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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2021

Tamar Icekson, Anat Toder Alon, Avichai Shuv-Ami and Yaron Sela

The growing proportion of older fans and their potential economic value have increased the need for an improved understanding of age differences in fan behaviour. Building…

Abstract

Purpose

The growing proportion of older fans and their potential economic value have increased the need for an improved understanding of age differences in fan behaviour. Building on socioemotional selectivity theory, the current study examines the impact of age differences on fan hatred as well as on the extent to which fans actually engage in aggressive activities and fans' perceptions of the levels of appropriateness of certain physical and verbal acts of aggression.

Design/methodology/approach

The study used an online panel-based survey that offered access to a real-world population of sport fans. The participants were 742 fans of professional football (soccer).

Findings

Results from structural equation modelling indicated that older fans reported lower levels of fan hatred, lower self-reported aggression and lower acceptance of physical and verbal aggression. Moreover, fan hatred partially mediated the relationship between age and levels of aggression and between age and acceptance of verbal aggression. In addition, fan hatred fully mediated the relationship between age and acceptance of physical aggression.

Originality/value

The current study makes two important contributions. First, it demonstrates that sport clubs may particularly benefit from understanding the potential but often neglected importance of older sport fans in relation to the problematic phenomenon of fan aggression. Second, it offers a thorough theoretical account of the manner in which fan hatred plays a significant role in the relationships between age and fan aggressiveness.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 22 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 April 2020

Avichai Shuv-Ami, Anat Toder Alon, Sandra Maria Correia Loureiro and Hans Ruediger Kaufmann

This study, an empirical research, aims to construct and validate a new love-hate scale for sports fans and tested its antecedents and consequences.

Abstract

Purpose

This study, an empirical research, aims to construct and validate a new love-hate scale for sports fans and tested its antecedents and consequences.

Design/methodology/approach

The scale was designed and validated in three separate empirical survey studies in the context of Israeli professional basketball. In Phase 1, the authors verified the factorial validity of the proposed scale using exploratory factor analysis. In Phase 2, the authors conducted a confirmatory factor analysis using structural equation modeling. In Phase 3, the authors tested the nomological network validity of the scale.

Findings

The findings show that fans' involvement, loyalty and fandom significantly predicted their love–hate, which in turn significantly predicted self-reported fan aggression, fans' acceptance of fan aggression, price premium and frequency of watching games.

Research limitations/implications

The model was tested on a relatively small sample of fans within a single country. This lack of generalizability should be addressed in future studies by examining the model in other sports contexts and countries.

Practical implications

This study suggests that understanding the properties of the love–hate measure may assist team sports clubs in identifying, preventing and controlling potential fan aggression.

Originality/value

The study provides three incremental contributions above and beyond existing research: it develops and validates a scale for measuring the phenomenon of sports fans' love and hate as mixed emotions; it makes it possible to capture the variations in the magnitude of fans' love–hate; and it relates fans' love–hate to important attitudinal and behavioral outcomes.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 21 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 25 October 2021

Anat Toder Alon, Avichai Shuv-Ami and Liad Bareket-Bojmel

The current study postulated that fans' social identities (derived from the team sport clubs of which they perceive themselves to be members) coexist with their personal…

262

Abstract

Purpose

The current study postulated that fans' social identities (derived from the team sport clubs of which they perceive themselves to be members) coexist with their personal identities (derived from views of themselves as unique, individual sport fans). The study examined the relationship between identity salience and both positive and negative aspects of fans' attitudes, emotions and behaviours.

Design/methodology/approach

Seven hundred and twelve (712) Israeli professional football fans participated in this study. The study employed a survey drawn from an Internet panel with more than fifty thousand members.

Findings

Utilizing structural equation modelling (SEM), the authors demonstrated that while social identity salience is related to positive aspects of being a sport fan (love of a favourite team and loyalty), it is also related to negative aspects of being a sport fan (hatred and perceptions of the appropriateness of fan aggression). Personal identity salience was found to be related to the decrease in negative outcomes of being a fan (hatred and perceptions of the appropriateness of fan aggression).

Research limitations/implications

Marketers and sport organizations will benefit from stimulating sport fans' personal identity salience to mitigate possible negative consequences of team affiliation.

Originality/value

The current study expands upon past sport management studies by demonstrating the existence of relationships between sport fans' identity salience and their emotions, attitudes and behaviours. The identity salience of fans is relevant from both academic and applicative perspectives.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 23 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 25 May 2021

Zack P. Pedersen, Kyungyeol (Anthony) Kim, Kevin K. Byon and Antonio S. Williams

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the perceived enjoyment that is derived from spectators observing other spectators’ dysfunctional behavior during a game.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the perceived enjoyment that is derived from spectators observing other spectators’ dysfunctional behavior during a game.

