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Article
Publication date: 2 December 2021

Bruno Duarte Abreu Freitas, Ruth Sofia Contreras-Espinosa and Pedro Álvaro Pereira Correia

This research aims to identify how important it is that brands incorporate relevant-added value into their esports sponsorships.

Abstract

Purpose

This research aims to identify how important it is that brands incorporate relevant-added value into their esports sponsorships.

Design/methodology/approach

This exploratory research applied a convergent-parallel mixed method with equal status. Data were collected by interviewing 22 experts in esports sponsorships and having 5,638 esports fans fill out an online survey. SPSS 25 was used to analyze quantitative data and NVIVO 10 to process qualitative data. Each dataset was analyzed separately and then compared with both having the same level of importance.

Findings

The results revealed that all experts considered the creation of relevant-added value as an essential strategy for successful esports sponsorships and the large majority of fans want sponsors to apply this tactic. Interestingly, while the experts mostly emphasized ways to directly benefit the fan-base, the fans prefer that sponsors focus on directly supporting the esports industry.

Practical implications

Brands should incorporate relevant-added value into their esports sponsorships as it greatly decreases fan resistance to the promotional message, catches the fans' attention and engagement much more easily, has a much higher probability of leading to high positive return on investments (ROIs) and makes for a much more cost-effective investment.

Originality/value

The field of esports sponsorships has received little academic attention and the results are highly significant and relevant for all current and potential esports sponsors looking to increase the effectiveness of their esports sponsorships.

Details

Journal of Contemporary Marketing Science, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2516-7480

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2000

J. Yin, P. Pilidis, K.W. Ramsden and S.D. Probert

The requirements imposed upon advanced short take‐off and vertical landing (ASTOVL) aircraft give rise to challenging demands on their propulsion systems. One possible…

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Abstract

The requirements imposed upon advanced short take‐off and vertical landing (ASTOVL) aircraft give rise to challenging demands on their propulsion systems. One possible approach is to have a high‐performance turbofan of traditional design and an additional, but separate, fan to provide a major part of the lift during the take‐off and landing manoeuvres. For such a design, there are several quite‐different choices of layout for providing the power to drive the remote fan by means of the core engine. These include shaft‐driven and bleed‐driven options. The choice will depend on the anatomy and required thermodynamic‐performance of the whole system. In this paper, several pertinent alternative engine‐designs are discussed. Four of these, based on a high‐performance low‐bypass‐ratio core engine, are studied in detail and their behaviours compared. Prima facie, the preferred choice is the engine with the shaft‐driven fan. A slightly less acceptable choice is the high‐pressure turbine exit‐bleed driven remote‐fan.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 72 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-2667

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Article
Publication date: 22 June 2012

Haijun Zeng and Youchao Sun

The purpose of this paper is to introduce parametered modeling technology for the civil aircraft engine fan blade, to design the fan blade rapidly and accurately.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to introduce parametered modeling technology for the civil aircraft engine fan blade, to design the fan blade rapidly and accurately.

Design/methodology/approach

The entire fan blade consists of three crucial parts: blade airfoil, tenon and airfoil root. Blade airfoil with a free surface feature is formed through the blade profiles from the hub to tip in the radial direction. The non‐uniform rational basis spline (NURBS) is utilized to describe the blade profile. The geometry model of fan blade tenon is generated by extruding the sketch of the tenon. And the fillet section is designed to achieve the smooth transition of the up surface and the bottom surface of the blade root. Furthermore, the fan blade of a typical commercial engine is redesigned by the above method.

Findings

The stress analysis of the fan blade shows that the fan blade model designed in this work is reasonable.

Originality/value

The parametered fan blade model is presented on the basics of feature‐based modeling technology.

Details

Multidiscipline Modeling in Materials and Structures, vol. 8 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1573-6105

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Article
Publication date: 23 January 2009

S. Askari and M.H. Shojaeefard

The purpose of this paper is to show how flow over the airfoil comprising a cross flow fan has been solved by developing a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code. This…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to show how flow over the airfoil comprising a cross flow fan has been solved by developing a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code. This research was going to find aerodynamic coefficients and static pressure distribution over the airfoil surfaces. The eccentric vortex motion observed earlier by other researchers in cross flow fan has been studied by numerical method. Also, the airfoil trailing vortex size variation by free stream and fan rotational speed has been surveyed.

Design/methodology/approach

Flow over the airfoil has been investigated by CFD. At the airfoil solid walls no slip condition (zero velocity) was applied. Re‐normalization group k‐ε model was used for turbulence modeling. The pressure‐velocity coupling was calculated by the SIMPLEC algorithm. Second‐order upwind discretization was considered for the convection terms. Finite volume method with rectangular computational cells was used for whole the solution domain.

Findings

CFD predicted lift force was in good agreement with experimental data with the error of 8.26 percent, while the error of thrust prediction was 14.17 percent. Both errors are generally acceptable for an engineering application. Some key flow features observed previously by experiments has also been reproduced by simulation, notably motion of the eccentric and trailing vortices. At low‐fan rotational speed, the eccentric vortex formed below the shaft of the fan but at high‐rotational speed, eccentric vortex came up and moved toward the airfoil leading edge. It was shown that increasing free stream velocity or decreasing fan rotational speed leads to a larger trailing vortex and vice versa. It was showed that the airfoil lift and thrust are highly depended on the fan rotational speed. These forces will increase by enhancing the fan rotational speed.

