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Article

Fang Liu, Jiacheng Zhou and Nu Yan

The purpose of this paper is to study the drop reliability of ball-grid array (BGA) solder joints affected by thermal cycling.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study the drop reliability of ball-grid array (BGA) solder joints affected by thermal cycling.

Design/methodology/approach

The drop test was made with the two kinds of chip samples with the thermal cycling or not. Then, the dyeing process was taken by these samples. Finally, through observing the metallographic analysis results, the conclusions could be found.

Findings

It is observed that the solder joint cracks which were only subjected to drop loads without thermal cycling appeared near the BGA package pads. The solder joint cracks which were subjected to drop loads with thermal cycling appear near the printed circuit board pads.

Originality/value

This paper obtains the solder joint cracks picture with drop test under the thermal cycling.

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 29 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

Keywords

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Article

Mingzhou Yu, Fang Liu, Julie Lee and Geoff Soutar

This study aims to understand the influence of negative publicity on brand image, brand attitude and brand purchase intention. Specifically, the study examines the role of…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to understand the influence of negative publicity on brand image, brand attitude and brand purchase intention. Specifically, the study examines the role of attribution (or brand blame) and information characteristics in Chinese consumers’ responses to negative publicity.

Design/methodology/approach

The study used a quasi-experimental approach involving two negative publicity scenarios (mild and high severity) and a sample of 203 young and educated Chinese consumers. Partial least squares was used to test the hypotheses.

Findings

A common assumption is that negative brand information has a negative influence on all aspects of a brand. However, this study finds that brand blame and information severity have differential effects on consumer evaluations of the affected brand. Specifically, brand blame negatively impacted attitudes and purchase intentions, but not brand image. In contrast, information severity negatively impacted brand image, but not attitudes or intentions. Further, the relations between brand image and brand attitudes and intentions depended on the level of information severity. In the mild-severity condition, brand image positively influenced attitudes and intentions, but not in the high-severity condition.

Research limitations/implications

Future research should examine consumer responses to negative publicity across different media and product categories. Cross-cultural studies should also be explored in the future.

Practical implications

When a brand encounters negative publicity, its marketer or brand manager should assess to what extent various brand equity components are influenced by negative publicity before adopting any cognitive-based or imagery-based communication strategies.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to the limited and fragmented literature on consumer response to negative publicity by examining the impact of consumer’s attributions of blame to the brand under conditions of mild and severe negative information on a range of important brand-related outcomes. Specifically, the authors find that negative publicity has a different impact on brand image, brand attitudes and intentions to purchase. The authors suggest that brand managers use this information to guide their marketing communications.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 27 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

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Article

Jun Wen, Metin Kozak, Shaohua Yang and Fang Liu

The 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak is projected to have adverse consequences on the global tourism and hospitality industry. This paper aims to examine how the…

Abstract

Purpose

The 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak is projected to have adverse consequences on the global tourism and hospitality industry. This paper aims to examine how the outbreak may alter Chinese tourists’ lifestyle choices, travel behaviour and tourism preferences in the short and long term.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper is based on the synthesis of news broadcasted by several media outlets to be supported by an overview of the related literature on tourism marketing, tourism management and tourist behaviour. The authors’ experiences investigating trends in tourism and hospitality at the local and international level have also contributed to the study.

Findings

This paper predicts that COVID-19 will likely affect Chinese travellers’ consumption patterns, such as the growing popularity of free and independent travel, luxury trips and health and wellness tourism. New forms of tourism including slow tourism and smart tourism may also drive future tourism activities. Such changes are likely to force businesses to reconsider their service designs and distribution channels.

Research limitations/implications

While Chinese and other potential visitors rethink how they travel, professionals, too, should reflect upon how to bring positive or negative changes to the tourism industry following this pandemic. Subsequent research should also consider how to mitigate the effects of similar public health crises in the future.

Practical implications

Recommendations for industry practitioners and policymakers focus on tailoring travel arrangements to tourists’ backgrounds. The suggestions may help to alleviate outbreak-related stress, offer travellers newly enriching experiences and partially mitigate the effects of COVID-19 on the tourism and hospitality industry. These recommendations can also apply more broadly to global tourist markets.

Social implications

The COVID-19 outbreak has already brought significant impacts to nearly every society and industry. Tourism scholars and practitioners should carefully consider this tragedy and how it may inform industry and social practices. This and other public health crises represent sterling opportunities to view the industry holistically in terms of its effects on the environment, climate and travellers themselves.

