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Article
Publication date: 8 May 2017

Nelsensius Klau Fauk, Silivano Edson Mwakinyali, Sukma Putra and Lillian Mwanri

The purpose of this paper is to explore the socio-economic impacts of AIDS on families caring for AIDS-orphaned children in Mbeya rural district, Tanzania.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the socio-economic impacts of AIDS on families caring for AIDS-orphaned children in Mbeya rural district, Tanzania.

Design/methodology/approach

A qualitative inquiry employing one-on-one in-depth interviews was conducted in 2015. Purposive sampling technique was used to recruit participants (n=24) comprising 20 heads of families caring for AIDS-orphaned children, two local government staff and two staff from Isangati Agricultural Development Organisation – a non-government organisation. Qualitative data were analysed using thematic and framework approach.

Findings

Results demonstrated that families caring for AIDS-orphaned children experienced severe socio-economic impacts of the epidemic. Reduction in household savings, increase in living expenses on health care and increased education fees were the identified economic impacts on these families. Social impacts included labour shortage, withdrawal of children from school and increased demand for food.

Social implications

There is a need for urgent responses and for scaling up programmes delivered by organisations, institutions and the government of Tanzania to help families cope with these impacts.

Originality/value

This study provides evidence on socio-economic impacts of AIDS on families caring for AIDS-orphaned children in Tanzania. An understanding of these impacts can help governmental and non-governmental institutions and programme planners to address the problem in their policies and develop evidence-based strategies and interventions in responding to the problem in Mbeya and Tanzania. Moreover, responses to reducing the impacts of AIDS on families require a holistic approach that encourages the involvement of all sectors and agents outside of the health sector.

Details

International Journal of Human Rights in Healthcare, vol. 10 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-4902

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 31 December 2008

Lorraine Sherr and Joanne Mueller

Parental illness can affect child and adolescent psychosocial well‐being. Mental health effects of parental bereavement generally and HIV‐related bereavement specifically…

Abstract

Parental illness can affect child and adolescent psychosocial well‐being. Mental health effects of parental bereavement generally and HIV‐related bereavement specifically have been poorly explored in children. HIV‐related illness has a number of specific features that may directly affect mental health considerations. Infection is clustered in families. Bereavement is often multiple. Death is often preceded by severe illness and multiple opportunistic infections. AIDS is stigmatised, which may impede disclosure, social support and adjustment. In low‐income countries where HIV infection is concentrated, access to palliative care as well as medical care may be limited. This review systematically identifies studies on HIV and bereavement in children. Searches of electronic databases for relevant articles revealed 14 studies examining bereavement with sufficient measurement and controlled methodology providing standardised behavioural and emotional outcome measures. Scrutiny of the results revealed the majority (12: 86%) recorded an adverse behavioural or emotional impact on the child. A detailed analysis of the studies provides insights to risks as well as protective factors that may inform future interventions. Only one systematic intervention was identified whereby a coping skills intervention had positive and long‐lasting effects. This paper examines urgent future needs and the requirement for evidence‐based policy and provision.

Details

Journal of Public Mental Health, vol. 7 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5729

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 14 November 2012

Anne Smiley

In recent years, access to schooling for children orphaned and made vulnerable by AIDS has emerged as a major humanitarian concern, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa…

Abstract

In recent years, access to schooling for children orphaned and made vulnerable by AIDS has emerged as a major humanitarian concern, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. International discourse largely fails to define what “vulnerability” means, while also depicting “orphans and vulnerable children” as passive victims of complex social processes. This ethnographic study of a “typical” secondary school in semirural Lesotho investigates the research question: At the secondary level, how does “vulnerability” shape the educational participation and home life of young Basotho? Through extended observation, in-depth interviews, and student diaries, the study reveals that “vulnerable” children in Lesotho, who are locally defined as those without strong adult caregivers, actually exercise a high degree of autonomy that is often manifested through “stubbornness.” “Stubborn” students resist adult control and are closely associated with early sexual debut and high-risk behaviors. As a result of their resistance, they are often singled out by teachers for corporal punishment, increasing the likelihood that they will drop out of school. This chapter adds to the literature on youth agency by demonstrating that “acting stubborn” is one way in which “vulnerable” children can exercise control over their own lives and resist the status quo. In addition, the findings point to the failure of the school model, which is highly authoritarian, to retain “vulnerable” students and teach them valuable life skills, including HIV/AIDS prevention. Finally, this study demonstrates that local and culturally inflected definitions of “vulnerability” may not always align with international definitions and policy prescriptions.

