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Article
Publication date: 5 June 2017

Vanessa Ratten, Veland Ramadani, Leo-Paul Dana, Frank Hoy and Joao Ferreira

The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of family entrepreneurship and internationalization strategies by discussing the papers in this special journal issue.

1405

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of family entrepreneurship and internationalization strategies by discussing the papers in this special journal issue.

Design/methodology/approach

The main research areas related to family business are discussed in terms of socioemotional wealth and societal trends. A review of the literature is conducted to highlight the emerging themes affecting the decision of family businesses to internationalize.

Findings

The paper stresses how it is important to have an entrepreneurial approach to internationalization of family businesses.

Research limitations/implications

As more family businesses are born globals, it is important to focus on the positive aspects of internationalization, including emerging markets and gaining important entrepreneurial knowledge.

Practical implications

Family businesses need to be more innovative and risk-taking in their approach to internationalization as it helps them build their reputation and increase performance.

Originality/value

As there are limited studies about family entrepreneurship and internationalization in terms of a broad view of family, this paper takes an inclusive approach to the changing nature of how a family is defined in today’s global society.

Details

Review of International Business and Strategy, vol. 27 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-6014

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 4 October 2021

Augusto Dalmoro Costa, Aurora Carneiro Zen and Everson dos Santos Spindler

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between family succession, professionalization and internationalization in family businesses within the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between family succession, professionalization and internationalization in family businesses within the Brazilian context.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper presents a multiple-case study method with three Brazilian family businesses that have at least two generations of the owning family involved in the business and an international presence of at least three years. In-depth interviews and secondary data were undertaken with family and non-family members of each case.

Findings

The authors' results show that a family business can boost its internationalization by introducing both succession planning and professionalization on international activities. As family members tend to be more risk-averse and focused on keeping the family business within the family, professionalization is a way of improving the firm's ability to expand internationally. This process tends to lead to lower performance by the firm for the first few months or the first year after the investment, but afterward, international performance tends to grow exponentially.

Originality/value

Only a few studies have been concerned on the relationship of these three dimensions. Thus, the research takes into account that professionalization and succession lead family businesses to improve their internationalization strategies.

Details

Journal of Family Business Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2043-6238

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 31 December 2021

Michela Floris, Michela Marongiu, Cinzia Dessi and Angela Dettori

This study investigates the relationship between Total Quality Management (TQM) and internationalization in small family firms, focusing on the role that the dimensions of…

Abstract

Purpose

This study investigates the relationship between Total Quality Management (TQM) and internationalization in small family firms, focusing on the role that the dimensions of TQM may have as strategic resources to implement successful internationalization strategies.

Design/methodology/approach

Building on the Resource-Based View (RBV), the study is based on a single case study, and data were gathered through in-depth interviews with the family owner-manager.

Findings

Findings show that small family businesses that aim to operate in international markets have to invest constant attention toward TQM by developing strategies able to achieve excellence. More in detail, for small and medium family firms, TQM represents a driver to internationalize. Therefore, family-owned managers sustain that internationalization success depends on the increasing attention exhibited toward the following dimensions of quality, specifically on three main pillars: relationships, professionalization and long-term vision, which appear to be strategic resources in international markets. An interpretive model is proposed with a set of propositions.

Research limitations/implications

Scholarly implications are threefold. First, findings contribute to the RBV theory by introducing the long-term vision as a strategic resource able to activate a loop between TQM and internationalization success. Second, results contribute to TQM literature, highlighting that it represents a driver to internationalize, and following a long-term perspective, its enhancement is stimulated by internationalization. Third, findings contribute to family business studies, underlining the relevance done of owners on professionalization as a strategic resource to ensure excellence and obtain success in overseas markets. The main drawback refers to the fact that results stemmed from one single case study. Further studies could deepen the analysis on multiple cases.

Practical implications

The proposed case study represents a best practice and can stimulate other entrepreneurs and consultants to invest in TQM to thrive internationalization strategies.

Originality/value

The current study, elucidating that TQM is the driver to stimulate family business internationalization, proposes an interpretive model to study TQM and internationalization in small and medium family firms.

Details

Journal of Family Business Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2043-6238

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 July 2021

Liridon Kryeziu, Recai Coşkun and Besnik Krasniqi

The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of family firms’ types of social networks on internationalisation. By investigating the mechanisms and the process and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of family firms’ types of social networks on internationalisation. By investigating the mechanisms and the process and complexity regarding the operation, function and impact of social networks, this paper aims to gain insights and understand the dynamism concerning the content, and process as well as build rich and detailed construct analysis.

Design/methodology/approach

This study used a qualitative case study as a research strategy to examine the impact of social networks on family firm internationalisation. A qualitative research strategy was used as the impact of networking relations and structure is challenging to be measured statistically.

Findings

The findings suggest that family firm internationalisation was gradual and characterised by an incremental learning process. This process facilitated the networking relations and structures that helped firms improve their quality, product diversification and set competitive prices.

