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Adopting an intra-organizational viewpoint is essential to grasp legal intermediation. To deepen our understanding of such phenomena, this chapter proposes a qualitative…
Adopting an intra-organizational viewpoint is essential to grasp legal intermediation. To deepen our understanding of such phenomena, this chapter proposes a qualitative and “multi-level” approach drawing on insights from the neo-institutional literature, policy ethnography analysis and the research on legal intermediaries. Such a perspective is particularly suited to capture the complexity and the depth of institutional change. Using the 12-hour work legal mechanism of derogation in the context of French public hospitals as an example, this chapter highlights how both macro-level actors (actors of a “reform network”), and micro-level ones (hospital directors) contribute to the shaping and framing of legality in French public hospitals. Results show that variation in how those actors use law depends on the local configuration. Second, results demonstrate that the legal games they play are not merely based on symbolic and superficial compliance with the law, but also on outright manipulations and conscious rule-breaking.
This paper aims to test the differences in the consumer complaint behaviour of Asian and non‐Asian hotel guests in terms of culture dimensions. It also aims to examine the…
This paper aims to test the differences in the consumer complaint behaviour of Asian and non‐Asian hotel guests in terms of culture dimensions. It also aims to examine the relationship between demographic factors (age, gender and education level) and complaint behaviour.
The paper adopts the Hofstede's typology of culture as a framework to investigate cultural differences and demographic characteristics in the complaint behaviour of hotel guests. A face‐to‐face interview survey is conducted to collect data in this research. Data are then analyzed by various statistical methods such as two‐way contingency table analysis, non‐parametric Mann‐Whitney U and Chi‐square tests.
The survey reveals that older complainants tend to resort to “public actions,” but people with a higher level of education tend not to complain publicly. In addition, Asian guests are less likely to complain to the hotel for fear of “losing face” and are less familiar with the channels for complaint than non‐Asian guests. They are more likely than non‐Asian guests to take private complaint action, such as making negative word‐of‐mouth comments. The findings also indicate that there is a significant relationship between “complaint encouraging factor” and respondents' nationality and between “effective complaint handling method” and respondents' nationality.
Few studies have focused on the cultural differences in complaint behaviour of Asians and non‐Asian hotel guests in the hotel industry. The result will be most valuable in assisting hotel managers and marketers to better understand the customer complaint behaviour and intentions both from the Asian and non‐Asian contexts, and help formulate strategies and tactics to effectively manage the customer complaint.
I WAS shopping in a strange town when my eyes caught the sign SECOND‐HAND BOOKS—SALE TODAY IN THE BASEMENT. An iron filing can no more resist a magnet than I can resist…
I WAS shopping in a strange town when my eyes caught the sign SECOND‐HAND BOOKS—SALE TODAY IN THE BASEMENT. An iron filing can no more resist a magnet than I can resist the probable pleasures of a second‐hand bookshop. I passed through the door and hurried below. The basement turned out to be a cellar, but it was clean except for the air, which was bookishly musty. I turned my attention to the tables where the books were displayed and knew, at a glance, that my errand would be fruitless. I was looking at a consignment of ex‐public library books.