Details

The Impact of HIV/AIDS on Education Worldwide
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-233-2

Book part
Publication date: 14 November 2012

Laban Ayiro

Impact mitigation strategies in sub-Saharan Africa on HIV/AIDS in the education sector involved initially the development of education sector policies. This study traces…

Abstract

Impact mitigation strategies in sub-Saharan Africa on HIV/AIDS in the education sector involved initially the development of education sector policies. This study traces the policy development initiatives, level of implementation, progress made and existing challenges. The study is based on a close (textual) reading of authoritative literature from United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), World Bank, UNESCO and UNICEF for the last decade on global monitoring of HIV/AIDS and statistical data. Studies on the impact of HIV/AIDS on the education sector in sub-Saharan Africa have been brought into focus and themes have been extracted and synthesised from a comparative perspective to guide the development of this chapter. Across the countries, the education sector HIV/AIDS policies had concurrence with the countries’ national HIV and AIDS policy or guidelines, and conformed to international conventions, national laws, policies, guidelines and regulations. Most of the countries in Sub-Saharan Africa showed a significant decline in HIV prevalence among young women or men and opportunities to improve HIV-prevention knowledge and behaviour still abound. Antiretroviral therapy and other types of treatment have expanded since the early 2000s, but the number of AIDS-related deaths remains high. This chapter fulfils an identified information/resources need and amplifies the progress achieved in the mitigation of the impact of HIV/AIDS on the education sector specifically and humanity in general.

Details

The Impact of HIV/AIDS on Education Worldwide
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-233-2

Article
Publication date: 24 May 2011

Chiku Mnubi‐Mchombu and Janneke Mostert

The purpose of this paper is to determine how the caregivers of orphans and vulnerable children in Namibia seek information to ensure their own and the children's survival.

953

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to determine how the caregivers of orphans and vulnerable children in Namibia seek information to ensure their own and the children's survival.

Design/methodology/approach

The research was conducted through focus group discussions in the Ohangwena (rural) and Khomas regions (urban). Purposive sampling was used to identify key informants with the assistance of social workers and community leaders.

Findings

Disparities between rural and urban areas in terms of information access and use were found. For example, the rural dwellers expressed need for information on educational support, psychological and counselling services, childcare, and job opportunities. In urban areas, educational support and the establishment of small businesses featured as prominent needs. Radio, traditional leaders, regional councillors, friends and relatives were identified as channels of information in Ohangwena, while in Khomas, friends and relatives, community leaders, and regional councillors were most popular. Various challenges were identified such as, lack of transport and funding to access it, getting information too late to respond timeously, and a lack of accessible information channels.

Research limitations/implications

Only two regions in Namibia were covered in this paper, i.e. Ohangwena (rural) and Khomas (urban). It was assumed that the information needs of caregivers in all the other rural or urban areas would be the same as those identified in the sampled areas.

Originality/value

Literature on the topic is scarce and, therefore, the paper gives important insight into how to assist caregivers with their information needs.

Details

Library Review, vol. 60 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0024-2535

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 11 May 2007

Ladislaus M. Semali

This chapter outlines the enormity of the task of achieving universal primary education in Africa with over 40 million children currently out of school in sub-Saharan…

Abstract

This chapter outlines the enormity of the task of achieving universal primary education in Africa with over 40 million children currently out of school in sub-Saharan Africa. Several questions are addressed with reference to global trends and using World Bank and national enrollment data. For example: Why does Africa seem unable to secure “education for all” for school-age children? Is it simply the relative poverty levels of African countries, or are there grounds for thinking that other factors might be at work? And, what challenges do these countries face in the wake of the HIV/AIDS pandemic? This chapter also notes that some countries are at higher risk of not achieving universal primary completion and gender equality by 2015. What must politicians and policy-makers do to reverse these trends? As observed by Blair's Commission for Africa, the challenges are immense and if Africa continues on its current path then the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) for halving poverty, universal primary education and the elimination of avoidable infant deaths in sub-Saharan Africa will not be delivered in 2015 but instead between 100 and 150 years late. The challenge is to find short- and long- term policies and solutions to address this global policy.