Originality/value

This paper presumably represents a frontier study, critically examining the possible impacts of COVID-19 on Chinese travellers’ consumption patterns and how the tourism and hospitality industry may respond to such changes in the future.

摘要

预计2019年新型冠状病毒(COVID-19)爆发将对全球旅游和酒店业产生不利影响。本文预测, COVID-19可能会影响中国旅客的消费方式, 例如自由行, 豪华旅行以及健康与养生旅游的普及。包括慢速旅游和智能旅游在内的新型旅游形式也可能推动未来的旅游活动。这种变化可能促使企业重新考虑其服务设计和分销渠道。针对行业从业者和政策制定者的建议着重于根据游客的背景和需求量身定制旅行安排。我们的建议可能有助于减轻与疫情暴发导致的压力, 为旅行者提供全新的丰富体验, 并从一定程度减轻COVID-19对旅游业和酒店业的影响。这些建议还可以更广泛地应用于全球旅游市场。

关键词

COVID-19, 生活方式 旅游行为 灾后 集体主义倾向 中国

El extracto

El impacto del COVID-19 se prevé importante en la actividad turística global y en la industria de la hostelería. Este artículo predice que el COVID-19 afectará con probabilidad alta los patrones de consumo de los viajeros chinos, incluyendo los cada vez más populares viajes comprados directamente por los consumidores chinos, en el segmento del lujo, y el turismo de salud y belleza. Nuevas formas de turismo, incluyendo el slow tourism, y el turismo responsable pueden convertirse en importantes tendencias de futuro igualmente. Dichos cambios llevarán con cierta seguridad a la industria a reconsiderar y adaptar su oferta de servicios en este sector, en particular su diseño y los canales de distribución utilizados. Las recomendaciones para la industria y los responsables de la política turística se alinean con una mayor proximidad de la oferta a los gustos cambiantes del consumidor. Dichas acciones ayudarán a reducir fricciones y fallos en la definición del negocio turístico, ofreciendo a los viajeros nuevas y enriquecedoras experiencias, así como podrán mitigar en parte los efectos adversos estimados del COVID-19, los cuales son relevantes a día de hoy. Así mismo, dichas recomendaciones son aplicables de una manera más global a la industria del turismo y la hospitalidad en el mercado mundial.

Palabras-clave

COVID-19, Estilo de vida, Conducta del viajero, Post-desastre, Orientacion collectivista, China

Details

Tourism Review, vol. 76 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1660-5373

Keywords

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Article

Sifeng Liu, Yingjie Yang, Naiming Xie and Jeffrey Forrest

The purpose of this paper is to summarize the progress in grey system research during 2000-2015, so as to present some important new concepts, models, methods and a new…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to summarize the progress in grey system research during 2000-2015, so as to present some important new concepts, models, methods and a new framework of grey system theory.

Design/methodology/approach

The new thinking, new models and new methods of grey system theory and their applications are presented in this paper. It includes algorithm rules of grey numbers based on the “kernel” and the degree of greyness of grey numbers, the concept of general grey numbers, the synthesis axiom of degree of greyness of grey numbers and their operations; the general form of buffer operators of grey sequence operators; the four basic models of grey model GM(1,1), such as even GM, original difference GM, even difference GM, discrete GM and the suitable sequence type of each basic model, and suitable range of most used grey forecasting models; the similarity degree of grey incidences, the closeness degree of grey incidences and the three-dimensional absolute degree of grey incidence of grey incidence analysis models; the grey cluster model based on center-point and end-point mixed triangular whitenization functions; the multi-attribute intelligent grey target decision model, the two stages decision model with grey synthetic measure of grey decision models; grey game models, grey input-output models of grey combined models; and the problems of robust stability for grey stochastic time-delay systems of neutral type, distributed-delay type and neutral distributed-delay type of grey control, etc. And the new framework of grey system theory is given as well.

Findings

The problems which remain for further studying are discussed at the end of each section. The reader could know the general picture of research and developing trend of grey system theory from this paper.

Practical implications

A lot of successful practical applications of the new models to solve various problems have been found in many different areas of natural science, social science and engineering, including spaceflight, civil aviation, information, metallurgy, machinery, petroleum, chemical industry, electrical power, electronics, light industries, energy resources, transportation, medicine, health, agriculture, forestry, geography, hydrology, seismology, meteorology, environment protection, architecture, behavioral science, management science, law, education, military science, etc. These practical applications have brought forward definite and noticeable social and economic benefits. It demonstrates a wide range of applicability of grey system theory, especially in the situation where the available information is incomplete and the collected data are inaccurate.

