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Article
Publication date: 28 February 2019

Ji Young Lee and Kim K.P. Johnson

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of four types of cause-related marketing (CRM) strategies on consumer responses to a fashion brand and to assess the…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of four types of cause-related marketing (CRM) strategies on consumer responses to a fashion brand and to assess the relative effectiveness of each.

Design/methodology/approach

An experiment was conducted with young adult consumers (n=344) and undergraduates (n=415). Using a between-subject design, each participant was randomly assigned to one of four CRM scenarios and completed a questionnaire.

Findings

Across all CRM conditions, the effect of CRM strategy on consumer responses (e.g. perceived brand distinctiveness/credibility/attractiveness, customer–brand identification, brand attitude, customer loyalty) was significant. The effect of corporate social responsibility image on perceived brand distinctiveness was strongest for cause-related event marketing, followed by cause-related experiential marketing, transaction-based CRM and sponsorship-linked marketing.

Practical implications

By providing information about the relative effectiveness of four types of CRM strategies, this research aids fashion marketers in their selection of the CRM strategy that generates the best performance. Adding an event component to their CRM activity would increase the effect of CRM strategies on consumer responses.

Originality/value

This research contributes to the extant literature on CRM by identifying types of CRM strategies, their relative effectiveness, and key variables (e.g., C–B identification) that explain the impact of CRM strategies on consumer responses.

Details

Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management: An International Journal, vol. 23 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1361-2026

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Article
Publication date: 4 February 2021

Omayma AlFarraj, Ali Abdallah Alalwan, Zaid Mohammad Obeidat, Abdullah Baabdullah, Rand Aldmour and Shafig Al-Haddad

This study aims to investigate the influencers’ credibility dimensions (i.e. attractiveness, trustworthiness, expertise) on purchase intention (PI) through the mediating…

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2403

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate the influencers’ credibility dimensions (i.e. attractiveness, trustworthiness, expertise) on purchase intention (PI) through the mediating role of cognitive and affective online engagement among the aesthetic dermatology consumers in Jordan.

Design/methodology/approach

The population of this study entails all followers of aesthetic dermatology clinics on their Instagram accounts. However, only three influencers from the aesthetic dermatology industry were selected and approved the request of sharing the survey instrument on their official platforms. Overall, 600 surveys were distributed, but only 384 were completed fully, constituting a 64% response rate.

Findings

The data analysis revealed an excellent fit for the data and indicated an impact of attractiveness and expertise on online engagement and PI. Moreover, a mediating influence was also found for online engagement on the path between influencer credibility and PI.

Research limitations/implications

This study has a limitation of collecting the data from only three influencers; consequently, collecting data from the followers of more than four influencers would get more generalizable results. Second, considering further, examining the mediating role of other variables such as electronic word-of-mouth (EWOM) and loyalty programs could also provide further insights onto the nature of the factors affecting the PI. In addition, future studies should examine the differences of using more than one social media platform.

Practical implications

The main findings of this study have a number of managerial implications for marketing management that hint at liking the influencers who are highly trusted owing to their extensive expertise in the area they are marketing rather than only depending on their physical attractiveness. The Jordanian culture does not focus only on the image shared by the social media as the reviews can either support or decline the influence of even the celebrity. Significantly, a set of managerial implications come from the current research.

Social implications

Two major areas are the most important; these are the trustworthy issue and the EWOM. The marketers should encourage their customers to openly talk about their experiences as they have an imperative role in liking influencers in a way that improves their PI. The second implication is related to social media platforms management that marketing managers should resolve any negative EWOM caused and to enhance followers’ satisfaction levels of the services. The increase in satisfaction positively affects PI, and the service makes the influencer role become more effective.

Originality/value

This study was able to add a value to the current understanding of the main antecedents of customer engagement by looking at these dimensions of perceived credibility. Another contribution was captured in this study by successfully validating the meditating impact of customer engagement between influencers’ credibility dimensions and PI, especially in the absence of the studies that have addressed such relationship.

