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The purpose of this paper is to explore three sociocultural themes common to migrant and seasonal farmworkers and to demonstrate the value of incorporating oral history…
The purpose of this paper is to explore three sociocultural themes common to migrant and seasonal farmworkers and to demonstrate the value of incorporating oral history into healthcare practice and quantitative, qualitative, or mixed-methods research programs, as oral history is a culturally sensitive approach to working with vulnerable populations.
This paper examines 17 oral histories from farmworkers residing in Ottawa County, Michigan, in the late summer of 2014. The theoretical framework section has two aims. First, it explains the significance of “cultural sensitivity” and “deep structure” to the practice of effective healthcare. Second, it introduces oral history as a form of deep structure cultural sensitivity.
Three themes emerge from the collected oral histories: stress/anxiety of undocumented status, honor/worth of honest work, and the importance of educating migrant children. Undocumented status is found to be the hub of farmworker health inequities while worth of work and education are described as culturally sensitive points of conversation for healthcare workers engaging with this population. Finally, oral history is found to be a useful method for establishing the deep structure of cultural sensitivity.
This paper gives a voice to farmworkers, an inconspicuous population that disproportionately suffers from health inequities. In addition, this paper acts as a case study promoting the use of oral history as a novel, culturally sensitive research method.
- Alienation or exclusion
- Causes of underdevelopment: obstacles to growth, missing production factors, vicious cycles
- Demographic features “Doing” and “being”: being adequately nourished, being literate, leading a long and healthy life, and avoiding homelessness
- Household infrastructure index
- Human development
- Human development index
- Income supplements
- Means of development
- Minimum wage
- Neoclassical or orthodox
- Development paradigm
- Nutritional status
- Objectives of development
- Population census
- Poverty levels
- Production function
Since the late 1970s, US employers have increasingly drawn upon legal temporary labor under the H-2 visa to address their labor needs in low-waged sectors. Ever since…
Since the late 1970s, US employers have increasingly drawn upon legal temporary labor under the H-2 visa to address their labor needs in low-waged sectors. Ever since, what Clark calls migrant labor activism and conflict in the courts has similarly erupted. However, as she argues in this chapter, making “adversarial legalism” the H-2 way of law has also been a story of comparative state formation. For, the litigation largely reflects the structure of labor migration created after the demise of government-run migration. In this regard, activists wrestle with the problems created by the new role of global labor intermediaries in the recruitment process, absolute employer control over hiring and firing, and the coercion produced in the shadow of a now minimally interventionist state. Drawing upon archival research, interviews with legal professionals, and the entire case law docket in this area, this chapter puts “adversarial legalism” under the H-2 visa in its historical and political context.
Farm labor contractors operate as intermediaries between farmworkers and agricultural employers by recruiting and supplying labor to US farms. In a political economy where…
Farm labor contractors operate as intermediaries between farmworkers and agricultural employers by recruiting and supplying labor to US farms. In a political economy where there are employer sanctions for hiring workers without proper documentation, contractors share risk alongside final employers. Furthermore, contractors may facilitate quick employment matches during time sensitive agricultural tasks such as harvesting. For undocumented workers, using a contractor may decrease uncertainty associated with a foreign labor market and ease language barriers. The purpose of this paper is to examine the current role of labor contractors in delivering immigrant agricultural workers, particularly undocumented workers, to farms.
Determinants of labor contractor use and relationships to final worker outcomes are examined using econometric methods and a large nationally‐representative worker survey that is distinctive in that it distinguishes legal status.
Undocumented farmworkers are shown to be more likely to use contractors than are documented workers, though statistical significance is sensitive to the inclusion of crop and task indicators, and wages and fringe compensation to workers who use contractors are lower, even after controlling for legal status.
The paper contributes to limited recent academic work on the role of labor contractors in US agriculture. Future work may examine ongoing changes to this role in the context of mutable immigration policy and public opinion.
It is argued that the decline in labor contracting increases the need for employer‐level bilingual communication skills and compliance with labor regulations.
Understanding current dynamics of the agricultural labor market should be of value to scholars of rural economies, farm owners and agricultural policymakers.
Migrant and seasonal farmworkers (MSFWs) have many health challenges due to the nature of their work, low wages, living conditions, mobility, and lack of health insurance…
Migrant and seasonal farmworkers (MSFWs) have many health challenges due to the nature of their work, low wages, living conditions, mobility, and lack of health insurance. The purpose of this paper is to assess the availability of health services, barriers to accessing health care, and the prevalence of chronic conditions among MSFWs in Indiana.
A site-based convenience sample of MSFWs aged 14 years and older completed a cross-sectional survey. A total of 97 participants who currently or previously identified as farmworkers completed the questionnaire.