Research limitations/implications

Because of complicated geometry of the airfoil, 2D analysis of the flow over the airfoil has been carried out. This simplification leads to higher discrepancies between experimental data and numerical solution.

Practical implications

This paper provides a detailed study of the Fanwing airfoil. This airfoil is very new and researches in this area are very limited. So, this paper can be helpful for other researches involved in this topic as well as aerospace industries.

Originality/value

This paper is valuable for researchers in the new and up‐to‐date concept of the airfoil comprising a cross flow fan (Fanwing airfoil). This work is original.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 81 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-2667

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Article
Publication date: 25 October 2021

Anat Toder Alon, Avichai Shuv-Ami and Liad Bareket-Bojmel

The current study postulated that fans' social identities (derived from the team sport clubs of which they perceive themselves to be members) coexist with their personal…

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23

Abstract

Purpose

The current study postulated that fans' social identities (derived from the team sport clubs of which they perceive themselves to be members) coexist with their personal identities (derived from views of themselves as unique, individual sport fans). The study examined the relationship between identity salience and both positive and negative aspects of fans' attitudes, emotions and behaviours.

Design/methodology/approach

Seven hundred and twelve (712) Israeli professional football fans participated in this study. The study employed a survey drawn from an Internet panel with more than fifty thousand members.

Findings

Utilizing structural equation modelling (SEM), the authors demonstrated that while social identity salience is related to positive aspects of being a sport fan (love of a favourite team and loyalty), it is also related to negative aspects of being a sport fan (hatred and perceptions of the appropriateness of fan aggression). Personal identity salience was found to be related to the decrease in negative outcomes of being a fan (hatred and perceptions of the appropriateness of fan aggression).

Research limitations/implications

Marketers and sport organizations will benefit from stimulating sport fans' personal identity salience to mitigate possible negative consequences of team affiliation.

Originality/value

The current study expands upon past sport management studies by demonstrating the existence of relationships between sport fans' identity salience and their emotions, attitudes and behaviours. The identity salience of fans is relevant from both academic and applicative perspectives.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article
Publication date: 7 September 2021

Doaa Fathy, Mohamed H. Elsharnouby and Ehab AbouAish

Customer engagement, as one form of interactive marketing, enhances organisational performance, in terms of sales growth, superior competitive advantage and increased…

Abstract

Purpose

Customer engagement, as one form of interactive marketing, enhances organisational performance, in terms of sales growth, superior competitive advantage and increased profitability, particularly within the sports context. This research aims to explore fans' engagement behaviours with their sports teams and identify its drivers and outcomes.

Design/methodology/approach

The researchers deployed mixed methods in this study via three phases: (1) A judgmental sampling technique, along with snowballing, were used to conduct in-depth interviews with twenty-two football fans, for the exploratory phase; (2) A convenience sample was also used for the quantitative phase, which was divided into two stages, (1) the pretesting stage (30 fans), and (2) the main data collection stage (407 fans) and (3) A judgmental sampling technique was applied for the qualitative validation phase (10 interviews with experts and practitioners).

Findings

Qualitative and quantitative results supported team jealousy, team competitiveness and team morality as new predictors for fan engagement behaviours. Further, while the fan role readiness had the most positive effect on management cooperation, team identification had the most predicting power for prosocial behaviour. Finally, team morality had the most significant positive impact on performance tolerance.

Originality/value

Despite the considerable practical attention, and the recent extensive research, paid towards conceptualising customer engagement behaviours in the last decade, there is still a need for further exploration on the fan engagement concept to better understand fans' unique behavioural responses; accordingly, the current research was conducted.

Details

Journal of Research in Interactive Marketing, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7122

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Article
Publication date: 4 August 2021

Johannes Jaeger

Public debates and scholarly literature on football fandom are often characterised by generalisation and lacking differentiation. The changing ethnography of fans

Abstract

Purpose

Public debates and scholarly literature on football fandom are often characterised by generalisation and lacking differentiation. The changing ethnography of fans, affected by the rapid commercialisation and internationalisation of the game, reinforces the demand for contemporary classification criteria and fan typologies that take the complexity and heterogeneity of fans into account and draw a more differentiated picture of fans and sub-groups.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on the grounded theory methodology and a systematic literature review on stakeholder theory, stakeholder classification criteria and football fandom, the authors conduct and analyse 14 semi-structured expert interviews with fan managers employed by German professional football clubs. Building on the analysis, the authors identify, present and discuss ten contemporary criteria and five corresponding typologies for the classification of football fans.

Findings

The grounded theory analysis suggests that football fans can be characterised according to ten classification criteria. Building on the analysis, the authors derive five fan typologies that differ in their characteristics along the continua of the identified criteria. Typologies comprise (1) active fans, (2) consuming fans, (3) event fans, (4) corporate fans and (5) passive followers.