Details

Review of International Business and Strategy, vol. 31 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-6014

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Article
Publication date: 12 February 2020

Valérie Zeitoun, Geraldine Michel and Nathalie Fleck

This paper aims to clarify the persuasion mechanism of chief executive officers (CEOs) and employees as endorsers of brand advertising and helps discern consumer attitudes…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to clarify the persuasion mechanism of chief executive officers (CEOs) and employees as endorsers of brand advertising and helps discern consumer attitudes toward internal endorsement.

Design/methodology/approach

The exploratory character of the present research required a qualitative approach combining focus groups and face-to-face interviews considered as both meaningful and complementary.

Findings

The findings suggest that while the celebrity endorsement ensures familiarity and likability, internal endorsement supports credibility and congruity with an important role of storytelling. Moreover, employee endorsements induce an internalization process based on the real-self, while the endorser CEO induces admiration grounded in the ideal self. More fundamentally, the study reveals how the internal endorsement modifies the meaning transfer model and involves a process of meaning translation, which affects the corporate brand image rather than the product brand image.

Originality/value

The present paper reveals that CEOs and employees can be strong levers for gilding the corporate brand image compared to the celebrities who enhance the product brand image. Moreover, the authors show that the CEO is a character who can be admired without the threat of upward comparison at the opposite of celebrities. Finally, this research highlights the specific role of employees bringing authenticity because of their anchorage in real life.

Details

Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal, vol. 23 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-2752

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Article
Publication date: 8 February 2021

Nilesh Arora, Sanjeev Prashar, Sai Vijay Tata and Chandan Parsad

Brand managers frequently use well-known celebrities to position their brands and capture consumers’ attention to improve the brand’s market share. The attachment of a…

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1028

Abstract

Purpose

Brand managers frequently use well-known celebrities to position their brands and capture consumers’ attention to improve the brand’s market share. The attachment of a celebrity with a brand creates a human image for a brand and helps in personifying its image. The consumer perceives the brand as an individual and relates his personality, as well as the personality of the celebrity with that of the brand. It becomes pertinent for marketers to understand how brand-celebrity personality congruence and brand-consumer personality congruence affect the brand reputation, uniqueness and purchase intentions. Thus, the purpose of this study is to understand the relationship between the two personality congruence aspects – brand & celebrity personalities and brand & consumer personalities, and their impact on the reputation of the brand and its uniqueness. Further, the paper aims to examine the impact of the brand reputation and brand uniqueness on purchase intentions.

Design/methodology/approach

The present study uses Aaker’s five-factor personality scale to study the personality congruence effects on brand reputation, brand uniqueness and purchase intentions. The literature review was carried out to categorize factors related to celebrity personality, brand personality and consumer personality. The data for this study was collected through questionnaires from 1,235 respondents. In the first step, congruencies between celebrity, brand and consumer personality were determined. This was followed by a two-stage structural equation modelling for assessing the model fit and testing the hypotheses.

Findings

From the study results, it is observed that brand-celebrity congruency influences brand reputation and brand uniqueness. However, brand-consumer congruency had an effect only on brand reputation and not on brand uniqueness. Both brand reputation and uniqueness have favourable impact on consumers purchase intentions.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the existing literature on celebrity endorsement by extending the discussion with personality-based congruence. The research deciphered two aspects of identification, i.e. consumer-brand personality congruence and brand-celebrity congruence. The paper hypothesized the favourable association between brand personality and consumer personality congruence and brand uniqueness. However, it was observed that brand personality-consumer personality identification had an insignificant influence on brand uniqueness. This is contrary to the findings of some studies in the literature. Further investigation of this relationship in the future may add a new dimension to the identification context.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 38 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2014

Yonghwan Chang, Yong Jae Ko, Asli Tasci, Akiko Arai and Taehee Kim

Marketers worldwide consider athlete endorsement a highly effective promotional tool. However, little is known about consumers' responses towards athlete endorsement in…

Abstract

Marketers worldwide consider athlete endorsement a highly effective promotional tool. However, little is known about consumers' responses towards athlete endorsement in global markets - particularly the bi-directional image transfer mechanism. This study examines the image match between athlete endorsers and products using a three-dimensional visual map and comparing image perceptions towards athlete endorsements among respondent groups from Japan, Korea and the United States during the 2010 FIFA World Cup. The results show that image perceptions of selected athlete endorsers, endorsed products and their match are significantly different in these markets.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 15 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article
Publication date: 25 March 2021

