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Article

Cláudia Matias and Mário Franco

The main objective of this study is to understand the role that family council and protocol can have in the planning process of family companies.

Abstract

Purpose

The main objective of this study is to understand the role that family council and protocol can have in the planning process of family companies.

Design/methodology/approach

To reach this general objective, the qualitative approach was used using multiple case studies: seven Portuguese family companies. Data collection techniques, interviewing, direct observation and documentary analysis were used.

Findings

Based on the empirical evidence, it is concluded that the family council and family protocol help succession planning and favour the continuity and survival of the family business. However, other working groups also support the entire planning process, such as the cousin generation meeting and the New Generation Monitoring Committee (or Mentoring Committee). The development of future personal plans for the younger generations may lie in this Committee, which assists and guides the younger family members.

Practical implications

This study is pioneering in Portugal because it analyses the use of new instruments that helps the succession planning process in family firm context: the family council and family protocol. These managerial mechanisms allow to achieve the success, allowing family conflicts to be minimized, the continuity of family firms and avoiding their mortality.

Originality/value

The study contributes to increasing knowledge about the family council, the family protocol, family firm succession and its planning. It is important and innovative by studying those topics in depth, their connection being little explored in the literature. This study can be seen as a benchmarking for governance practices in other countries.

Details

Journal of Family Business Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2043-6238

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Article

Wade Roberts

Drawing on world society and policy analysis literatures, the purpose of this paper is to examine the uneven diffusion of family planning programs in the developing world…

Abstract

Purpose

Drawing on world society and policy analysis literatures, the purpose of this paper is to examine the uneven diffusion of family planning programs in the developing world and the subsequent consequences for child health. The study begins by assessing the effect of world society ties on countries' commitment to and capacity for family planning programs. It then examines the impact such programs have on child health inputs and survival.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper uses a cross‐national, quantitative study design on a sample of less developed countries.

Findings

Countries' world society embeddedness is a robust predictor of their institutional commitment to and capacity for family planning programs. Such program efforts are also shown to have a significant impact on child survival rates, mediated by reduced fertility and higher rates of childhood immunization.

Research limitations/implications

Future research should further explore the way in which such programs contribute to and/or serve as a foundation for health infrastructure in developing countries.

Practical implications

This study points to the child health benefits associated with building capacity in family planning programs. Practitioners should take care to appropriately adapt global policy models to local needs and circumstances while allowing local control.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to a growing body of literature on the role of world society (international nongovernmental organization) networks in spreading development policies and programs in the developing world. Going one step further, it assesses the actual impact of one such policy program on children's health.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 29 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

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Book part

Hassan Raza, Brad van Eeden-Moorefield, Soyoung Lee and Lisa Lieberman

The current study aims to use bioecological theory to examine the effects of different contextual factors such as husbands’ desire for children, visit by a family planning

Abstract

The current study aims to use bioecological theory to examine the effects of different contextual factors such as husbands’ desire for children, visit by a family planning worker, media messages, and province level on women’s use of contraception in Pakistan. Two cross-sectional data sets were taken from the Pakistan Demographic and Health Surveys (PDHS), conducted in 2006–07 and 2012–13, which included 3,811 and 4,871 currently married, lower socioeconomic status (SES) women aged 15–49 years, respectively. Using logistic regression, the results showed that women’s perception of a husband’s desire for children and visit by family planning workers were significant predictors of women’s use of contraception in both periods (i.e. PDHS 2006–07 and PDHS, 2012–13). Specifically, those women who had a desire for children similar to their husband were more likely to use contraception than those who either were not sure about their husband’s desire for children or whose desire for children was less or more than their husband. Moreover, those women who had at least one visit from a family planning worker during the 12 months prior to the survey were more likely to use contraception than their counterparts.

Details

Childbearing and the Changing Nature of Parenthood: The Contexts, Actors, and Experiences of Having Children
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-067-2

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Article

Thibault Weigelt and Erica Sharma

The purpose of this paper is to analyse the budget of the Indian family planning programme from a human rights perspective. Family planning services play an important role…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyse the budget of the Indian family planning programme from a human rights perspective. Family planning services play an important role in the realisation of the reproductive rights of women. In India, the family planning programme is one of the largest in the world with thousands of patients, mostly women, accessing services every year. Although the Indian legal system guarantees the right to health, Indian women from marginalised sections of society still battle inadequate services and the absence of health care that respects their right to reproductive autonomy and choice. Therefore, the question is: in the presence of a strong legal framework, what are the factors that contribute to this phenomenon?

Design/methodology/approach

The authors have gathered data from the project implementation plans at the state level comparing year-wise expenditure for family planning against overall expenditure for reproductive, maternal and child health expenditure. The data are then compared to the number of women using sterilisation to suggest a relationship between both. Finally, the article relies on desk research to review scholarship on the Indian family planning programme and applicable human rights obligations.

