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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2016

Dongyoo Han, Daniel F. Mahony and T. Christopher Greenwell

– The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between cultural value orientations and sport fan motivations.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between cultural value orientations and sport fan motivations.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from American and Korean college students. Three separate multivariate analysis of covariance revealed sport fan motivations differ across nationality and cultural value orientation.

Findings

The current study provided empirical support for the assumption that individualism-collectivism influences sport fan motivations and geographically different sport consumers. Also, the outcomes were consistent with the previous literature which found sport fan motivations differ across nationality (the USA and South Korea).

Originality/value

In combination with prior research, the findings of this study offer suggestions for how marketers could differentiate their marketing strategies for culturally diverse sport consumers.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 17 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article
Publication date: 17 November 2020

Shuguang Zhao and Xuan Wu

“Fostered idols” refer to entertainment idols and young stars-in-the-making who begin their careers as amateurs. Today, the fostered idol model has become increasingly…

Abstract

Purpose

“Fostered idols” refer to entertainment idols and young stars-in-the-making who begin their careers as amateurs. Today, the fostered idol model has become increasingly popular in China, and fans demonstrate incredible consumption power. Despite the booming market, little is known about this phenomenon. Therefore, this study aims to explore fansmotivations and consumption practices from the consumer’s perspective within the framework of self-determination theory.

Design/methodology/approach

In all 20 in-depth interviews with fostered idol fans were conducted through online phone calls. The interviews were recorded, transcribed and subsequently analysed using a grounded approach.

Findings

The results indicate that fans’ consumption practices are motivated both intrinsically and extrinsically. Intrinsic motivation includes sensory pleasure while extrinsic motivations are composed of a sense of being needed and a sense of success. Extrinsic motivations play a dominant role and reflect the needs of relatedness and competence. Additionally, consumption practices are found to be consistent with motivations.

Research limitations/implications

The results show the crucial role of psychological satisfaction experienced by fans in the consumption of the fostered idol and highlight the importance of a relatedness- and competence-supportive environment to secure fans’ persistent consumption and loyalty.

Originality/value

This study focuses on fans of fostered idols that has not been explored in existing studies and offers valuable insights regarding the similarities and differences between fan consumption in China and other Asian countries. The results will inform marketing practitioners for the development of effective strategies and business decisions.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 38 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

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Article
Publication date: 2 April 2020

Joana César Machado, Carla Carvalho Martins, Frederico Correia Ferreira, Susana C. Silva and Paulo Alexandre Duarte

Social network sites are key marketing tools that allow brands to connect and engage with consumers. However, there is still a lack of evidence of their value for football…

Abstract

Purpose

Social network sites are key marketing tools that allow brands to connect and engage with consumers. However, there is still a lack of evidence of their value for football brands. This research aims to understand the motivations for fans to engage with their favourite football brands on Facebook and Instagram.

Design/methodology/approach

An online survey was performed, resulting in 214 valid responses. As the social media strategy followed by the football brand analysed was built around games, the authors divided fans into two groups based on the main method in which the club's games are watched: in stadium versus mediated. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to explore the relationship between motivations and fans' engagement, through content consumption and contribution, on Facebook and Instagram. Analysis was performed first with the whole sample and then by group (stadium attendance vs mediated attendance fans).

Findings

The findings show that social influence, entertainment, searching for information and rewards are the most relevant motivations for consumers to engage with brand-related content on Facebook. Entertainment, rewards and social influence are the main motivations influencing consumer interactions on Instagram. Group moderation was only confirmed in the impact of social influence on Facebook page content consumption.