Jaskirat Singh Rai, Anish Yousaf, Maher N. Itani and Amanpreet Singh

This study aims to examine the influence of five sports celebrity personality (SCP) attributes – attractiveness, expertise level, credibility, trustworthiness and…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the influence of five sports celebrity personality (SCP) attributes – attractiveness, expertise level, credibility, trustworthiness and character – on consumers' purchase intentions (CPI). It identifies celebrity brand congruence (CBC), endorsed brand celebrity (EBC) and transfer of brand image (TBI) as antecedents of CPI.

Design/methodology/approach

The purposive sampling technique was used to collect the data from 838 respondents. This study developed a multidimensional construct for SCP. The covariance-based structural equation modeling (SEM) technique was used to examine the relationship between SCP and the endorsed brand. The study used CBC as a mediator and EBC and TBI as partial mediators. The direct and indirect effect of SCP on CPI was investigated using CBC, EBC and TBI as mediators.

Findings

This study supports the importance of three antecedents (i.e. CBC, EBC and TBI) on CPI. It finds congruence across SCP and CBC variables, and a positive impact of SCP on EBC and TBI variables. Also, it exhibits a significant direct effect of CBC on EBC and TBI, whereas the direct effect of CBC on CPI is not substantial. The indirect effect of CBC through mediating variables EBC and TBI found to be significant.

Research limitations/implications

This study concludes that sports celebrity endorsement is essential to transfer the positive celebrity image to the endorsed brand image. However, it is not merely sufficient to influence the buyers' purchase conduct; the brand credibility additionally assumes to take a role in changing their behavioral intentions.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the sports marketing literature by its novelty in analyzing the sports celebrity personality at a multidimensional level. It uses SCP's different attributes as one construct and studies its impact on CPI by taking CBC, EBC and TBI as mediators. The results of this study equip sports management professionals with the knowledge to build better long-term relationships with consumers.

Details

Sport, Business and Management: An International Journal, vol. 11 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-678X

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Article
Publication date: 21 May 2018

Karla McCormick

The purpose of this paper is to determine if the star power of an athletic endorser influenced consumers’ consumption of the advertised product. Specifically, does the…

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1991

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to determine if the star power of an athletic endorser influenced consumers’ consumption of the advertised product. Specifically, does the amount of star power an athlete is thought to have impact consumers’ direct consumption of the advertised product and media consumption of the athlete? Moreover, the components of star power, along with congruency measures, were examined to determine which components of star power influenced both direct and media consumption.

Design/methodology/approach

Four advertisements were created that used an athlete with high star power and an athlete with low star power. Respondents viewed two of the advertisements, but did not know which athlete had high star power or low star power. They were asked to answer a questionnaire that contained questions pertaining to the components of star power (source attractiveness, source credibility, professional trustworthiness, likeable personality and character style), congruency of the athlete and product, direct consumption of the advertised product and media consumption of the athlete.

Findings

Results indicated that overall star power increased the direct consumption of the advertised product and the media consumption of the athlete, however not each component was found to be significant. Character style was the only component that was consistently significant across all four advertisements. The congruency between the athlete and product was also found to be significant across all four advertisements.

Research limitations/implications

First, this study only looked at two athletes; others may generate different results. Second, the products used in the study were fashion related; other categories of products may also generate different relationships. Third, only two brands were used. It was also assumed that the respondents knew the athlete in the advertisement. Finally, the questions used to measure direct consumption did not distinguish between buying the brand in the store or online.

Originality/value

This study has the potential to contribute theoretically by analyzing how and which components of star power affect consumption of endorsed products, as well as which components influence consumers. Moreover, adding a congruency measure will aide in strengthening the measurement of endorser effectiveness. The justification of the present study lies in the need to determine how the dimensions of star power an athlete possesses contribute to the consumption behaviors of consumers.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 19 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article
Publication date: 30 September 2014

Niall Caldwell and Kathryn Nicholson

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the practice of casting celebrity performers in London West End theatres. The paper uses the literature on celebrity to explore…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the practice of casting celebrity performers in London West End theatres. The paper uses the literature on celebrity to explore the impact that casting a celebrity has on the London theatre audience.