Findings

The paper finds that social-economic rights such as the right to health are applicable to government spending and budgeting. It also finds current spending in the NHM is insufficient to guarantee women’s reproductive rights as the vast majority of resources are spend on sterilisation, thus limiting women’s ability to choose the number and spacing of children.

Research limitations/implications

The data used in this research bears one limitation: the propensity of the government to change the guidelines as to how States should present their budgets in the project implementation plans. The authors have adjusted the data so that it remains comparable. However, the adjustment was not possible for all expenditure data, which is why the current study is limited to the family planning programme alone.

Practical implications

The paper argues that to be human rights compliant, health budgets of the NHM need to be geared towards the specific needs of women in terms of family planning. Finally, the article briefly outlines the role played by human rights and human rights litigation in impacting government budgets.

Originality/value

India’s family planning programme has been examined from a performance and medical standpoint, focussing on medical indicators such as total fertility rate, unmet needs for family planning, amongst others. Academic scholarship has investigated through statistical analysis patterns of contraceptive use and contraceptive mix. What is absent, however, is an assessment of the programme from a right-based perspective by looking at the human rights obligations of India and their normative implications for the Indian family programme.

Details

International Journal of Human Rights in Healthcare, vol. 13 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-4902

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Article

Linda L. Zhang, Qianli Xu and Petri Helo

The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, it is to introduce a knowledge‐based system for planning processes for families of final products, instead of component items…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, it is to introduce a knowledge‐based system for planning processes for families of final products, instead of component items, be they parts or assemblies. Second, it is to demonstrate the feasibility and potential of a prototypical system developed for planning processes families for truck families from a multinational company.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors first identify the challenges in planning process families, including data and knowledge representation and constraint handling. To accommodate these challenges, the paper adopts the integrated product and process structure (IP2S) and colored timed Petri nets (CTPNs) in the proposed knowledge‐based process family planning system. On top of the IP2S and CTPNs, XML‐based knowledge representation is employed to alleviate the difficulties in modelling complex product and process family data and planning knowledge while enabling information exchange across different operating platforms. In addition, in accordance with the correspondence between PNs and knowledge‐based systems, a mechanism is designed to cope with the generation of production rules, which model constraints.

Findings

The proposed system is able to automatically generate production processes for customized products. At a higher level, such production processes provide input (e.g. operations, machines) to downstream activities for planning process details to manufacture component parts or component assemblies.

Research limitations/implications

Traditional trial and error approaches to planning processes limit production performance improvement when companies need to timely produce diverse customized products. Knowledge‐based systems should be developed to help companies better plan production processes based on the available manufacturing resources.

Originality/value

Unlike most reported studies addressing either detailed process planning or assembly planning for component parts or component assemblies, this study tackles process planning for final products, in attempting to maintain production efficiency from a holistic view.

Details

Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management, vol. 24 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-038X

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Article

Rose Haynes Kiwia, Kenneth M.K. Bengesi and Daniel W. Ndyetabula

The purpose of this paper is to examine succession planning and performance of family-owned small and medium enterprises (SMEs).

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine succession planning and performance of family-owned small and medium enterprises (SMEs).

Design/methodology/approach

The quantitative research approach and a cross-sectional research design were employed. The probability sampling technique was used to draw 219 respondents from the sampling frame. A structured questionnaire was used for data collection. Descriptive statistics and independent samples t-tests were used for data analysis.

Findings

It was revealed that most of family-owned SMEs founders in the study area had mechanisms for succession planning for their businesses. Also, there is a difference in business performance when successors are selected and prepared by business founders compared to when they are selected and prepared by other family members. Successors selected and prepared by business founders performed better in business than successors who were selected and prepared by other family members.

Research limitations/implications

This study employed a quantitative research paradigm methodology, which limits deep discussion with respondents. Future studies could consider using a qualitative research paradigm methodology.

Originality/value

The paper presents succession planning process experience in family-owned SMEs in the study area, specifically the existence of succession planning in family-owned SMEs. It also shows a difference in business performance between the two investigated groups. This paper will benefit business founders, family business successors and researchers.

Details

Journal of Family Business Management, vol. 10 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2043-6238

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Article

Shraboni Patra and Rakesh Kumar Singh

The purpose of this paper is to find out the prevalence and determinants of unmet need with a special focus on religious barrier towards the use of contraception among…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to find out the prevalence and determinants of unmet need with a special focus on religious barrier towards the use of contraception among Muslim women in India. The study also addresses their future intention to use family planning method.

