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Article
Publication date: 3 June 2014

Farooq Muhammad Haq

This paper aims to highlight the significance of partnership among stakeholders as a marketing strategy for Islamic spiritual tourism. Partnership as a marketing strategy…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to highlight the significance of partnership among stakeholders as a marketing strategy for Islamic spiritual tourism. Partnership as a marketing strategy is studied by interviewing stakeholders on the supply side of Islamic tourism. Only recently, Islamic spiritual tourism has been identified, not recognised yet, as a growing segment of Islamic tourism that needs to be effectively marketed.

Design/methodology/approach

Convenient sampling was used in this exploratory research to select and interview tourism operators selling in-bound and out-bound Islamic spiritual tourism in Australia and Pakistan. Cross-case content analysis was used to identify critical themes related to marketing Islamic spiritual tourism.

Findings

Three issues emerged from the content analysis in this study: political, commercial and religious. The management of these three issues is found necessary to effectively build and implement horizontal partnerships among stakeholders on the supply side in Islamic spiritual tourism.

Research limitations/implications

The selected sample is not the representation of the population based in the two countries. Only few potential participants agreed to be interviewed due to the perceived threat of manipulation of their views. Findings of this research contribute to the theory of marketing Islamic tourism specifically, and tourism in general.

Practical implications

The three issues found in this study provide a guideline for crafting strategies to market Islamic spiritual tourism based on local and global partnerships.

Social implications

The three issues found in this study provide a platform for cultural understanding and coherence.

Originality/value

This original study advocates partnerships among tourism operators, government bodies, destination managers and religious organisations involved in Islamic spiritual tourism. The structure and implementation of partnerships should critically consider the political, commercial and religious issues.

Details

Journal of Islamic Marketing, vol. 5 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0833

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Article
Publication date: 25 June 2010

Farooq Haq and Ho Yin Wong

Spiritual tourism has recently been accepted as a growing segment of tourism in business and research circles. The purpose of this paper is to suggest a new dimension in…

Abstract

Purpose

Spiritual tourism has recently been accepted as a growing segment of tourism in business and research circles. The purpose of this paper is to suggest a new dimension in Islamic marketing and investigates spiritual tourism as a new strategy for marketing Islam as a religion.

Design/methodology/approach

In this exploratory research, convenient sampling was employed to select Muslim spiritual tourists and Islamic organisations arranging spiritual tourism in Australia. A total of 34 face‐to‐face interviews were conducted. Thematic analysis was used to identify factors relevant to the research themes regarding spiritual tourism and marketing Islam.

Findings

Some religious organisations used religious gatherings and festivals as spiritual tourism products to market their religion – Islam. These organisations attracted Muslim and non‐Muslim spiritual tourists to the Islamic places, gatherings, occasions, and festivals by promoting them as spiritual tourism products.

Practical implications

The paper identifies spiritual tourism journeys and events that could be strategically used by religious organisations for marketing Islam.

Social implications

This paper aims to build bridges for better understanding of Islam among the Australian public. The paper could be replicated to study the marketing of other religions in other geographical locations.

Originality/value

The paper originates in recognising a genuinely new strategy of spiritual tourism that could be used more effectively for marketing Islam. A future quantitative study could be conducted to test the findings of this paper.

Details

Journal of Islamic Marketing, vol. 1 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0833

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Article
Publication date: 11 June 2018

Shazia Kousar, Abdul Rehman, Mahwish Zafar, Kamran Ali and Nadia Nasir

The purpose of this paper is to discuss positive spillovers of this project, especially for Pakistan because the majority of the literature discusses challenges associated…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to discuss positive spillovers of this project, especially for Pakistan because the majority of the literature discusses challenges associated with China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC).

Design/methodology/approach

This study reviews the available literature to assess the role of CPEC in the sustainable economic development of Pakistan.

Findings

This study indicates that CPEC is an ambitious development project because it needs a larger restructuring of the economy of Pakistan and it will be productive with the successful blend of policy changes and participation of the business community in Pakistan. This project primarily creates a huge amount of foreign direct investment for Pakistan, at the same time, it will also create greater trade opportunities to China by giving access to a new market for its trading goods.

Originality/value

This study established that CPEC will improve the economic growth and trade, enhance regional connectivity, overcome energy crises, develop infrastructure and establish people-to-people contacts in both the countries, which will further help to improve the tourism sector.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 45 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 1 May 2020

Ali Gholizadeh, Seyedashkan Madani and Saba Saneinia

By combining geopolitical and economic factors and from a geoeconomic perspective, the importance of Gwadar to China and Pakistan is discussed in detail. By applying…

Abstract

Purpose

By combining geopolitical and economic factors and from a geoeconomic perspective, the importance of Gwadar to China and Pakistan is discussed in detail. By applying geoeconomic approach and based on the historical approach, geographical and geopolitical conditions and international development trends of Gwadar port, the authors develop the analytical framework to analyze the Gwadar port and studied its importance in the development of China and Pakistan, as well as the positive influence on the economic growth of both countries.

