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Article
Publication date: 2 October 2017

Miguel Castillo Acero

The purpose of this paper is to present the studies to develop structural highly orthotropic panels. These types of panels provide the capabilities required for structural…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present the studies to develop structural highly orthotropic panels. These types of panels provide the capabilities required for structural morphing. They are highly deformable in one given direction; and in the perpendicular direction, one must be compliant to sustain the internal loads per certification stiffness and strength requirements.

Design/methodology/approach

Neither classic orthotropic panels nor regular cellular solids Bloch wave theories are strictly applicable on their study. A combination of computational method, MATLAB-coded, to analyze stability and classic structural beam theory is studied. Then, non-linear finite element method models are developed for an aerospace control surface application; their results are compared with reported Bloch wave sequences on periodic cellular solid panels.

Findings

The stability along stiffer direction is a requirement to obtain a continuous deformation and plasticization sequence of the cell rows in the perpendicular direction. A sample panel is sized and 3D modeled, and then produced using additive layer manufacturing process to demonstrate the initial stages of a validation and verification campaign.

Originality/value

This paper provides a new method to mechanical characterize highly orthotropic panels.

Details

International Journal of Structural Integrity, vol. 8 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-9864

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 25 February 2014

Anastacia C. Arko, Joshua Abor, Charles K.D. Adjasi and Mohammed Amidu

– The purpose of this paper is to examine the determinants of the dividend decisions of firms in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA).

1960

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the determinants of the dividend decisions of firms in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA).

Design/methodology/approach

The paper applies a two-step estimation procedure using firm-level panel data for firms in selected SSA countries during the period from 1997 to 2007. In the first step the paper employs a probit model to estimate the parameters of the determinants of the decision to pay or not to pay dividends. In the second step the paper estimates the parameters of the dividend payout and dividend per share models by applying the generalised least squares techniques.

Findings

The results provide consistent evidence that dividend decision and its payments are influenced by firm profitability level, investment opportunity sets, taxation, leverage, institutional shareholding and risk. The results affirm the signalling, agency cost and free-cash flow theories of dividend policy.

Originality/value

The main value of this paper is identification of factors that influence dividend decisions of firms in SSA.

Details

Journal of Accounting in Emerging Economies, vol. 4 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-1168

Keywords

Abstract

Details

Journal of Organizational Ethnography, vol. 3 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-6749

Article
Publication date: 1 March 1992

John Conway O'Brien

A collection of essays by a social economist seeking to balanceeconomics as a science of means with the values deemed necessary toman′s finding the good life and society…

Abstract

A collection of essays by a social economist seeking to balance economics as a science of means with the values deemed necessary to man′s finding the good life and society enduring as a civilized instrumentality. Looks for authority to great men of the past and to today′s moral philosopher: man is an ethical animal. The 13 essays are: 1. Evolutionary Economics: The End of It All? which challenges the view that Darwinism destroyed belief in a universe of purpose and design; 2. Schmoller′s Political Economy: Its Psychic, Moral and Legal Foundations, which centres on the belief that time‐honoured ethical values prevail in an economy formed by ties of common sentiment, ideas, customs and laws; 3. Adam Smith by Gustav von Schmoller – Schmoller rejects Smith′s natural law and sees him as simply spreading the message of Calvinism; 4. Pierre‐Joseph Proudhon, Socialist – Karl Marx, Communist: A Comparison; 5. Marxism and the Instauration of Man, which raises the question for Marx: is the flowering of the new man in Communist society the ultimate end to the dialectical movement of history?; 6. Ethical Progress and Economic Growth in Western Civilization; 7. Ethical Principles in American Society: An Appraisal; 8. The Ugent Need for a Consensus on Moral Values, which focuses on the real dangers inherent in there being no consensus on moral values; 9. Human Resources and the Good Society – man is not to be treated as an economic resource; man′s moral and material wellbeing is the goal; 10. The Social Economist on the Modern Dilemma: Ethical Dwarfs and Nuclear Giants, which argues that it is imperative to distinguish good from evil and to act accordingly: existentialism, situation ethics and evolutionary ethics savour of nihilism; 11. Ethical Principles: The Economist′s Quandary, which is the difficulty of balancing the claims of disinterested science and of the urge to better the human condition; 12. The Role of Government in the Advancement of Cultural Values, which discusses censorship and the funding of art against the background of the US Helms Amendment; 13. Man at the Crossroads draws earlier themes together; the author makes the case for rejecting determinism and the “operant conditioning” of the Skinner school in favour of the moral progress of autonomous man through adherence to traditional ethical values.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 19 no. 3/4/5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 17 October 2018

