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Book part
Publication date: 13 August 2014

Farah Mulyasari and Rajib Shaw

This chapter illustrates local responses to disaster and highlights the potential role of three community-based society organizations (CBSOs) – women’s groups, youth…

Abstract

This chapter illustrates local responses to disaster and highlights the potential role of three community-based society organizations (CBSOs) – women’s groups, youth groups, and religious groups – as risk communicators in Bandung, Indonesia. A framework is modeled for CBSOs’ risk communication process in bridging the gap between the local government and the community. A set of indicators in social, economic, and institutional resilience activities (SIERA), with a scope of 45 disaster risk reduction (DRR) activities covering three different disaster periods was developed to characterize the process of the delivery of risk information by these CBSOs through their activities at subdistrict and ward levels. The data were collected through a questionnaire survey method using the SIERA approach. Each CBSO leader in a ward was surveyed about their perceptions of these 45 ongoing SIERA activities and their risk information source and dissemination process. Statistical analysis was applied to determine the relationship between variables such as periods of disaster and types of SIERA activities and its attributing factors (location, population, and dynamic of organizations in their locale) in finding variations of risk communication activity that may function for communities. Five risk communication processes of the CBSOs are identified; when their perceptions and ongoing activities are compared, activities such as dissemination of disaster risk information, conveying early warnings to their peers, and involvement of the local government have been carried out by these CBSOs. This indicates that CBSOs’ activities already have a certain degree of risk communication embedded in the communities. The results confirm that these CBSOs, through their social networks, can become active agents of change and bridge the communication gap between government and community. Thus, CBSOs’ risk communication provides the opportunity to contribute to the overall resilience-building and disaster risk reduction as part of people-centered actions and local responses to disasters.

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Risks and Conflicts: Local Responses to Natural Disasters
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-821-1

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Book part
Publication date: 20 March 2012

Farah Mulyasari and Rajib Shaw

The understanding of the term “civil society” has been given in many references. One reference is given by the London School of Economics Centre for Civil Society (2011)

Abstract

The understanding of the term “civil society” has been given in many references. One reference is given by the London School of Economics Centre for Civil Society (2011), and its working definition is rather illustrative. Civil society, according to them, refers to the arena of collective action around shared interests, purposes, and values. The civil society commonly embraces a diversity of spaces, actors, and institutional forms, and varies in the degree of formality, autonomy, and power. Civil societies are often populated by organizations such as registered charities, development nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), professional associations, and community groups, such as women, youth, and faith-based or religious organizations. Those groups are seen as the nearest to the grassroots level and therefore could best accommodate their aspirations and needs. These groups are referred hereafter as Civil Society Organizations (CSOs).

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Community-Based Disaster Risk Reduction
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-868-8

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Book part
Publication date: 6 July 2011

Farah Mulyasari, Yukiko Takeuchi and Rajib Shaw

Following the adoption of the Hyogo Framework for Action, various disaster educational materials (UN/ISDR, 2006) that are described as “tools,” taken in various forms such…

Abstract

Following the adoption of the Hyogo Framework for Action, various disaster educational materials (UN/ISDR, 2006) that are described as “tools,” taken in various forms such as in printed materials (booklets, leaflets, textbooks, handbooks/guidebooks, and posters) and nonprinted materials (activities, games, and practices) were developed. These tools have an important function in communicating the disaster education to the public via formal, non-formal, and informal education, which may take place at school, at home, and/or within the community. In addition, media may also serve as a communication tool. Talero (2004) proposed that the modern communications nowadays have provided information for the growing public demand for related information, which can be used as educational aids to reduce the gap between scientific knowledge and civic awareness.

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Disaster Education
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-738-4

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Book part
Publication date: 30 March 2011

Farah Mulyasari, Rajib Shaw and Yukiko Takeuchi

The fact that the world is becoming increasingly urbanized is recognized by the United Nations (UNFPA, 2007) in the State of the World Population Report as the “The Urban…

Abstract

The fact that the world is becoming increasingly urbanized is recognized by the United Nations (UNFPA, 2007) in the State of the World Population Report as the “The Urban Millennium.” In year 1950, 30% of the world's population lived in cities and as of recently, the population has reached up to 50%, making year 2007 a turning point in the history of urban population growth (Bigio, 2003; Kreimer, Arnold, & Caitlin, 2003; UN-HABITAT, 2007). By year 2030, the United Nations expects more than 60% of population to be living in cities (Munich Re, 2005). And as shown by Surjan and Shaw (2009), by year 2050, the world's urban population is expected to grow by 3 billion people. Most of this growth will take place in developing countries, with the urban population in cities and towns doubling. As it has been summarized, from 1991 to 2005, more than 3.5 billion people were affected by disasters; more than 950,000 people have taken their lives unwillingly and damages have reached nearly 1,193 billion US dollars. Developing countries will suffer the most from climate change, since they are disproportionally affected and have intrinsic vulnerabilities to hazards and so far have struggled in increasing the capacity for risk reduction measures (Wahlström, 2009). Nevertheless, by contrast, even in the largest and wealthiest countries, which have diversified economies and risk transfer mechanisms, the loss has topped an amount of billions of US dollars, as was the case with Hurricane Katrina in USA in 2005. It has been confirmed with facts over the last two decades (1988–2007) that 76% of all disaster events were hydrological, meteorological, or climatological in nature, whether it occurred in urban or in rural areas.

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Climate and Disaster Resilience in Cities
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-319-5

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Book part
Publication date: 6 July 2011

Yukiko Takeuchi, Farah Mulyasari and Rajib Shaw

Generally, family and community have a great deal of local experience and local knowledge of disaster. Disaster education for family and community is aimed at recognizing…

Abstract

Generally, family and community have a great deal of local experience and local knowledge of disaster. Disaster education for family and community is aimed at recognizing the characteristics of a disaster and the existing social situation for the purpose of acquiring general knowledge of disasters, usually at school. Community and family structures and roles differ according to character and location such as urban, rural, coastal, near rivers, and near mountains, among others. In recent times, people's participation in the community has been affected by social changes. Earlier, historical local disaster prevention methods were passed on to other family/community members through daily activity. Recently, however, the characteristics of disasters have changed such that people now need to prepare for disasters of which they have no experience and about which they have difficulty obtaining information. It is thus necessary for communities and families to know different scenarios of disaster. “Community-Based Disaster Risk Management” is difficult to establish without linking community and household. For instance, many types of associations can be found in the community, but some do not play a direct role in disaster prevention and management. However, these associations have strong human relationships and much local knowledge. As an example, family members traditionally take care of children and old and handicapped people. Presently, lifestyles and social systems have changed such as long-distance commuting, both husband and wife working, weak family relationships, fewer children, aging, and unstable economies, among others. It is therefore necessary to carry out disaster prevention education aimed at building local capacity for disaster prevention, after determining the situation in the community and family and the roles people in the community play.

Details

Disaster Education
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-738-4

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Book part
Publication date: 6 July 2011

Abstract

Details

Disaster Education
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-738-4

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Book part
Publication date: 30 March 2011

Abstract

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Climate and Disaster Resilience in Cities
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-319-5

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Book part
Publication date: 17 December 2013

Abstract

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Risks and Conflicts: Local Responses to Natural Disasters
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-821-1

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Book part
Publication date: 20 March 2012

Abstract

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Community-Based Disaster Risk Reduction
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-868-8

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Abstract

Details

Risks and Conflicts: Local Responses to Natural Disasters
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-821-1

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