Almost one-third of the respondents reported no access to a health care provider. Of those, 43 percent reported that cost prevented them from seeking care. Of those who reported chronic conditions ( n=22), over 50 percent did not have access to a health care provider. These findings highlight the need to further investigate the magnitude of the problem and begin exploring ways to improve affordable health care access among MSFWs in Northeastern Indiana.
The results from this study highlight the need for the development and implementation of community health education programs that target MSFWs in Indiana. The findings, although not generalized, offer important insights into health care challenges and barriers to access in Indiana. The authors recommend that assistance programs should be implemented for providing affordable health care services for Hispanic MSFWs.
This chapter proposes that efforts to improve our understanding of factors affecting migrant health and longevity in the United States must consider migrants’ labor market…
This chapter proposes that efforts to improve our understanding of factors affecting migrant health and longevity in the United States must consider migrants’ labor market incorporation and the structural conditions under which they work. I use public-use death certificate data to examine whether there is a mortality penalty for foreign-born workers in the secondary sector industries of agriculture and construction. I focus on the decade of the 1990s for two contextual and empirical reasons: (1) the decade was characterized by economic restructuring, restrictive immigration policy, increased migration, and dispersion of migrants to new geographic destinations; and (2) the 1990s is an opportunistic decade because 19 states coded the industry and occupation of the decedent during this time. These numerator mortality data and Census denominator data are used to compare all-cause mortality rates between working-age (16–64 years) US-born and foreign-born agricultural and construction workers, the overall foreign-born population, and foreign-born workers in health care – an industry where the foreign-born tend to work in well-paid occupations that are well-regulated by the state. The results show a clear mortality penalty for foreign-born workers in agriculture and construction compared to the overall foreign-born population and foreign-born healthcare workers. The results also show the mortality penalty for foreign-born secondary sector workers varies by industry. These findings support the argument that bringing work into our analyses is critical to understanding the contextual and structural factors affecting migrant health and survival.
This study aims to examine the role of support actors in promoting or hindering access to public services/spaces for migrant agricultural workers (MAWs) and to determine…
This study aims to examine the role of support actors in promoting or hindering access to public services/spaces for migrant agricultural workers (MAWs) and to determine the factors that influence adequate support for this population.
Using a situational analysis methodology, the authors carried out focus groups and interviews with 40 support actors complimented by a community scan (n = 28) with public-facing support persons and a community consultation with migrant farmworkers (MFWs) (n = 235).
Two major themes were revealed: (In)access and (In)action and Blurred Lines in Service Provision. The first illustrated how support actors could both reinforce or challenge barriers for this population through tensions of “Coping or Pushing Back on Constraints” and “Need to find them first!” Justification or Preparation? Blurred lines in Service Provision encompassed organizational/staff’s behaviors and contradictions that could hinder meaningful support for MFWs revealing two key tensions: “Protection or performance?” and “Contradicting or reconciling priorities? Our findings revealed a support system for MAWs still in its infancy, contending with difficult political and economic conditions.
Service providers can use research findings to improve supports for MAWs. For example, addressing conflicts of interests in clinical encounters and identification of farms to inform adequate outreach strategies can contribute to more effective support for MAWs.
This research is novel in its examination of multiple sectors as well as its inclusion of both formal and informal actors involved in supporting MAWs. Our findings have the potential to inform more comprehensive readings of the health and social care resources available to MAWs.
The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the literature pertaining to occupational health disparities experienced by Latino immigrant workers in the USA and…
The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the literature pertaining to occupational health disparities experienced by Latino immigrant workers in the USA and to advance a general framework based on systems science to inform epidemiological and intervention research.
Using papers and other sources from 2000 to the present, the authors examined the employment conditions and health outcomes of Latino immigrant workers and critically analyzed the pervasive evidence of health disparities, including causal mechanisms and associated intervention programs.
The occupations, including the work environment and resultant living conditions, frequently performed by Latino immigrants in the USA represent a distinct trigger of increased injury risk and poor health outcomes. Extant intervention programs have had modest results at best and are in need of more comprehensive approaches to address the complex nature of health disparities.
An integrated, systems-based framework concerning occupational health disparities among Latino immigrant workers allows for a holistic approach encompassing innovative methods and can inform high-leverage interventions including public policy.
Reductionist approaches to health disparities have had significant limitations and miss the complete picture of the many influences. The framework the authors have provided elucidates a valuable method for reducing occupational health disparities among Latino immigrant workers as well as other populations.
In Zimbabwe, a curious set of events has occurred since early 2000. Land reform, usually taken to be in defence of rural democracy, is being employed by a government…
In Zimbabwe, a curious set of events has occurred since early 2000. Land reform, usually taken to be in defence of rural democracy, is being employed by a government determined to remain in power and veering increasingly toward violent authoritarianism.