A recent symposium was given by Sir William Savage, M.D., B.Sc., D.P.H., Mr. Morley Parry, M.R.San.I., M.S.I.A., Ministry of Food Hygiene Division, and Mr. A. Tyler, M.B.E., F.R.San.I., F.S.I.A., Chief Sanitary Inspector, Bath, to a meeting of health officers and representatives of the food trades. The subsequent discussion demonstrated the divergent views held in relation to food hygiene legislation and the conflict between ideals and practicability. Sir William, in his opening observations, speaking from the scientific aspect, showed a remarkably realistic approach to the problem. He referred primarily to the report of the Catering Trade Working Party and what are generally considered to be the three most valuable recommendations, the most important of which is that all catering establishments should be required to register with the appropriate authority; the second is that a special code of practice, called the Standard Code, should be defined and made legally enforceable; the third is that the existing deficiencies in legal powers as set out in the report should be removed by legislation. In dwelling for a short while on the Model Byelaws which the Ministry of Food issued in 1949, reference was made to the fact that, whilst it is appreciated that they cannot go beyond their limited purpose, many deficiencies are obvious. They have very limited practicability, being mainly concerned with requirements as to personal cleanliness of those who handle food, the protection of food from various possible sources of contamination, and certain requirements as to the wrapping of foods. These are all sound enough, but only touch the fringe of the problem. Whilst precise definitions are always most difficult in legal documents, especially when dealing with hygienic factors, the byelaws are particularly vague, as will be seen from the following examples: A person who handles food “ shall observe cleanliness both in regard to himself and his clothing ”. There is no definition of cleanliness and no subsequent requirements to attain it, such as the Catering Report sets out in its Target Code. Food should be covered in certain circumstances with “ suitable, clean material ”. Does a newspaper comply? Counters, floors, food utensils have to be cleaned “ as often as may be reasonably necessary ”. In the Standard and Target Codes these requirements are usually detailed, and so uniform, standard meanings can be accepted. In addition, the byelaws entirely fail to deal with the essentials of sound food hygiene. As the powers of the original Act were effected long before 1938, the standards are primarily those of visible cleanliness. We know now, however, that clean food is not necessarily safe food. This is abundantly demonstrated by the enormous increase, year by year, of recorded cases of food poisoning, most of it by food which would pass every standard of cleanliness for sight, smell and taste. All experts agree that, in the catering establishments, as the standard code requires, “ abundant supplies of water, both hot and cold, must be available ”. It is obvious that cleanliness to the point of freedom from pathogenic bacteria cannot be obtained otherwise, and sufficient sinks for washing must be available. Neither the Act nor the byelaws can enforce powers in this respect. It is sufficient, at present, to provide a gas‐ring and bucket of water in a food manufacturing room, and nothing more can be legally demanded. Sir William stressed that, if safe food was wanted and it was desired to reduce the present high toll of food poisoning, Local Authorities must be given adequate powers. Mr. Morley Parry confined his observations primarily to the defence of the model byelaws of the Ministry of Food, and his remarks admirably reflected the attitude of his particular division. He stated that, generally, we must admit that, within the past few years, the Public Health outlook of the man in the street has been developed along lines and to a degree for which sanitarians might have prayed, but for which they dared not hope, and that, for once, their opinions did not, in the main, lag behind the ideals of health officers. He qualified this, however, by stating that he was apprehensive of the fact that food hygiene might become a matter of glib phrases and catchwords, and that the public had quite readily seized on a few frequently repeated phrases that are but part of the food hygiene facts. He said that in the present position, at least theoretically, it should not be difficult to advance quickly to complete success. He deplored the entirely restrictive character of the previous set of model byelaws issued by the Ministry of Health in 1939, and said that the era of the sanitary policeman had gone, and thought it surprising that suggestions of punitive and restrictive legislation should be essential to success. He did not state how, with only permissive legislation, one would deal with the recalcitrant trader who would spend considerable amounts of money on a splendid shop‐front, but would remain content with a bucket and gas‐ring in his food manufacturing room; or how the progressive trader would view this unfair competition. In support of his argument he quoted what he termed the wonderful old phrase “ any premises in such a state as to be prejudicial to health ” and declared that the whole basis of the success of a sanitary officer's work in Public Health was built up by their predecessors on this one ambiguous phrase. He stated that the Ministry had three standards of judgment when any deviation or new byelaw was adjusted. The first was the essential practicability and reasonableness of the demand; secondly, whether the demand could be enforced with existing public health establishments; and, thirdly, that the deviation and new byelaw meet with general acceptance in the locality or be a prime necessity because of some specific local circumstance. Mr. Tyler reviewed the problem, and, having dealt with the wide adoption of the new byelaws, stated that this demonstrated that Local Authorities were prepared to make full use of the powers available. He also put some very pregnant questions as to whether the new food byelaws were an improvement on the powers possessed prior to their coming into operation, and whether they were adequate to deal effectively with the problem. He stated that the consensus of opinion among sanitary officers and food manufacturers in general was that the policeman attitude was certainly not enough. The majority of Authorities, however, were running extensive food hygiene courses for personnel employed in such work, the public, and, in some cases, children of school‐leaving age. He cited the stringent legislation in other countries which had resulted in an extremely high standard in food premises, and, although the legal penalties were extremely severe, they were rarely invoked. The subsequent discussion on this symposium showed that the opinions of the meeting, including many representatives of the food trades, were in favour of effective legislation, providing that this was lucid and equitable, and that Local Authorities must have adequate powers to deal with the very small minority of traders and manufacturers on whom advice and requests were wasted, and from whom the public must be protected. It is undoubtedly preferable to have legislation capable of a specific interpretation than a series of vague terms, such as “ reasonably necessary ”, “ suitable and efficient”, or “ a reasonable distance ”, which entail court cases to determine what exactly is meant by them. Such terms are capable of wide variations of interpretation, not only by the food trade but by the Public Health officers, resulting in a wide divergence of interpretation amongst Local Authorities.