Originality/value

The results provide valuable insights into the social media marketing activities of sports brands, which will assist brand managers to develop strategies for effectively stimulating engagement with the different groups of fans.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 21 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article
Publication date: 29 May 2020

Faheem Gul Gilal, Naeem Gul Gilal, Beenish Tariq, Rehman Gul Gilal, Rukhsana Gul Gilal, Zhenxing Gong and Nisar Ahmed Channa

Using two theoretical lenses – social identity theory and generation cohort theory – the present study analyzes the influence of sport motivations (i.e., patriotism, drama…

Abstract

Purpose

Using two theoretical lenses – social identity theory and generation cohort theory – the present study analyzes the influence of sport motivations (i.e., patriotism, drama and excitement of the game, nostalgic associations, interest in star players and social influence) on the intentions to watch the International Cricket Council (ICC) Twenty-20 (T20) World Cup of three different generation cohorts (i.e., Generations X, Y and Z).

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from N = 499 cricket lovers from Pakistan based on a non-probability sampling technique. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA), confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), structural equation modeling (SEM) and multi-group modeling techniques were used as methods.

Findings

SEM results show that cricket fans' intentions to watch the T20 World Cup are positively influenced by patriotism, drama and excitement of the game, and social influence. The results of multi-group modeling reveal significant differences between Generation X-ers, Y-ers and Z-ers regarding the effect of sport motivations on their intentions to watch the ICC T20 World Cup. Specifically, our findings show that for X-ers, interest in star players and nostalgic associations are the main motivations behind watching the T20 World Cup, whereas drama and excitement appeared to be an important predictor for Y-ers, and patriotism and social influence are more likely to increase Z-ers' intentions to watch the T20 World Cup.

Originality/value

This study is the first of its kind to report the motivations of Generations X, Y and Z to watch the T20 World Cup.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 22 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2010

Kevin K Byon, Michael Cottingham and Michael S Carroll

This study examines the relationship between spectator motivation and sports consumption behaviours in the context of an adaptive sport. Respondents were spectators from…

Abstract

This study examines the relationship between spectator motivation and sports consumption behaviours in the context of an adaptive sport. Respondents were spectators from five matches held in the Midwest United States involving registered United States Quad Rugby Association teams. The Motivation Scale for Sport Consumption (MSSC; Trail & James, 2001) was adapted to measure spectator motivation and predict repatronage intentions and online media consumption among wheelchair rugby spectators. Results indicated that two spectator motivation factors, physical skill and knowledge, were related to repatronage intentions. In addition, knowledge and vicarious achievement were found to be related to online media consumption.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article
Publication date: 14 March 2016

Young Hoon Kim, Jen L. Duncan and Tun-Min (Catherine) Jai

The purposes of this paper is to segment spectators of collegiate football game using a cluster analysis and to determine differences between spectator clusters based on…

Abstract

Purpose

The purposes of this paper is to segment spectators of collegiate football game using a cluster analysis and to determine differences between spectator clusters based on motivations, satisfaction, and demographic characteristics.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey instrument was utilized, and a total of 407 usable data were gathered through a convenience sampling method at a main campus in the Southern USA. A discriminant analysis was employed to create cluster profiles including demographic variables not previously included in the clustering procedure. Cluster analysis is a procedure used to determine best group segmentation.

Findings

Through a factor-cluster analysis, two distinct groups are identified as attendees of collegiate football games: far-away fans and seasoned sideliners. Knowing the different spectators in event attendance allows marketers of collegiate sport events to effectively target segments and attract larger numbers of visitors to each event. Although the results indicated lower satisfaction with the far-away fans cluster, they are nonetheless spending their money at these events. A concerted effort to better welcome tourists that are supporting the visiting team may help boost their image of the local community and thus increase their spending level.

Originality/value

The current study adds to the literature on sport event research, while providing great insight for researchers and practitioners how to segment their target market. Therefore, it is believed that the results of the present study will help future researchers and industry practitioners make use of the implications and findings to broaden their knowledge about sport marketing.

