to the start of the diet and during weeks four, eight and 12 of the diet.

Findings

The patient found it difficult making changes to his diet and only reduced his weight by 1 kg. He significantly reduced his serum triglyceride by about 20 per cent, TC/HDL ratio by 13 per cent and fasting blood glucose concentration by 31 per cent. However, there was no significant change in his BP, pulse rate, total and LDL cholesterol concentration. He also reduced his AST concentration by 20 per cent and alanine aminotranseferase (ALT) by 19 per cent.

Originality/value

This paper usefully shows how healthier food choices involving increased intake of fruits and vegetables and restricted intake of total and saturated fat reduced the risk of cardiovascular death in a male cardiology outpatient with type II diabetes.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 40 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

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