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Article
Publication date: 7 September 2021

Doaa Fathy, Mohamed H. Elsharnouby and Ehab AbouAish

Customer engagement, as one form of interactive marketing, enhances organisational performance, in terms of sales growth, superior competitive advantage and increased…

Abstract

Purpose

Customer engagement, as one form of interactive marketing, enhances organisational performance, in terms of sales growth, superior competitive advantage and increased profitability, particularly within the sports context. This research aims to explore fans' engagement behaviours with their sports teams and identify its drivers and outcomes.

Design/methodology/approach

The researchers deployed mixed methods in this study via three phases: (1) A judgmental sampling technique, along with snowballing, were used to conduct in-depth interviews with twenty-two football fans, for the exploratory phase; (2) A convenience sample was also used for the quantitative phase, which was divided into two stages, (1) the pretesting stage (30 fans), and (2) the main data collection stage (407 fans) and (3) A judgmental sampling technique was applied for the qualitative validation phase (10 interviews with experts and practitioners).

Findings

Qualitative and quantitative results supported team jealousy, team competitiveness and team morality as new predictors for fan engagement behaviours. Further, while the fan role readiness had the most positive effect on management cooperation, team identification had the most predicting power for prosocial behaviour. Finally, team morality had the most significant positive impact on performance tolerance.

Originality/value

Despite the considerable practical attention, and the recent extensive research, paid towards conceptualising customer engagement behaviours in the last decade, there is still a need for further exploration on the fan engagement concept to better understand fans' unique behavioural responses; accordingly, the current research was conducted.

Details

Journal of Research in Interactive Marketing, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7122

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Article
Publication date: 30 April 2020

Jennifer L. Harker and Jonathan A. Jensen

The purpose of this research is to extend current knowledge regarding rivalry communication among sport consumers to better understand how rivals behave with one another…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this research is to extend current knowledge regarding rivalry communication among sport consumers to better understand how rivals behave with one another when they communicate.

Design/methodology/approach

This national survey of US sport consumers used a novel approach to explore whether and with whom rivals discuss National Football League (NFL) game outcomes. The survey captured both uniplex and multiplex data by asking respondents to name rival discussants with whom they had recently interacted, and the fan behaviors they exchanged with those named rival discussants.

Findings

Through use of this novel data collection approach, new findings were uncovered related to blasting, glory out of reflective failure, schadenfreude and the influence of team identification on the exchange of rivalry fan behaviors. The results of the uniplex and multiplex data analyses uniquely showcase the ways in which social identity theory combines with team identification to enact rivalry behavior.

Originality/value

This research is the first to precisely dichotomize the psychological antecedents from the communicated behavior between rival fans. Results reveal the precise ways in which team identification influences discordant communication between rival fans, which differs from past research in an interesting new way.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 21 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article
Publication date: 23 July 2020

Brian H. Yim and Kevin K. Byon

The purpose of this study was to examine the millennial fans decision-making process in connection with various sport consumption behaviors (i.e. game attendance, TV…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to examine the millennial fans decision-making process in connection with various sport consumption behaviors (i.e. game attendance, TV viewing, participation in online activities, and participation in social media activities) using a modified model of goal-directed behavior (i.e. Sport Fan MGB).

Design/methodology/approach

We collected data using Amazon Mechanical Turk (N = 222) to test the hypothesized model. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to examine the psychometric properties of the measurement model, and structural equation modeling (SEM) was employed to test the hypotheses.

Findings

Sport Fan MGB was found have good psychometric properties. In addition, the findings indicate that the Sport Fan MGB explained various millennial fan behaviors (i.e., event attendance, TV viewing, online activity participation, and social media activity participation).

Originality/value

This paper examined the validity of the Sport Fan MGB and improved the predictability of the millennial fans' sport consumption behavior decision-making process.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 21 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article
Publication date: 19 September 2019

Inje Cho, Minseong Kim and Kiki Kaplanidou

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationships between sport team authenticity, fan identity and citizenship behaviors, and how the link between sport team…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationships between sport team authenticity, fan identity and citizenship behaviors, and how the link between sport team authenticity and fan identity is moderated by sponsor philanthropy.

