In recent years there has been increasing focus on the importance of intellectual capital disclosure. The major resources of the football industry are human ‐ the players…
In recent years there has been increasing focus on the importance of intellectual capital disclosure. The major resources of the football industry are human ‐ the players (as well as coaches and management) and supporters, yet the traditional accounting framework is largely ineffective in capturing these ‘hidden’ values. This paper reviews research on the quality and extent to which 19 listed professional English football clubs are reporting intellectual capital in their annual reports for the 2002 period. A disclosure index was developed and applied, giving scores for categories of disclosure and for the football clubs. The research findings suggest that components of intellectual capital were poorly reported by listed professional football clubs. External capital reporting was the highest scoring category, followed by human capital. However internal capital reporting scored the lowest. The research findings indicated a positive significant correlation between the size of clubs, club performance and their overall intellectual capital disclosure, in line with previous research in different industries. In conclusion, the importance of intellectual capital is recognized in the football industry as evidenced by the quality and quantity of IC disclosure by some clubs. However, the variability in reporting of different components of intellectual capital suggests that there is considerable room for improvement if the key resources of the football industry are to be truly reflected in the accounting system.
The objective of this study is to examine CSR practices in the Maldives.
The perceptions of business and non-business stakeholders were analysed in order to identify CSR practices that are idiosyncratic to the Maldives and to reflect on the relevance of current mainstream CSR agenda for the Maldives. Surveys and in-depth interviews were used to draw the perceptions of a sample of 52 businesses and 36 non-business stakeholders. The study adopts an interpretive methodology to analyse the perceptions and to reflect on extant CSR theories.
The paper suggests mediocre CSR practices of businesses and lukewarm responses from non-business stakeholders in the Maldives. There is a difference between what businesses consider ought to be CSR practices (the normative) and their actual CSR practices. Businesses prefer to keep their CSR practices discreet as publicity may cause increasing demands from local communities for financial and other assistance. CSR practices in the Maldives are also influenced by the local Islamic culture. The meaning of CSR prevalent in the context of more advanced western economies may prove to be superfluous in the context of the Maldives, a small and developing Islamic country struggling to meet the basic needs of its people.
This study represents the first research on CSR activities in the Maldives. It contributes to existing literature by challenging the relevance of mainstream CSR practices to a developing economy.