Originality/value

The paper enlarges prior knowledge on the behavioural and attitudinal characteristics of fans as individuals and adds knowledge regarding relationships within fan groups, and regarding formal and non-formal relations between fans and clubs. The results provide scholars with a framework for further scientific investigation and practitioners with a concept for a more sophisticated and differentiated approach to managing fan relations.

Details

Sport, Business and Management: An International Journal, vol. 11 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-678X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 3 August 2021

Markus Buser, Herbert Woratschek and B. David Ridpath

In this paper, Fantasy Sports (Hereafter FS) is conceptually classified as a concept of gamification for professional sport leagues. From a sporting perspective, FS is…

Abstract

Purpose

In this paper, Fantasy Sports (Hereafter FS) is conceptually classified as a concept of gamification for professional sport leagues. From a sporting perspective, FS is often criticized because such online activities may be at the expense of physical activities. Otherwise, gamification can ultimately lead to economic advantages for sport leagues. To further empirically analyse this supposed juxtaposition, an empirical study is presented.

Design/methodology/approach

In the empirical study, participation and non-participation in a sport league-related FS league are analysed and the study uses a divided sample (N = 319) for a one-factor Welch-ANOVA. FS effects on sport practice (engaging in doing sport) and usage (engaging with sport) of FS players as well as on gaining and retaining fans are investigated.

Findings

Results demonstrate that participating in gamified FS experiences increases sport usage while not harming general sport practice. Furthermore, FS participation increases consumption capital as well as sport fans' loyalty and word of mouth (WOM) towards the league brand. Building on the results, league brands should foster gamified FS applications to retain their fan base and acquire new fans.

Originality/value

The authors’ theoretical contribution indicates the importance of FS as a gamified application and essential marketing tool for professional sport leagues. By introducing the terms sport practice and usage, the authors bridge the traditional logic of sport consumption with innovative approaches around engagement in and with sports. The results refute the prejudice that FS leads to less physical activity due to time substitution or displacement.

Details

Sport, Business and Management: An International Journal, vol. 11 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-678X

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Article
Publication date: 2 September 2021

Ceyda Mumcu and Nancy Lough

Niche sports such as women's professional sport leagues face many challenges to developing and expanding their fan base. Understanding sport fans, segmenting consumer…

Abstract

Purpose

Niche sports such as women's professional sport leagues face many challenges to developing and expanding their fan base. Understanding sport fans, segmenting consumer bases and targeting them effectively can assist in both developing the fan base and competing for investments like sponsorships and media rights. The purpose of this study was to explore consumer segments of the National Pro Fastpitch (NPF), a niche softball league, by identifying demographic and psychographic characteristics of the segments and developing a persona for each segment.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from 3,463 NPF consumers with the assistance of NPF league officials using their social media outlets. A two-step cluster analysis was performed employing both categorical and continuous variables to inform the segmentation, which was followed with chi-squared statistics and two MANOVAs to compare the segments' demographic characteristics, points of attachment (POAs) levels and attendance and viewership of NPF games.

Findings

Three distinct consumer segments with unique demographic, POA and softball participation characteristics were identified. Differences among these segments' consumption of NPF games validated the existence of three distinct consumer segments.

Originality/value

This research is the first to examine consumer behavior in women's softball, and it expands the sport marketing literature through the identification of consumer segments of a niche sport league with a novel cluster analysis. Blending theory and practice by incorporating both demographic and psychographic variables into market segmentation, the research uniquely serves this niche sport and thereby informs improved marketing practice.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 30 July 2021

Thiago Ianatoni Camargo, André Luiz Maranhão de Souza-Leão and Bruno Melo Moura

Fans have been characterized as specialized consumers who often express disagreements with the entertainment industry's decisions, especially when it comes to the original…

Abstract

Purpose

Fans have been characterized as specialized consumers who often express disagreements with the entertainment industry's decisions, especially when it comes to the original content of the works that serve as the basis for the development of media products, evidencing a kind of consumer resistance. Under a Foucauldian perspective aligned with the consumer culture theory (CCT), power relations are established in a dynamic of power exercise and resistance to power. Based on this, the authors pose the following research question: how do fans of media products resist the changes made by the entertainment industry in relation to their canons?

Design/methodology/approach

The authors adopted the Foucault's genealogy of power as a method, analyzing the comments posted on the Westeros.Org website, the main discussion forum of fans of A Song of Ice and Fire (ASoIaF) book series and Game of Thrones (GoT) TV series.

Findings

The findings reveal ways of resistance in relation to the adaptation of the media text permeated by an entertainment dispositif, which considers the adaptation legitimate, and a fannish dispositif, which criticizes the way this adaptation was made. However, their empirical categories reveal that they are forged not only from singularities but also from overlaps. The authors conclude, therefore, that this process occurs in an agonist way, in which conflicts are fought as a reciprocal incitement revealing a productive and ethical relationship.

Originality/value

The agonism shows how consumers can simultaneously be led to incorporate and resist to discourses and market practices. This demonstrates how resistance is not necessarily a force opposed to another, but a dynamic of reciprocal negotiation.

Details

Revista de Gestão, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1809-2276

Keywords

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