Design/methodology/approach

Using four forms (i.e. fighting, verbal assault, disrupting play and throwing missiles) of spectators dysfunctional behavior (SDB), two experiments (N = 252 for Study 1 and N = 92 for Study 2) were conducted in which video clips corresponding to the four types of SDB were used as experimental stimuli.

Findings

The findings indicate that participants enjoyed viewing spectators running onto the field of play significantly more than the other forms of SDB (i.e. fighting, verbal assaults and throwing missiles). The results also show no significant difference between how much spectators enjoyed the actions of fighting, verbal assault and throwing missiles.

Originality/value

The novelty of this study include the usage of a multidimensional approach to the concept of SDB and testing for a positive outcome pertaining to SDB that has largely, if not fully, been examined using negative inputs and outputs.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 23 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 29 June 2021

Youngbum Kwon and Dae Hee Kwak

The global outbreak of the COVID-19 forced most sport leagues to cancel games in March–April 2020, leaving no sport games to watch for sport fans. The present study…

Abstract

Purpose

The global outbreak of the COVID-19 forced most sport leagues to cancel games in March–April 2020, leaving no sport games to watch for sport fans. The present study examined how sport consumers appraise stress and engage in coping behaviors resulted from sport lockout due to the global pandemic.

Design/methodology/approach

This study examined the relationship between sport fans’ psychological dispositions, threat appraisal and coping strategies among professional sport fans in the USA. A panel of sport fans (N = 446) representative of the US adult population participated in an online survey in the fourth week of April, 2020 when no major sport leagues made a return from the lockout due to the COVID-19 outbreak.

Findings

Results of this present study showed that anger, aggressiveness and need for affiliation increased threat perceptions toward the COVID-19 lockout, which subsequently had significant effect on emotion-focused and disengagement coping behaviors.

Research limitations/implications

This is the first empirical study that examined stress and coping behavior among sport fans in the global public health crisis context. Our findings show what triggers stress appraisals and how fans cope with them.

Practical implications

Findings suggest that segmenting sport fans based on psychological dispositions could be useful in predicting fans that will engage in coping behaviors.

Social implications

While the hope is to return to normal postpandemic, COVID-19 might not be the last. We are uncertain whether there might be another potential pandemic-related sport lockdown. Understanding how lack of sport events can create distress in sport fans and have important public health implications.

Originality/value

The findings provide empirical evidence on how sport consumers respond to the pandemic-related sport lockdown and cope with the unprecedented situation. The findings of this study contribute to the sport management literature as we are unsure whether the sport industry might face this challenging situation in the future again.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 23 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 17 February 2012

Vassilis Dalakas and Joanna Phillips Melancon

The purpose of this paper is to explore potential negative outcomes of high fan identification as well as to identify the causal mechanism or mediator by which high…

2652

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore potential negative outcomes of high fan identification as well as to identify the causal mechanism or mediator by which high identification may result in such negative responses.

Design/methodology/approach

A scale development process was used to develop a new mediating construct for the fan identification literature, the Importance of Winning Index (IWIN). Structural equations modeling was used to analyze the surveys.

Findings

The IWIN construct represents a new and distinct construct from fan identification. Additionally, IWIN mediates the relationship between fan identification and negative outcome behaviors, thus serving as an explanatory mechanism of when fan identification can produce negative behaviors (in this study Schadenfreude, or wishing ill/harm on rivals).

Research limitations/implications

A student sample and limitation to one context of negative outcomes leaves opportunities for future research to assess the generalizability of these results across various populations and contexts.

Practical implications

Schadenfreude is manifested toward a variety of targets associated with a rival team, including the team's sponsors. Companies should be cautious when selecting what teams they sponsor so that they do not alienate potential consumers who are fans of rival teams. Moreover, the study raises important ethical and social responsibility issues with broader implications suggesting that sports organizations need to promote strong identification among their fans in a responsible manner.

Originality/value

This article is one of few studies that addresses the adverse effects of a highly identified fan/customer base and extends the identification literature by introducing a new variable (IWIN) that mediates the relationship between identification and negative outcomes.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 26 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 6 August 2019

Nicholas Masafumi Watanabe, Ann Pegoraro, Grace Yan and Stephen L. Shapiro

Previous research on rivalry games in sport has predominantly focused on understanding the nature of these games and their effects on consumer behavior. As such, the…

Abstract

Purpose

Previous research on rivalry games in sport has predominantly focused on understanding the nature of these games and their effects on consumer behavior. As such, the purpose of this paper is to conduct an empirical examination to provide better theoretical and empirical understanding of how rivalries may impact the posting of content online.