Alejandro Sanchez-Carmona and Cristina Cuerno-Rejado

A conceptual design method for composite material stiffened panels used in aircraft tail structures and unmanned aircraft has been developed to bear compression and shear loads.

Abstract

Purpose

A conceptual design method for composite material stiffened panels used in aircraft tail structures and unmanned aircraft has been developed to bear compression and shear loads.

Design/methodology/approach

The method is based on classical laminated theory to fulfil the requirement of building a fast design tool, necessary for this preliminary stage. The design criterion is local and global buckling happen at the same time. In addition, it is considered that the panel does not fail due to crippling, stiffeners column buckling or other manufacturing restrictions. The final geometry is determined by minimising the area and, consequently, the weight of the panel.

Findings

The results obtained are compared with a classical method for sizing stiffened panels in aluminium. The weight prediction is validated by weight reductions in aircraft structures when comparing composite and aluminium alloys.

Research limitations/implications

The work is framed in conceptual design field, so hypotheses like material or stiffeners geometry shall be taken a priori. These hypotheses can be modified if it is necessary, but even so, the methodology continues being applicable.

Practical implications

The procedure presented in this paper allows designers to know composite structure weight of aircraft tails in commercial aviation or any lifting surface in unmanned aircraft field, even for unconventional configurations, in early stages of the design, which is an aid for them.

Originality/value

The contribution of this paper is the development of a new rapid methodology for conceptual design of composite panels and the feasible application to aircraft tails and also to unmanned aircraft.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 90 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1748-8842

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 21 November 2016

John D. Salamone and Mercè Correa

Classical definitions of motivation typically involve two main components: direction and activation. Motivated behavior is directed toward or away from particular stimuli…

Abstract

Classical definitions of motivation typically involve two main components: direction and activation. Motivated behavior is directed toward or away from particular stimuli (i.e., appetitive and aversive motivation). Furthermore, activational aspects of motivation refer to the observation that motivated behavior is characterized by substantial activity, vigor, persistence, and exertion of effort in both the initiation and maintenance of behavior. Although separate neural systems direct organisms toward distinct motivational stimuli (e.g., food, water, sex), there appears to be a common circuitry regulating behavioral activation and the exertion of effort. Mesolimbic dopamine is one of the brain systems mediating activational aspects of motivation and exertion of effort. This system integrates aspects of motivation and motor control functions involved in the instigation of action. Research on the neurobiology of effort has contributed to our understanding of the pathophysiology of neurological and psychiatric disorders that are characterized by motivational dysfunction.

Details

Recent Developments in Neuroscience Research on Human Motivation
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-474-7

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 March 2005

Tim Kindseth and Michael Romanos

This annotated list represents a selection of outstanding poetry titles published in the USA in 2003 and the early part of 2004.

Abstract

Purpose

This annotated list represents a selection of outstanding poetry titles published in the USA in 2003 and the early part of 2004.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors selected the titles in this list from the 2,100 titles received for the 2004 Poetry Publications Showcase at Poets House in New York City, held in April 2004.

Findings

The authors selected titles for this list that would be both accessible and challenging to library users.

Originality/value

This list can be used as a guide to collection development for contemporary poetry.