Design/methodology/approach

A web survey was distributed to baseball fans in an online community in South Korea. A total of 383 valid answered questionnaires were collected and tested with confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling.

Findings

The findings suggested interrelationships between sport teams’ brand authenticity and fan identity and between fan identity and citizenship behavior. This work also confirms the moderating effect of a title sponsor’s philanthropic activities on the relationship between sport team authenticity and fan identity.

Practical implications

A sport team’s effort to maintain authenticity would intensify fan identity levels. Action plans that relate to team’s authenticity among fans are necessary. For example, the team could create a plan for the players to give back to the community by volunteering in community projects with the support of the sponsor. Building a team’s authentic culture with well-integrated philanthropy programs of a title sponsor would benefit the team in sustaining competitive advantages in a market.

Originality/value

The findings contribute to the literature by demonstrating the role of title sponsor’s philanthropic behavior on the sport industry. The relative importance of the team’s authenticity (congruency and fan orientation) for fan identity was increased when the perception of the sponsor’s philanthropy was high.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 21 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article
Publication date: 19 February 2019

Ayman Abdo Harb, Deborah Fowler, Hyo Jung (Julie) Chang, Shane C. Blum and Wejdan Alakaleek

This study relied on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) to assess factors that affected event fans’ decisions regarding their intention to attend events by using social…

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4072

Abstract

Purpose

This study relied on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) to assess factors that affected event fans’ decisions regarding their intention to attend events by using social network websites. The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of event fans’ attitudes, subjective norms and perceived behavioral control on their intentions to go to events based on social networking sites (SNSs) marketing. In addition, the researchers examined the impact of perceived enjoyment on event fans’ attitudes towards events pages on SNS.

Design/methodology/approach

This study used a quantitative research method and used an online survey distributed on Qualtrics and based on the TPB. Populations in the study were followers of events pages on Facebook, Twitter and Instagram. The sample was convenience.

Findings

By using the partial least square-structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM), the study found that all the research hypothesis were supported except (H2). While event fans’ attitudes had not a statistically significant impact on their behavioral intentions towards using social media to go to events (H2), perceived enjoyment had a statistically significant impact on event fans’ attitudes towards events pages on SNS (H1). According to the research findings, event fans were influenced by their subjective norms (H3) and perceived behavioral control (H4). These factors significantly influenced event fans’ behavioral intention, which led to their actual behavior (H5).

Practical implications

This study provided evidence supporting that subjective norms and perceived behavioral control were effective in forming intention towards events page, which in turn affected actual behavior, while perceived enjoyment was effective in forming events fan attitudes towards events’ social media pages. This may indicate a need for positive images of the events depicted through social media. In addition, when using social media as a marketing medium for events, event marketers and organizers should understand how other important people’s opinions and perceptions affect the intention and behavior formation. This implies the need to stress the social acceptance of the events, and use family ties, family and other social-units elements of events.

Social implications

This study provided statistical evidence supporting the applicability of the TPB within the context of event marketing and using social media. This implies a better understanding of the rational decision-making process, along with the social factors affecting the process of forming behavioral intentions and intentions. Furthermore, perceived enjoyment was incorporated within the model. Perceived enjoyment was effective in forming positive attitudes towards events’ social media pages. This highlights the need to provide information and contents in an enjoyable and user-friendly way.

Originality/value

The value of this study is derived from its aim to highlight the importance of social media as an effective marketing tool for events. Moreover, this study sought to contribute to the literature on social media by exploring how social media affected event attendees’ behavior and attitudes and by gauging the impact of social media on the event industry.