Design/methodology/approach

A geoeconomic study is done to run a more profound and more comprehensive analysis of China–Pakistan economic relationship, as geoeconomic includes interrelations of geographical, geopolitical and economic factors in international relations.

Findings

The results show that Gwadar Port's development could enhance the economic security of both China and Pakistan. With the opening of Gwadar Port, oil and energy in the Middle East will be imported directly to China through Pakistan's oil pipeline. This is not only oil but also goods from Central Asia, and even Europe and the USA will land from Gwadar Port and enter China through the China–Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC). The development of Gwadar port under the CPEC program could also dramatically increase the capacity of Pakistan's maritime trade while reducing its dependence on the current largest port, Karachi, near the India border.

Originality/value

Geo-economics theory is used to run a more profound and more comprehensive analysis of China–Pakistan economic relationship as geoeconomic includes interrelations of geographical, location, geopolitical and economic factors in international relations. By combining geopolitical and economic factors and from a geoeconomic perspective, this study seeks to analyze the Gwadar port development and its implications for both China and Pakistan.

Details

Maritime Business Review, vol. 5 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2397-3757

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Article
Publication date: 13 November 2017

Faiza Khan and Michelle Callanan

The purpose of this paper is to address the confusing use of terminology associated with tourism undertaken by Muslims and to identify key concerns associated with this…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to address the confusing use of terminology associated with tourism undertaken by Muslims and to identify key concerns associated with this type of tourism.

Design/methodology/approach

This is an exploratory study and adopts a critical review of literature following the evolutionary concept analysis method. Content analysis of popular UK media, UK-based tour operators’ websites and tourism strategies of destinations popular with Muslim tourists were conducted to examine the use of terminology.

Findings

There is no clear difference between the various terms (halal, Muslim friendly, Islamic, etc.) used. Overall, academia uses the term Islamic tourism, while the industry and media use various terms. Among destinations, however, there is no clear and consistent use of terminology. A key concern of Islamic tourism is the role of certification in assuring travellers and the lack of standardisation of halal certification.

Research limitations/implications

The paper is based on literature review and secondary data analysis. It lacks primary research.

Practical implications

This study highlights the need for consistent use of terminology across industry. Another implication is the issue surrounding halal certification of food and the importance of trust in the seller/service provide. Another trend that industry providers need to consider is the growth of the Muslim millennial traveller and the needs of this market segment.

Originality/value

The paper highlights the importance of studying the Muslim tourist market and provides a starting point for further research. It highlights several issues such as the need to develop a typology of Muslim tourists. Of particular interest is the concern whether halal values in danger of being commodified in the absence of a universal agreed criterion for halal certification.

Details

Journal of Islamic Marketing, vol. 8 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0833

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Book part
Publication date: 6 December 2017

Sacha St-Onge Ahmad and Mohsin Bashir

The purpose of this chapter is to critically examine the leaders of public–private partnerships (PPPs) in Pakistan through a social entrepreneurship lens. The literature…

Abstract

The purpose of this chapter is to critically examine the leaders of public–private partnerships (PPPs) in Pakistan through a social entrepreneurship lens. The literature on social entrepreneurship was analysed to identify traits academics say social entrepreneurs have. Data were collected from primary and secondary sources. Primary sources of information were interviews with leaders’ former colleagues. Secondary research was conducted using grey literature, independent reports, web searches and the implementation of partners’ websites. The main finding from our analysis is that social entrepreneurship is an important driver of success in PPPs. All three PPPs had a focal person who exhibited important qualities found in social entrepreneurs and in one case, the decline of a partnership was observed shortly after the resignation of the social entrepreneur. Governments seeking to enter into partnerships with private organizations should prioritize finding social entrepreneurship in the partnering organization’s culture and/or leadership. Social welfare organizations are more likely to succeed if their management includes social entrepreneurs.

Details

The Emerald Handbook of Public–Private Partnerships in Developing and Emerging Economies
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-494-1

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Article
Publication date: 7 August 2017

Shafque Aftab, Muhammad Rizwan Yaseen and Sofia Anwar

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the welfare cost resulted from an increase in food prices in the three most populous countries of south Asia (Pakistan, India and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the welfare cost resulted from an increase in food prices in the three most populous countries of south Asia (Pakistan, India and Bangladesh).

Design/methodology/approach

The effect of rising food prices on consumer welfare is analyzed by using the compensating variation technique. The measurement of the total consumer welfare effect requires the estimation of price elasticities which are calculated by using linear approximation version of the almost ideal demand system.