Details

Collection Building, vol. 24 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0160-4953

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 3 September 2018

Ioana-Maria Dragu

This chapter investigates how integrated reporting (IR) can contribute to a better corporate social responsibility (CSR) implementation through diffusion and adoption of…

Abstract

This chapter investigates how integrated reporting (IR) can contribute to a better corporate social responsibility (CSR) implementation through diffusion and adoption of CSR practices and actually applying the CSR discourse. Based on innovation diffusion theory, we intend to analyse the diffusion and adoption of CSR on the grounds of IR. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate that IR does indeed represent a mean of reducing the gaps between CSR discourse and its implementation. In order to select the most relevant papers in the area of CSR and IR, we applied the method of positive research. Therefore, the review of literature was made by analysing various theoretical and empirical studies. Setting the main coordinates for CSR and IR through theoretical background, we continue with an empirical analysis on 23 companies that voluntarily publish integrated reports. We intend to demonstrate that IR encourages a diffusion of CSR practices, as companies become more interested in their CSR behaviour.

Details

Redefining Corporate Social Responsibility
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-162-5

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 31 December 2013

Krishna Reddy and Andrea Bather

Purpose – The global surge in institutional investors in the past decade or so has aroused interest in the role institutions play, or should play, in regard to the…

Abstract

Purpose – The global surge in institutional investors in the past decade or so has aroused interest in the role institutions play, or should play, in regard to the monitoring of the company financial performance. This study explores the nature of the relationship that exists between institutional ownership, corporate governance, and company financial performance.

Methodology/approach – Using Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) regression technique on 391 company-year observations between 2005 and 2010 to examine the nature of the relationship that exists between firm performance (PER) and ownership variables, and test whether this relationship is significant.

Findings – Our evidence provides support for the view that top five institutional shareholders take a longer-term view and are more involved with governance suggesting that the size of shareholdings has an effect when it comes to monitoring managerial decisions.

Research limitations/implications – Due to the small sample size, caution should be exercised when interpreting the results of this study. Also, it is to be noted that this study is based on a small country with an open capital market where there is high proportion of institutional ownership.

Practical implications – The results provide useful insights into the role different types of institutional investors play in terms of enhancing both governance and firm performance. Our analyses suggest that in mitigating principal-agent conflicts, size of ownership has an influence.

Originality/value of chapter – Our study adds to the literature by focusing on the role institutional investors’ play in New Zealand. Our study adds to the theory by showing that ownership type is important for mitigating agency conflicts.

Details

Institutional Investors’ Power to Change Corporate Behavior: International Perspectives
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-771-9

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 6 January 2021

Verna Smith

Policymakers implementing pay-for-performance schemes within general practice should seek to design schemes which work with rather than against the professional values and…

Abstract

Purpose

Policymakers implementing pay-for-performance schemes within general practice should seek to design schemes which work with rather than against the professional values and goals of general practitioners. In this way, schemes are more likely to enhance the practitioners' engagement. The purpose of this paper is to show how this was done in two case studies of pay-for-performance design and present the lessons from this study for policymakers.

Design/methodology/approach

A Most Similar Systems collective case study of the design of two pay-for-performance schemes for general practitioners, the United Kingdom's Quality and Outcomes Framework (QOF) and the New Zealand’s Performance Management Programme (PMP) was undertaken, involving 26 semi-structured interviews with policymakers, documentary and literature analysis.

Findings

Innovation in processes was found in both case studies which facilitated engagement by general practitioners in the formulation and implementation of these schemes. These were careful selection of highly skilled design teams, use of principle-based negotiation techniques and academic mediation of indicator selection. In addition, in England the majority of members in the combined QOF design team were general practitioners. The evidence from these two case studies reinforces approaches to scheme design which seek to harness rather than challenge medical professional values and which maximise the participation of general practitioners in the design process. Achieving funder/practitioner collaboration should be a key goal in the policymaking process.

Practical implications

Pay-for-performance scheme designers can improve their ability to engage general practitioners in scheme design and scheme uptake by adopting approaches which actively engage general practitioners as designers and users of such schemes.

Originality/value

This study compares two contemporaneous processes of pay-for-performance scheme design and implementation in similar systems of general practice funding and delivery at the national level, offering a rare quasi-experimental opportunity for learning lessons from comparative analysis.

Details

Journal of Health Organization and Management, vol. 35 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7266

Keywords

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