Originality/value

The reader is given a general picture of grey systems theory as a new model system and a new framework for studying problems where partial information is known; especially for uncertain systems with few data points and poor information. The problems remaining for further studying are identified at the end of each section.

Details

Grey Systems: Theory and Application, vol. 6 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2043-9377

Keywords

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Article

Fang Liu, Irene Hau-Siu Chow, Dan Xiao and Man Huang

The purpose of this paper is to examine the mediation role of psychological ownership for the organization (PO-O) in the relationships between human resource management…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the mediation role of psychological ownership for the organization (PO-O) in the relationships between human resource management (HRM) bundle and job satisfaction, affective commitment and job performance.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on multilevel data analysis, 705 employees from 162 small- and medium-sized enterprises in China, this study adopted an empirical design.

Findings

PO-O mediates the relationships between HRM bundle and job satisfaction, affective commitment and job performance.

Research limitations/implications

These findings highlight the importance of HRM bundle to contribute to employees’ feelings of ownership for the organization and their well-being and job performance. Longitudinal design and multiple sources at multi-stage for data collection in future research would be required for the further understanding of the relationships between the variables of this study. A single organizational and cultural context is not sufficient; broader testing in different organizational and cultural contexts is required.

Practical implications

Managers should develop employees’ feeling of ownership by using HRM bundle. They can thus gain a competitive advantage by enhancing employees’ skills, knowledge and abilities, as well as improving their well-being and performance.

Originality/value

This study extends the current literature by providing theoretical and empirical explanations of the mediating role of psychological ownership in the HRM bundle-employee outcomes relationship using a cross-level research design.

Details

Chinese Management Studies, vol. 11 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-614X

Keywords

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Article

Dessy Kurnia Sari, Dick Mizerski and Fang Liu

This paper aims to investigate the motivations behind Muslim consumers’ boycotting of foreign products. The act of boycotting foreign products has become increasingly…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the motivations behind Muslim consumers’ boycotting of foreign products. The act of boycotting foreign products has become increasingly common among Muslim consumers. Products from different countries-of-origin are their boycott targets.

Design/methodology/approach

The study adopted semi-structured in-depth interviews and focus-group discussions for data collection. A total of 36 Indonesian subjects participated in the study, representing the “university student” and “non-university student” samples. Leximancer, a qualitative analytical tool, was used to identify important motivations for boycotting behaviour among Muslim consumers.

Findings

Contrary to previous findings, this study found that Muslim consumers do not boycott solely for religious reasons. For example, most participants reported they boycotted Chinese products because they would like to protect their local products, along with the religious-based motivation of rejecting uncertainty about the halal certification of the products. Thus, the motivations identified from this study were not related exclusively to religion.

Practical implications

The present study offers new insights into the religious and secular motivations of Muslim consumers’ boycotts. Foreign products should adopt localised strategies such as repeatedly reminding consumers of the true halal nature of their products and their contribution to the local people.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the recognition of new insights into Muslim motivation to boycott product. The results develop important concepts surrounding the issue of boycotting foreign products. A concept map has been produced to offer a more comprehensive picture of Muslim’s boycotting behaviour.

Details

Journal of Islamic Marketing, vol. 8 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0833

Keywords

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Article

Shi-quan Jiang, Si-feng Liu, Zhi-geng Fang and Zhong-xia Liu

The purpose of this paper is to study distance measuring and sorting method of general grey number.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study distance measuring and sorting method of general grey number.

Design/methodology/approach

First, the concept of generalised grey number based on grey system theory is given in this paper. Second, from the perspective of kernel and degree of greyness of general grey number, the method of measuring the distance of general grey number and its properties are given. At the same time, the concepts of the kernel expectation and the kernel variance of the general grey number are proposed.

Findings

Up to now, the method of measuring the distance and sorting of general grey number is established. Thus, the difficult problem for set up sorting of general grey number has been solved to a certain degree.

Research limitations/implications

The method exposed in this paper can be used to integrate information form a different source. Distance measuring and sorting method of general grey number could be extended to the case of grey algebraic equation, grey differential equation and grey matrix which includes general grey numbers, etc.

Originality/value

The concepts of the kernel expectation and the kernel variance of the general grey number are proposed for the first time in this paper; the novel sorting rules of general grey numbers were also constructed.