Design/methodology/approach

Data from the latest round of District Level Household and Facility Survey (DLHS-3) in India is used. A multi-stage stratified probability proportion to size sampling design was adopted. The present analysis is based on 70,016 currently married Muslim women across the country.

Findings

The prevalence of total unmet need is the highest in Bihar (48.5 per cent), which is two times higher than the national level (27.6 per cent). About 9 per cent Muslim women in India do not use contraception due to religious opposition. There is considerable gap in the future intention to use family planning method between Muslim (9.2 per cent) and non-Muslim (19.6 per cent) women particularly for limiting birth. The logistic regression analysis shows non-Muslim women are significantly more likely (OR=1.540, p<0.001) to have the intention to use family planning method in the future than Muslim women.

Research limitations/implications

Men are not included to explore the differences in the perception of men and women towards family planning. Interventions targeting men and aiming at overcoming cultural barriers to using family planning method are equally imperative. Couple's knowledge, attitude and perception towards acceptance of family planning methods need to be addressed simultaneously by interviewing the couples separately.

Practical implications

Public-private collaboration to promote family planning programme and providing services in the high prevalence (unmet need) states is required. Support from the religious leaders to overcome the cultural barriers towards the use of family planning is also needed.

Originality/value

This is the first ever effort to address the existing unmet need for family planning among Muslim women in India, which is an important determinant of high fertility among Muslim women.

Details

International Journal of Human Rights in Healthcare, vol. 8 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-4902

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Article

Joachim Samuelsson, Jim Andersén, Torbjörn Ljungkvist and Christian Jansson

Several studies have highlighted the importance of management accounting practices such as formal short-term planning and formal long-term planning for SME performance…

Abstract

Purpose

Several studies have highlighted the importance of management accounting practices such as formal short-term planning and formal long-term planning for SME performance. However, few studies have considered what actually explains differences in the use of formal planning (from a management accounting approach) in SMEs. Family ownership and EO are two plausible explanations for such differences. The purpose of this paper is therefore to examine how family ownership and EO are correlated to the use of formal short-term planning and formal long-term planning in SMEs.

Design/methodology/approach

In this study, the authors examined how family ownership and entrepreneurial orientation (EO) affect the use of formal planning by analyzing a sample of 156 Swedish manufacturing SMEs, using multivariate regression analysis.

Findings

As could be expected, the authors were able to validate the notion that family firms use less formal planning than non-family firms. However, in contrast to some previous studies, the authors found that there is a strongly positive relationship between EO and the use of formal short-term planning and long-term planning.

Originality/value

Whereas many previous studies on family business have assumed that family firms use less formal planning than non-family firms, the present study is one of few to actually confirm this notion. Also, this study has provided strong evidence that EO is positively correlated to the use of formal planning, in the short term and in the longer term.

Details

Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. 23 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

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Article

Abimbola Oluyemisi Adepoju and Oluwatofunmi Ibukun Akinluyi

The purpose of this paper is to examine the factors influencing the use of family planning and its link with multidimensional poverty in rural Nigeria.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the factors influencing the use of family planning and its link with multidimensional poverty in rural Nigeria.

Design/methodology/approach

The Alkire and Foster measure of poverty as well as the Logistic and Probit models were used to identify the factors influencing the use of family planning and its effect on the multidimensional poverty status of rural households in Nigeria.

Findings

The results indicate that 31.1 percent of rural households were poor with deprivations in health and education contributing the most to multidimensional poverty. The low use of contraception was closely linked to low level of literacy, lack of awareness of the different methods and high levels of poverty. The use of contraception reduced the level of poverty in the household.

Social implications

The intensity of poverty should be considered in the design of policies and programs. The wide and proper use of family planning is a sine qua non for any significant reduction in poverty. Potent and assertive family planning programs by government could be achieved through public-private sector partnership and assistance of international development partners.

Originality/value

This paper attempts to bridge the knowledge gap in the empirical literature on the link between multidimensional poverty and family planning. In particular`, its application to the rural context, often characterized by high rate of poverty and unmet needs for family planning employing nationally representative data is of immense value for social policy.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 44 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Article

R.P. Mohanty and M.V.R. Krishnaswamy

Some hierarchical approaches for production planning in a batch type manufacturing environment are described. In a single stage production system, three aggregation levels…

Abstract

Some hierarchical approaches for production planning in a batch type manufacturing environment are described. In a single stage production system, three aggregation levels exist: types, families and items. The performance of a hierarchical system model is largely dependent on the methods of disaggregation at different levels. This paper reports on a study of hierarchical methods at the family disaggregation level and incorporates a simple modification to improve upon a heuristic proposed by Winters. Results indicate that even a very simple hierarchical planning approach can give a significant reduction in backorders in a production shop having severe capacity restriction.

Details

International Journal of Operations & Production Management, vol. 4 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3577

Keywords

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