Findings

The results indicate that cereals (wheat, rice) are relatively price inelastic. However, protein-rich food items like chicken and mutton are relatively more income elastic where consumer welfare declines in all countries mainly for cereals and milk, as these food items are relatively less elastic to price fluctuations.

Social implications

Pakistan, India and Bangladesh represent together about 37 percent of the total world undernourished population. This study suggests that government should target the most vulnerable consumers (low-income group) to improve the income level in these countries.

Originality/value

It is the first effort to estimate and compare that how food inflation affects the consumer welfare in the most populated countries of South Asia. This type of study is also important for the policy planners to overcome the welfare cost under different setting of price and income so it is an effort toward this direction.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 44 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Article
Publication date: 29 January 2020

Mohammad Selim and Mohammad Omar Farooq

The purpose of this paper examines how the challenge of poverty can be effectively addressed by broadly adopting Islamic value based cooperative model (IVCM) where the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper examines how the challenge of poverty can be effectively addressed by broadly adopting Islamic value based cooperative model (IVCM) where the members come together to overcome and eventually eradicate the curse of poverty for themselves and for their future generations.

Design/methodology/approach

The elimination of poverty by adopting IVCM and its impact on the cooperative members, as well as its effects on major macroeconomic variables, are examined on the theoretical ground by using the general equilibrium model of demand and supply-side variables.

Findings

The IVCM for the elimination of poverty reveals that the poverty gap can be eliminated through resource mobilization, as well as by creating new and additional income, wealth and resources through collaborative efforts. Through cooperative organizations based on Islamic values and principles, eventually, the entire poverty pool can enjoy income-earning opportunities through employment or self-employment, as well as promoting skills and education, leading to breaking the vicious cycle of poverty.

Originality/value

Cooperatives in general and Islamic cooperatives, in particular, are not new in the discourse about poverty. Indeed, there are cooperatives throughout the Muslim world and beyond and there are many studies related to cooperatives and their role in development. However, this might be the first theoretical contribution that models the role and impact of cooperatives in a macroeconomic framework, and thus, advances the scientific repertoire of knowledge and understanding about the related discourse by developing a rigorous mathematical model.

Details

Journal of Islamic Accounting and Business Research, vol. 11 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0817

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Book part
Publication date: 19 December 2016

Mohammad Ashraful Ferdous Chowdhury, Mohammad Shoyeb, Chowdhury Akbar and Md. Nazrul Islam

The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of risk sharing and non-risk sharing instruments on both the profitability of Islamic banks and the economic growth of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of risk sharing and non-risk sharing instruments on both the profitability of Islamic banks and the economic growth of the country. This study also aims to improve the profit and loss sharing-based asset growth of Islamic banks.

Methodology/approach

The data for this study are obtained from the annual reports of all Islamic banks from Bangladesh using Bank scope database and annual report for the period of 1983–2014. The research uses Autoregressive Distributive Lag approach.

Findings

The findings reveal that risk sharing instruments are positively related to profitability and the economic growth of the country. This study also finds that non-risk sharing instruments play a predominant role in the profitability of the Islamic bank but are negatively related to the economic growth of the country.

Research implications

Banks and other financial institutions need to pay greater attention to systemic risk created by risk transfer and apply risk sharing methods of financing more vigorously than has hitherto been the case.

Originality/value

This study will also contribute to the literature as relatively few Islamic financial literatures deal with the relationship between equity financing and profitability which may make a strong contribution to the area of Islamic finance.

Details

Advances in Islamic Finance, Marketing, and Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-899-8

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Article
Publication date: 14 March 2018

Muhammad Mustafa Raziq, Felipe Mendes Borini, Omer Farooq Malik, Mansoor Ahmad and Mehwish Shabaz

The purpose of this paper is to examine the mediating role of goal clarity in the relationship between leadership styles and project success. The paper draws on full-range…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the mediating role of goal clarity in the relationship between leadership styles and project success. The paper draws on full-range leadership theory, and contextualizes leadership styles such as transformational leadership style, and transactional leadership style (active management by exception, and contingent reward) to temporary project environment.

Design/methodology/approach

Data are collected (in year 2017) from 248 individuals working in ten large project-based organizations from different sectors, each having multiple units in Pakistan. Respondents comprise functional managers and individuals (who have lead or worked on projects), as well as dedicated project managers.

Findings

Goal clarity partially mediates the relationship between transformational leadership style and project success. However, in case of the transactional leadership style, there is no mediation as transactional leadership style is not associated with goal clarity. Furthermore, contingent reward is positively associated to project success, while active management by exception is negatively associated to project success.

Originality/value

Research suggests that the underlying mechanisms of the relationship between leadership styles (transactional and transformational) and project success are less clear and need to be further explored. This study contributes to literature by answering such calls, and examines possible underlying mechanisms (i.e. goal clarity) in the relationship between leadership styles and project success.

Details

Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 39 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

Keywords

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