Details

Sport, Business and Management: An International Journal, vol. 6 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-678X

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2009

Seungmo Kim, Damon P. S. Andrew and T. Christopher Greenwell

This study compared the motives and media consumption behaviours of American and South Korean spectators of Mixed Martial Arts. Significant cross-national differences were…

Abstract

This study compared the motives and media consumption behaviours of American and South Korean spectators of Mixed Martial Arts. Significant cross-national differences were noted in sport interest, vicarious achievement, aesthetics, national pride and violence. Backward regression analyses indicated that sport interest, fighter interest and drama predicted media consumption at the American event, while sport interest, drama and adoration were significant predictors at the Korean event.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 10 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2012

Sam Kaplan and Su Langdon

As the global economy expands, it would seem to be in the interests of the major professional sport leagues of the US to move into new markets, especially China, one of…

Abstract

As the global economy expands, it would seem to be in the interests of the major professional sport leagues of the US to move into new markets, especially China, one of the fastest growing and largest in the world. In order to sell effectively in this market, it is vital to gain an understanding of the potential fan base. To explore national differences in fandom, a survey was completed by sports fans in both China and the US to assess which sports participants followed and which media they used, to identify fan motives and their feelings about expansion. This study determined that there are clear differences between Chinese and Americans. While many of the Chinese were fans of American sports, they tended to follow individual athletes rather than teams and had relatively low fan identity but high levels of fan motivation. Motives also varied by country, with aesthetics and affiliation the primary motives among the Chinese sample. These distinctions can be utilised to create marketing strategies.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 14 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article
Publication date: 10 July 2017

Leah Gillooly, Christos Anagnostopoulos and Simon Chadwick

The purpose of this paper is to thematically categorise sports sponsorship-linked Twitter content and, by drawing on uses & gratifications theory, to map the extent to…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to thematically categorise sports sponsorship-linked Twitter content and, by drawing on uses & gratifications theory, to map the extent to which these categories cohere with known user motivations for consuming social media.

Design/methodology/approach

Qualitative content analysis of a sample of 1,502 tweets by London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games sponsors posted between January 2011 and September 2012 was used to develop the typology of sponsorship-linked Twitter content.

Findings

From the data, a typology is developed, comprising 17 categories grouped under four main types: informing, entertaining, rewarding and interacting. The majority of sponsor tweets (68 per cent) fell into the informing type, with 17 per cent categorised as interacting. While few (2 per cent) tweets were categorised as entertaining, the link to the sponsored event implies a degree of entertaining content even in ostensibly informative, rewarding or interactional sponsorship-linked tweets. Therefore, the typology categories highlight Twitter content produced by sponsors which engages customers, fostering dialogue alongside providing informative and entertaining content.

Practical implications

The typology can inform practitioners’ future sports sponsorship activation planning decisions and can also aid rights holders in tailoring appropriate sponsorship opportunities to potential sponsors, based on an appreciation of the nature of content sought by brand followers.

Originality/value

The typology extends existing understanding of the use of social media within sponsorship activation campaigns by thematically categorising content and mapping this against known user motivations for consuming brand-related social media content.

Details

Sport, Business and Management: An International Journal, vol. 7 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-678X

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2012

Youngjin Hur, Yong Jae Ko and Cathryn L. Claussen

This study empirically tested the Sport Website Acceptance Model (SWAM), proposed by Hur, Ko and Claussen (2007). The SWAM added Perceived Enjoyment (Davis et al, 1992…

Abstract

This study empirically tested the Sport Website Acceptance Model (SWAM), proposed by Hur, Ko and Claussen (2007). The SWAM added Perceived Enjoyment (Davis et al, 1992) and Perceived Trustworthiness (Belanger et al, 2002) to the two factors Perceived Ease of Use and Perceived Usefulness used in the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) (Davis, 1989). This study proposes a competing model to the original SWAM and compares this by incorporating two additional constructs, Sport Involvement (Shank & Beasley, 1998) and Psychological Commitment to a Team (Mahony et al, 2000). Structural equation modeling analyses revealed acceptable model fits, both in the original SWAM and in the competing model. Subsequent analyses led the authors to conclude that the competing model was the better version of the SWAM.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 13 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

Keywords

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