研究目的

本论文以计划行为理论为基础, 旨在评估通过社交网站来影响会展顾客参会意愿的各项因素。本论文基于社交网络营销, 检验其会展顾客态度、主观规范、以及感知行为控制等对于顾客参会意愿的影响因素。此外, 本论文研究人员还检验感知享受如何影响会展顾客对社交网络上会展主页的态度。

研究设计/方法/途径

本论文采用定量研究方法, 借用在线问卷采样方式, Qualtrics 作为问卷发放平台, 以计划行为理论为基础。本论文的研究人群是在 Facebook、Twitter、和 Instagram 上会展主页的粉丝顾客。本论文采用便捷采样方式。

研究结果

本论文采用偏最小二乘回归方程(PLS-SEM)统计方法检验研究假设, 并发现, 除 H2 外其他假设论断均成立。会展顾客对于使用社交媒体的态度并未显著影响其参会意愿(H2), 然而, 感知享受对于会展顾客粉丝社交网站上会展主页有着显著影响(H1)。研究结果表明, 会展顾客的态度受到主观规范(H3)和感知行为控制(H4)的影响。这些因素均显著影响了会展顾客的参会意愿, 最终导致实际参会行为(H5)。

研究理论限制/意义

本论文采用实际测量数据以应用计划行为理论在会展营销和社交媒体的研究。此外, 本论文测试了三种不同社交媒体:Facebook、Twitter、和 Instagram 的粉丝用户。其研究结果证实了本论文采用的理论框架对于不同领域和社交媒体背景下的有效性。

研究实践意义

本论文用数据证实了主观规范和感知行为控制对会展粉丝参会意愿有着显著影响, 其最终导致真正参会行为。本论文还证实了感知享受显著影响了顾客粉丝会展社交主页的态度。其研究结果表明会展企业有必要在社交媒体上树立积极的会展形象。此外, 会展营销人员和组织者在使用社交媒体作为营销手段的时候, 应该认识到其他人的意见和感知对于参会人员的意愿和行为产生影响。

研究原创性/价值

本论文的研究价值主要是其强调社交媒体作为会展有效营销手段的重要性。此外, 本论文还探索了社交媒体如何影响参会人员的行为和态度, 以及社交媒体对于整个会展行业的影响, 这将对社交媒体有关的研究有着积极的贡献。

关键词

关键词偏最小二乘, 社交媒体, 社交媒体营销, 社交媒体参与, 事件营销, 计划行为理论

Details

Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Technology, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-9880

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Article
Publication date: 13 November 2017

Lingyun Guo, Mingli Zhang, Kai Kang and Mu Hu

Drawing upon the social cognitive and customer engagement theories, the purpose of this paper is to investigate how individuals’ simple follow, purely aiming for…

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1449

Abstract

Purpose

Drawing upon the social cognitive and customer engagement theories, the purpose of this paper is to investigate how individuals’ simple follow, purely aiming for information but with little contribution, could affect fans behavior and make them engage in company social network (CSN). The study identifies the impact of personal motivators (follower participation motivation), environmental antecedents (perception of information quality) and individual behavior (fan engagement behavior and stickiness) on CSNs and examines the interaction relationship between the follower participation motivation and perception of information quality.

Design/methodology/approach

Data collected from 392 valid questionnaires from WeChat Official Account users were analyzed by structural equation modeling.

Findings

Personal factor such as follower participation motivation (intrinsic and extrinsic motivator) was found to be significant predictor of fan engagement behavior. Environmental factor (perception of information quality: perceived usefulness as well as perceived entertainment) was a significant factor in determining followers’ proclivity to engage in CNSs. One significant interaction effect was found: the effect of perceived entertainment on fan engagement behavior was manifested to a greater extent when followers’ participation aimed for intrinsic motivator. The second interaction effect, between the extrinsic motivator and perceived usefulness, was also found to be statistically significant.

Originality/value

This study enriches and extends the studies on the theories of customer engagement and social cognitive theory. It applies the above theories to CSNs and advances CSNs research by taking into consideration both personal and environmental factors (follower participation motivation and perception of information quality), and the interaction effects of the two on individual behavior.