Design/methodology/approach

The pervasiveness of celebrity culture forms the background and starting point for this research. In the first phase, theatre managers, directors and producers were interviewed to explore their views on the practice of celebrity casting. In the second phase, an audience survey was conducted. The approach taken is exploratory and is intended to illuminate the conditions under which a successful celebrity-focused strategy can be constructed.

Findings

A distinction between fame and celebrity was drawn by both theatre professionals and audiences, with celebrity status being seen as something that is created by media exposure and being in the public eye. This is in contrast to fame, which is earned by being famous for something, or some achievement. Theatre audiences are more likely to be attracted by celebrities who have theatrical expertise and not by someone known simply through film, television or the all-pervasive gossip columns. Celebrities with a background in theatre and film were seen to strongly draw audiences to the theatre, as opposed to those with a background in reality TV shows, search-for-a-star shows or for being half of a famous couple.

Originality/value

The paper is focused on the theatre and makes an original contribution to the current discussion of the power wielded by celebrities. It is the first empirical research on this aspect of the theatre business. Its contribution lies in understanding audience members’ interpretation and understanding of celebrity to ascertain the extent to which they perceive celebrities as credible to perform theatre. This is based on a differentiation between their mediated fame and expertise. It is helpful and useful information for producers when deciding whether or not to cast a celebrity and to which audiences that the celebrity might appeal.

Details

Arts Marketing: An International Journal, vol. 4 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-2084

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Article
Publication date: 13 June 2016

Li-Chun Hsu, Wen-Hai Chih and Dah-Kwei Liou

The purpose of this paper is to explore the model of enhancing the electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM) effects through the virtual community by discussing the relationship…

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2354

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the model of enhancing the electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM) effects through the virtual community by discussing the relationship among sense of virtual community, social influence and eWOM effects.

Design/methodology/approach

This research adopted structural equation modeling to test the proposed model, and the structural model showed a good fit. This research sample consisted of 492 members who have used Facebook for at least half-a-year.

Findings

The results indicated that sense of virtual community had effects on normative influence, informative influence, and perceived eWOM review credibility. Both social influence and perceived eWOM review credibility had effects on eWOM review adoption. Social influence in virtual community partially mediated the relationship between virtual community members’ sense of virtual community and perceived eWOM review credibility. Virtual community members’ perceived eWOM review credibility partially mediated the relationship between normative/informative influence and eWOM review adoption.

Practical implications

This study discussed conclusions and managerial implications of the findings.

Originality/value

This research filled a void that most of the previous studies in this area focussed on a single social interaction perspective. The authors argued that community studies should incorporate and distinguish SOVC and social influence factors.

Details

Industrial Management & Data Systems, vol. 116 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-5577

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Article
Publication date: 17 May 2021

Jie Sun, Xi Yu Leung and Billy Bai

This paper aims to study how a social media influencer (SMI) endorsement affects followers’ event attitude and behavioral intentions. More importantly, it comparatively…

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1040

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to study how a social media influencer (SMI) endorsement affects followers’ event attitude and behavioral intentions. More importantly, it comparatively examines the role of followers’ gender in event SMI marketing effectiveness.

Design methodology approach

Based on the congruity theory of attitude change, the current study developed an integrated framework of SMI marketing. In total, 335 online surveys were collected. Partial least squares structural equation modeling and multi-group analysis were conducted to test the hypotheses.

Findings

Results show that a follower’s attitude and behavioral intentions toward the event are affected by his or her influencer attitude. The present study also finds that follower’s social media post attitude plays a mediating role. Moreover, female followers are impacted more directly by their influencer attitude, while male followers are affected more indirectly through their attitude toward the social media posts.

Research limitations implications

The current study not only extends the event literature on SMI marketing but also provides recommendations for event professionals on SMI selection.

Originality value

This study examines SMI endorsement as a relatively new marketing tool in the event setting. It also is a pioneer study in testing the effect of social media followers’ gender differences.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 33 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

Keywords

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