Details

Grey Systems: Theory and Application, vol. 7 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2043-9377

Keywords

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Article

San-dang Guo, Sifeng Liu and Zhigeng Fang

The purpose of this paper is to establish the algorithm rules of the interval grey numbers and propose a new ranking method of the interval grey numbers.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to establish the algorithm rules of the interval grey numbers and propose a new ranking method of the interval grey numbers.

Design/methodology/approach

The definitions of “kernels” based on lower measure, upper measure or moderate measure are given according to the properties of the interval grey number problems. By means of the measurement error, the concept of the absolute degree of greyness and the relative degree of greyness corresponding to different “kernel” are given, and different simplified forms of the interval grey numbers are put forward.

Findings

The definitions of “kernel” and the degree of greyness in this paper not only take the upper limit, lower limit and the coverage of the interval grey numbers into account, but also avoid the inconsistency of the degree of greyness caused by the different universe of discourse.

Research limitations/implications

Though the method proposed in this paper has some deficiencies, such as the definition of relative degree of greyness is meaningless when the kernel of the interval grey number is 0, it provides a new idea for calculating and sorting the interval grey numbers and is conducive to the further development of the grey system theory.

Originality/value

The method proposed in this paper can not only distinguish interval grey numbers in different situations, but also avoid the inconsistency of the degree of greyness caused by the different universe of discourse. In this basis, the interval grey number algorithm is established and a new ranking method of interval grey numbers is given.

Details

Grey Systems: Theory and Application, vol. 7 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2043-9377

Keywords

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Article

Fang Liu, Irene Hau-Siu Chow and Man Huang

Drawing on both social identity theory (SIT) and social exchange theory (SET), the purpose of this paper is to theorize a moderated mediation model that links perceived…

Abstract

Purpose

Drawing on both social identity theory (SIT) and social exchange theory (SET), the purpose of this paper is to theorize a moderated mediation model that links perceived high-performance work systems (employee-HPWS) to organizational identification (OID).

Design/methodology/approach

Findings are based on two-waved time-lagged data from a sample of 306 employees in four major state-owned commercial banks in South China. Hierarchical regression analyses and bootstrapping were used to analyze the data.

Findings

Distributive, procedural and interpersonal justice mediated the positive relationship between employee-HPWS and OID. Besides, perceived supervisor support moderated the relationship between employee-HPWS and organizational justice, the relationship between procedural justice and OID, and the indirect effect of employee-HPWS on OID through procedural justice.

Originality/value

This study considers the mediating and moderating mechanisms that link HPWS to OID, highlights differences between firm-level management-HPWS and individual-level employee-HPWS, and examines the antecedents of employee OID based on both SET and SIT.

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Article

Anoop Kumar Sahu, Nitin Kumar Sahu, Atul Kumar Sahu, Harendra Kumar Narang and Mridul Singh Rajput

In the presented research, the authors have conducted the literature review and organised real interviews of fruit retailers (FRs) to construct the advanced hierarchical…

Abstract

Purpose

In the presented research, the authors have conducted the literature review and organised real interviews of fruit retailers (FRs) to construct the advanced hierarchical structural (AHS) chain of macro-micro parameters for measuring the performances of defined fruit supply bazaars (FSBs). Apart from this, the purpose of this paper is to develop the grey set-based scorecard model for solving the proposed AHS chain of macro-micro parameters.

Design/methodology/approach

The performance of FSBs is linked with the supply of fruits towards clients under a feasible rate, which circuitously depends upon the evaluation of the economic locality of FSBs. The authors developed an advanced hierarchical structure of macro-micro parameters via a literature survey and considered these parameters based on the sampling score of FRs corresponding to select feasible FSBs/alternatives. Furthermore, the authors developed a grey set-based scorecard model for undertaking the incomplete information of FRs against the hierarchical structure.

Findings

It is found that the work is well suited for FRs as they can measure the performances of defined FSBs in accordance with their own opinions under the proposed AHS of macro-micro parameters. Apart from this, the work is useful for benchmarking the vegetable supply bazaars (VSBs) on the replacement of AHS. The proposed hierarchical structure with a grey-based scorecard model is flexible in its nature and can undertake more than 1,000 macro-micro parameters and FRs to access potential decision.

Originality/value

The conducted research work has a precise value for evaluating the economic FSB locality. The overall performance scores of considered FSB localities are computed as (∂1)=1.991, (∂2)=2.567 and (∂3)=2.855, where (∂3) is found to be more significant than available FSBs. This work can be used for opting the economic locality of VSB too.

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