Research limitations/implications

This study’s first limitation is that it focused mainly on low technology manufacturing firms. This paper recommends examining how high technology firms maximise social networks. Secondly, this paper examined family firms; therefore, this paper recommends comparing and contrasting networking relations and family and nonfamily firms' social structure. Thirdly, being limited only to social networks, this study did not focus on the impact of ownership; this paper suggests future studies to examine family ownership and involvement in firm internationalisation.

Originality/value

Understanding how firms’ social network types influence family firms’ internationalisation in a transition economy is critical to ensuring family businesses’ expansion. This study explains how family firms use social networks to internationalise, extending the current understanding of family business literature in transition economies. It also provides implications for policymakers and family firms managers for improving the growth prospects of family businesses.

Details

Review of International Business and Strategy, vol. 32 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-6014

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 January 2021

Sonal Thukral and Apoorva Jain

For sustaining a competitive advantage in the integrated world economy, it has become imperative for family firms to internationalise their operations in overseas markets…

Abstract

Purpose

For sustaining a competitive advantage in the integrated world economy, it has become imperative for family firms to internationalise their operations in overseas markets. However, despite the growing set of literature, results are still inconclusive with respect to family firms’ internationalisation. Thus, this study aims to address this gap by systematically reviewing 142 articles (1991–2019) to help researchers in identifying and unfolding the unexplored themes in the underlying area.

Design/methodology/approach

For systematically reviewing articles, the study uses a three-step methodology following PRISMA guidelines, bibliometric analysis and thematic analysis. Descriptive statistics of 142 research articles are obtained through bibliometric analysis while thematic analysis is carried out to create themes or clusters of various factors relating to family firms’ internationalisation.

Findings

The current review uncovers the evolving trends in the research streams, most productive authors, top journals and articles, co-citation analysis, as well as the major themes surrounding the family firms’ internationalisation literature. Results from bibliometric analysis indicate that family firms’ internationalisation is an upcoming research area. Also, the review indicates an opportunity for scholars from developing nations to make significant contributions in the underlying research stream.

Research limitations/implications

Results from bibliometric and thematic analysis will help academicians and researchers in accumulating a holistic understanding relating to family firms’ internationalisation and understanding the upcoming trends in family firms’ research, thereby guiding the future research scope. Also, it will assist the family firms’ leaders and managers in understanding the important dynamics in overseas markets and various factors to be considered while planning their internationalisation.

Originality/value

Undertaking a systematic literature review presents readers with a state-of-the-art understanding of the underlying research topic. To the best of the knowledge, to date, the study is the first to conduct the review of literature through bibliometric analysis with the help of R Studio software in the field of family firms’ internationalisation. Also, the study is the first to review more than 100 research articles in the underlying area. Finally, the study proposes a comprehensive framework integrating the major themes and facets relating to family firms’ internationalisation.

Details

Review of International Business and Strategy, vol. 31 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-6014

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 27 January 2021

Mikel Alayo, Txomin Iturralde and Amaia Maseda

The aim of this paper is to provide new evidence on the ability of family small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) to develop ambidextrous innovations and their…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this paper is to provide new evidence on the ability of family small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) to develop ambidextrous innovations and their influence on the internationalization processes, showing how this relationship varies due to family involvement.

Design/methodology/approach

The analysis is based on a sample of 186 Spanish family SMEs. Data were analyzed using structural equation modeling.

Findings

The results indicate that family SMEs' innovation activities are a stimulus for their internationalization process, and show the importance of family involvement in this relationship. Specifically, the findings suggest that family-specific characteristics such as the generation in charge of the business and the level of family involvement in the top management team (TMT) shape the relationship between innovation and internationalization.

Practical implications

Family SMEs need to focus on exploratory and exploitative innovations to obtain a competitive advantage in foreign markets, and thus, increase their internationalization level. Furthermore, the study contributes to a better understanding of the consequences of family involvement, increasing our knowledge of family firms' idiosyncratic behaviors in strategic activities. The study suggests that in order to improve the effect of innovation on internationalization, family owners should consider involving new generations and non-family managers within the decision-making structures.

Originality/value

To date, research on innovation-internationalization link in family SMEs has been fragmented and has not obtained conclusive results. This study provides new evidence on the relationship between these two important strategies. Furthermore, it contributes to the understanding of the influence of the family in shaping strategic decisions.

Details

European Journal of Innovation Management, vol. 25 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1460-1060

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 June 2017

Vitor Braga, Aldina Correia, Alexandra Braga and Sofia Lemos

The success of the family firms cannot be detached from the current paradigm where, within the present economic conditions, economic agents struggle to exploit the…

1206

Abstract

Purpose

The success of the family firms cannot be detached from the current paradigm where, within the present economic conditions, economic agents struggle to exploit the existing opportunities and need to take into account the risks associated to the international arena and the innovation processes. The internationalisation and innovation processes may trigger resistance within family business due to their relatively higher difficulty to take risks and to invest in industries outside the scope of their original core business. Innovation and internationalisation processes become relevant strategies for the family firms’ continuity and success. In line with such fact, the aim of this paper is to contribute with insights regarding the processes of innovation and internationalisation within family businesses. In particular, this paper aims to assess the propensity of such firms to apply such strategies, to identify the particular business behaviour and to assess the extent to which the particulars of family firms may constraint or lead to the implementation of innovation policies, and thus its internationalisation.