Design/methodology/approach

This research utilizes Twitter data measuring the number of posts by individuals about college football teams to model how often fans create content during game days. The models in this study were estimated using fixed-effects panel regressions.

Findings

After controlling for a number of factors, including the type of rivalry game, results indicate fans post more during traditional rivalries. Furthermore, newer rivalry games had less impact on the amount of content posted about a team.

Practical implications

The findings from this research provide sport marketers with important information regarding fan use of digital platforms. Notably, the results suggest rivalries can help to boost the volume of content individuals post about a team, indicating these games provide teams with an opportunity to maximize their engagement with fans and focus on key marketing objectives.

Originality/value

To date, there has been little examination considering whether rivalries affect behaviors in the digital realm. Therefore, the current investigation is one of the first studies to examine how rivalries impact social media behavior.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 20 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 July 2009

Sebastian Uhrich and Joerg Koenigstorfer

This conceptual article presents a theoretical approach to understanding the atmosphere at sports stadiums. Using the environmental psychology behavioural model proposed…

1491

Abstract

This conceptual article presents a theoretical approach to understanding the atmosphere at sports stadiums. Using the environmental psychology behavioural model proposed by Mehrabian & Russell (1974), and taking into account recent findings in consumer research, we develop a comprehensive framework for investigating this atmosphere. The framework highlights the role of emotions elicited by different stimuli in sports stadiums. We also suggest a number of direct and indirect influences on behavioural outcomes, caused by the emotional reactions and personal predispositions of spectators - influences that are of economic relevance. The proposed framework also forms a starting point for future empirical studies.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 10 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 19 July 2022

Diego Gutierrez, James J. Zboja, Kristie Briggs and Kathleen M. Sheehan

The primary purpose of this study is to examine how fan attendance at team special events and player appearances impact fan consumption (as measured by merchandise sales)…

Abstract

Purpose

The primary purpose of this study is to examine how fan attendance at team special events and player appearances impact fan consumption (as measured by merchandise sales). Insights obtained could shed light on opportunities for professional soccer teams to expand revenues through enhanced fan consumption of goods and services.

Design/methodology/approach

A sample of 499 season ticket holders were used to assess fan consumption by measuring merchandise sales. Ordinary least squares (OLS) regressions were run for merchandise sales as the dependent variable of fan consumption. The control variables were age, gender (male = 1, 0 otherwise), and whether an individual has children.

Findings

The key independent variables of attending special events and fan–player bonding were both found to have a statistically significant impact on merchandise sales. Results show that each additional special event attended generates up to $33.71 in merchandise sales for the club. Similarly, each fan–player bonding experience attended also has a direct impact, increasing merchandise consumption by $23.00.

Social implications

The results of this study provide insights that can help fan consumption grow within the professional United States soccer industry and better allow team managers to make decisions about the possible benefits of holding more special events and fan–player bonding experiences. The findings also confirm the impact personal relationships with fans can have on the bottom line of sport franchises.

Originality/value

Though this study adds to the body of literature by expanding previous work on fan consumption, there are limited studies on the social aspects of consumption which are examined and analyzed within this study, particularly of note is the study of merchandise sales as proxy for fan consumption.

Details

Sport, Business and Management: An International Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-678X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 August 2020

Giridhar B. Kamath, Shirshendu Ganguli and Simon George

This paper tests and validates a conceptual model linking the attachment points, team identification, attitude towards the team sponsors and the behavioural intentions in…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper tests and validates a conceptual model linking the attachment points, team identification, attitude towards the team sponsors and the behavioural intentions in the context of Indian Premier League (IPL), while testing for the moderating effects of age and gender.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from 1,053 participants through both online and offline survey and then analyzed using exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and structural equation modelling (SEM).

Findings

Attachment points influence the formation of team identification, which, in turn, affect the attitude towards the team sponsors. Attitude towards the team sponsors influence the behavioural intentions. Player attachment influences team identification the most. Age and gender have a moderating effect on the constructs of the study. Team identification in females is stronger because of attachment to sports, whereas males have stronger team identification based on player attachment. Males have a stronger intention to spread positive word of mouth (WOM) about sponsor products as compared to the female respondents. The younger age group of less than 21 years has more intention to spread positive WOM compared to the other age groups considered in the study.

Practical implications

This study contributes towards sports sponsorship research and the paradigms of social identity and attachment theories. Moreover, it will also help the marketers (sponsors) in IPL to strategically market their brands.

Originality/value

This is the first study to investigate the impact of attachment points on sponsorship outcomes in the context of IPL. Further, it is also the first to investigate the purchase intentions and WOM for the team sponsors in IPL. The multi-group analysis results will provide insights into marketers to better understand IPL viewers' segments and their behaviour.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 22 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

Keywords

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