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 1999

Kenneth A. Hunt, Terry Bristol and R. Edward Bashaw

Develops a classification or typology of the sports fan. Specifically, contends that five different types of sports fans exist: temporary, local, devoted, fanatical, and…

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19522

Abstract

Develops a classification or typology of the sports fan. Specifically, contends that five different types of sports fans exist: temporary, local, devoted, fanatical, and dysfunctional. The need exists to identify the different types of fans due to the inadequacies of past theories to explain the totality of fan behavior. The usefulness of the typology is demonstrated by offering specific segmentation strategies for each classification. Finally, directions for future research are presented.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 13 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

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Article
Publication date: 18 January 2008

Pedro Dionísio, Carmo Leal and Luiz Moutinho

The aim of this paper is to identify the existence of tribal behaviour in football fans and the impact of this tribalism on the consumption of brands associated with the…

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13140

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this paper is to identify the existence of tribal behaviour in football fans and the impact of this tribalism on the consumption of brands associated with the club. The intention is not to recognize tribal relationships between fans and their club but to identify to what extent the fan commitment level can impact the preference for sponsor brands.

Design/methodology/approach

Two focus groups were made with two distinct types of club supporters, namely the members of one supportive organized group and another with highly‐devoted fans.

Findings

Research questions posed in this study were mostly confirmed: football‐devoted supporters have a kind of cult with their club and it is possible to distinguish several distinct fan typologies varying with the level of fan commitment. The associative behaviour of football fans is influenced by affiliation through the need for social recognition, socialization and symbolism. The study also reveals that devoted fans assume an effective knowledge of club association with some brands but they do not manifest an effective preference towards them.

Research limitations/implications

The main limitation refers to the restricted research scope, i.e. one country, one club and one supporting associative group.

Practical implications

Managerial implications are related to the club needing to maintain an open channel with supporters. Sponsor brands should also develop a long‐term strategy and support another sport besides football.

Originality/value

This paper provides exploratory research in an area of great popularity, relating tribal behaviours with brand strategies which involve millions of euros all over the world.

Details

Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-2752

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Article
Publication date: 17 May 2019

Nicholas Burton, Cheri Bradish and Melanie Dempsey

The purpose of this paper is to examine international football supporter behaviours within the context of national and socio-cultural identification, in an effort to…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine international football supporter behaviours within the context of national and socio-cultural identification, in an effort to better understand what role national identity plays in fan motivation and consumer behaviour for expatriate and non-domestic fans.

Design/methodology/approach

International football supporters across ten cultural and ethnic communities were surveyed throughout the 2014 Fédération Internationale de Football Association World Cup Finals, exploring the identification and new media socialisation behaviours of national team supporters in non-domestic markets.

Findings

The study’s findings provide evidence of the role identification plays in informing national and ethnic identities. Supporting one’s home or ancestral national team reflects an important element of national identification and socio-cultural place for expatriate or non-domestic supporters of international football. Importantly, new media behaviours provide supporters with a formative and productive source of national team fan engagement and ethnocultural community creation, particularly for younger target audiences.

Practical implications

These results bear particular significance for theory and practice: the digital socialisation behaviours supporters engage in are integral components of identity building and communication. In better understanding the awareness and interest of geographically detached sport consumers, this study offers new perspective into the opportunities present for sport organisations and marketers in reaching non-domestic fan nations.

Originality/value

The findings offer new perspective into the role national identification plays in fan involvement and motivation, and importantly how new media has emerged as a key platform for expatriate and non-domestic supporter socialisation amongst international football supporters.

Details

Sport, Business and Management: An International Journal, vol. 9 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-678X

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2012

Chih-Fu Cheng, Lung Hung Chen, Mei-Yen Chen and Wan-Chen Lu

Watching sporting events is a popular leisure activity. However, in the context of sports marketing, little is known about the mechanism that determines fans'…

Abstract

Watching sporting events is a popular leisure activity. However, in the context of sports marketing, little is known about the mechanism that determines fans' game-attending behaviour. This study aims to investigate fan participation in the context of baseball, using the theory of planned behaviour. The 623 subjects of this study were recruited from the Chinese Professional Baseball League in Taiwan. The structural equation indicates that attitude and perceived behavioural control will have an influence on gameattending behaviour through behavioural intention. However, subjective norms do not significantly predict behavioural intention, nor do perceived behavioural controls significantly predict game-attending behaviour. The results are discussed in terms of their applicability to fan behaviour.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 14 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

Keywords

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