Design/methodology/approach

The data were collected through questionnaires within family business aiming to understand the scope and characteristics of internationalisation and innovation processes within these firms. The 154 replies from such data collection were analysed using different multivariate statistic procedures, although this paper is based on factorial and correlation analysis.

Findings

The analysis of the results shows that there is an association between the processes of innovation and internationalisation within family business. In addition, the results also suggest a typology of firms regarding their innovation and internationalisation strategies and motivations.

Research limitations/implications

The results of this paper are, to some extent, limited because they did not allow comparing the findings with data from non-family business. However, the authors’ aim was not to distinguish family firms, but rather to characterise them.

Practical implications

This paper expects to contribute with lessons for the management of family business and to raise awareness of the constraints faced by family business. It is important to highlight that family business performance may be affected by a lower propensity to risk-taking attitudes, by the lack of non-family management and to the necessity of separating the family and the business in the business dimensions that the family limits the business growth.

Originality/value

Although there is a significant amount of the literature devoted to explore family business, innovation and internationalisation studies, very few draw on the relationship between internationalisation and innovation processes within family business. This paper explores such a relationship within a particular business context – the family dynamics that strongly affect management and business development.

Details

Review of International Business and Strategy, vol. 27 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-6014

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 19 June 2017

Luis Miguel Pacheco

The purpose of this paper is to empirically examine the relationship between the firms’ ownership and control structure and their export performance. The literature is…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to empirically examine the relationship between the firms’ ownership and control structure and their export performance. The literature is traditionally focused on the relationship between firms’ performance and internationalization, with the relationship between ownership and control structure with internationalization being much less studied, particularly in the context of family firms.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors focus their study on the Portuguese wine firms due to their increasing importance in the Portuguese economy and in the promotion of the country’s exports and image abroad. They used a balanced panel data sample of 82 firms for the period from 2011 to 2015 and applied a random effects model and a Tobit specification.

Findings

The degree of family involvement shows a negative and significant relationship with internationalization, meaning that family firms that intend to internationalize should be open to receive external managers with international experience and increase their internal competencies to enhance internationalization.

Originality/value

This paper extends the literature since assesses, at the light of the agency theory, the presence of differences in the internationalization degree and export intensity between family firms that are managed and controlled by the owners and family firms that are managed by non-family members, with an application to a less studied sector and country.

Details

International Journal of Wine Business Research, vol. 29 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1751-1062

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 6 November 2019

Subramanian Shanmugasundaram

The purpose of this paper is to study the relationship between corporate governance practices and internationalization through foreign direct investments in the context of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study the relationship between corporate governance practices and internationalization through foreign direct investments in the context of family-owned business groups in India.

Design/methodology/approach

The comparative case study method is used to understand the relationship between corporate governance practices and internationalization using four family-owned business groups in India.

Findings

The ownership concentration negatively influences the internationalization, while transparency has a positive association. Professionalization of management helps in internationalization. Overall, good corporate governance practices have a positive influence on group internationalization.

Research limitations/implications

This paper provides detailed discussions based on the case study research which would help the future research work on the relationship between corporate governance practices and internationalization.

Originality/value

The existing literature studies in this field in the context of emerging markets are inconclusive. Hence, this paper uses the case study method to understand the relationship better.

Details

Journal of Family Business Management, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2043-6238

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 13 March 2017

Svetla Marinova and Marin Marinov

This paper aims to investigate the internationalisation inducement in family firms with domestic capital operating in a specific industry in a transition country…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the internationalisation inducement in family firms with domestic capital operating in a specific industry in a transition country. Examining the effect of entrepreneur-, firm- and context- specific factors, it provides an insight into the start of internationalisation via exporting and its initiating features.

Design/methodology/approach

The study uses a qualitative research approach. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews from informants with conclusive decision-making power and analysed using a combination of inductive and deductive coding.

Findings

The findings show that the sample firms internationalise early exhibiting mostly proactive behaviour in finding international clients. Owner-manager international orientation and commitment combined with contacts in his or her social spaces lead to early export inducement despite the fusion of ownership and control, and regardless of transition context volatility and inefficiency.

Research limitations/implications

The limitations include the sample size and its industry embeddedness limiting generalisability. The key implications are that family firms need support to develop their social spaces through encouraging and enabling linkages between socio-economic actors that can expand the bounded sociality of the firm.

Originality/value

The owner-manager orientation, objectives, commitment and characteristics, coupled with the straightforward decision-making process that is safeguarded by full family ownership, can abate the dissuading role of the perceived lack of institutional support for small and medium-sized enterprise internationalisation in a transition context.

Details

European Business Review, vol. 29 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-534X

Keywords

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