LIBRARIES have come impressively into the public picture in the past year or two, and seldom with more effect than when Their Majesties the King and Queen opened the new Central Reference Library at Manchester on July 17th. In a time, which is nearly the end of a great depression, that the city which probably felt the depression more than any in the Kingdom should have proceeded with the building of a vast store‐house of learning is a fact of great social significance and a happy augury for libraries as a whole. His Majesty the King has been most felicitous in providing what we may call “slogans” for libraries. It will be remembered that in connection with the opening of the National Central Library, he suggested that it was a “University which all may join and which none need ever leave” —words which should be written in imperishable letters upon that library and be printed upon its stationery for ever. As Mr. J. D. Stewart said at the annual meeting of the National Central Library, it was a slogan which every public library would like to appropriate. At Manchester, His Majesty gave us another. He said: “To our urban population open libraries are as essential to health of mind, as open spaces to health of body.” This will be at the disposal of all of us for use. It is a wonderful thing that Manchester in these times has been able to provide a building costing £450,000 embodying all that is modern and all that is attractive in the design of libraries. The architect, Mr. Vincent Harris, and the successive librarians, Mr. Jast and Mr. Nowell, are to be congratulated upon the crown of their work.
AT the time of writing (Autumn 1966), those who are concerned with technical college libraries stand at a very interesting stage in the development of those services. I was reminded of this fact the other day when I was lunching with one of the College Principals who had been concerned with the ATI Memorandum on College Libraries in 1937. (That, as you may know, was a very forward‐looking document and outlined objectives, not all of which have yet been attained.)
The key characteristics that eventually came to be considered to be Australian ‘heavy metal’ emerged between 1965 and 1973. These include distortion, power, intensity…
The key characteristics that eventually came to be considered to be Australian ‘heavy metal’ emerged between 1965 and 1973. These include distortion, power, intensity, extremity, loudness and aggression. This exploration of the origins of heavy metal in Australia focusses on the key acts which provided its domestic musical foundations, and investigates how the music was informed by its early, alcohol-fuelled early audiences, sites of performance, media and record shops. Melbourne-based rock guitar hero Lobby Loyde’s classical music influence and technological innovations were important catalysts in the ‘heaviness’ that would typify Australian proto-metal in the 1960s. By the early 1970s, loud and heavy rock was firmly established as a driving force of the emerging pub rock scene. Extreme volume heavy rock was taken to the masses was Billy Thorpe & The Aztecs in the early 1970s whose triumphant headline performance at the 1972 Sunbury Pop Festival then established them as the most popular band in the nation. These underpinnings were consolidated by three bands: Sydney’s primal heavy prog-rockers Buffalo (Australia’s counterpart to Britain’s Black Sabbath), Loyde’s defiant Coloured Balls and the highly influential AC/DC, who successfully crystallised heavy Australian rock in a global context. This chapter explores how the archaeological foundations for Australian metal are the product of domestic conditions and sensibilities enmeshed in overlapping global trends. In doing so, it also considers how Australian metal is entrenched in localised musical contexts which are subject to the circulation of international flows of music and ideas.