Details

Education for All
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-7623-1441-6

Article
Publication date: 1 December 2008

William N. Ndlela

Swaziland is one of the countries with the highest Human Immune-deficiency Virus (HIV) rates in the world. Consequently, the increased need for care and support for people…

Abstract

Swaziland is one of the countries with the highest Human Immune-deficiency Virus (HIV) rates in the world. Consequently, the increased need for care and support for people living with Acquired Immune-deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), as well as orphaned and vulnerable children, is unprecedented. The response to combat the HIV epidemic has been evident in many areas as the country continues its fight against the HIV epidemic. However, efforts to provide care and support - including Anti-Retroviral Therapy (ART), management of opportunistic infections, and community home-based care - have, so far, largely stemmed from the health sector. Housing care and other non-medical support is continuing to lag behind. Lack of proper housing is one of the deprivations suffered by orphaned children and people living with AIDS, which predisposes them to attacks by opportunistic infections and other vulnerabilities and disrupts the continuum of care, whilst at times denying occupants the required privacy.

This paper focuses on creating an understanding of why housing care and support for HIV and AIDS affected is lagging behind in Swaziland. It suggests cultural, economic, political and policy issues as the underlying reasons for this, and, therefore, concludes that there is need for bold policy reforms in these areas. In order to create a proper framework for such reforms, the paper reviews the following:

1. The national housing policy's implications on the care and support for people living with HIV and AIDS and the orphaned and vulnerable children; and

2. The current human settlements related responses to HIV and AIDS in Swaziland's rural, peri-urban and urban areas.

In this context, urban development planning paradigms and the extent to which HIV and AIDS is being integrated into the development plans are discussed.

Details

Open House International, vol. 33 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0168-2601

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 1 January 2004

Jeanita W. Richardson

UN Secretary General Kofi Annan in the opening quote reminds us that despite the medical and public health gains of recent decades, benefits have not accrued to the most…

Abstract

UN Secretary General Kofi Annan in the opening quote reminds us that despite the medical and public health gains of recent decades, benefits have not accrued to the most vulnerable of citizens, children (DeYoung & Lynch, 2002). For decades research has quantified the links between poverty, ill-health and the global burdens imposed by disease. Yet, the distribution of poverty and disease has changed little over the last thirty years, continuing to be concentrated among poor children in both emerging and developed nations (Bellamy, 1999; Brundtland, 1999). Fundamentally, the complex web of poverty relegates youth to a lifetime of suffering because of the relationships between and among resources, health and neurological development.

Details

Suffer The Little Children
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76230-831-6

Article
Publication date: 1 December 2008

Olusola Olufemi

This paper contends that the peculiar, chronic, itinerant lifestyles and precarious spaces occupied by the homeless enhance their risk and vulnerability to HIV/AIDS. These…

Abstract

This paper contends that the peculiar, chronic, itinerant lifestyles and precarious spaces occupied by the homeless enhance their risk and vulnerability to HIV/AIDS. These spaces, including the streets, shacks and cardboard boxes, mine dumps and unorganised shelters, expose them to indecent lifestyles, poor choices and greater risk of HIV, as well as Tuberculosis (TB) and Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs).

This study was conducted amongst street homeless people, shack and hostel dwellers in informal settlements in various locations in Johannesburg. Inferences were drawn from the personal experiences of homeless people, and inputs from individuals and organisations that are engaged and work in the field of homelessness. Types of dwellings, overcrowding, livelihoods, knowledge of HIV/AIDS and survival sex are among the issues examined.

Preliminary findings indicate that, firstly, poverty is a leading cause of precarious housing among the homeless. Secondly, behavioural practices, especially survival sex, make homeless people vulnerable to HIV. As a result, there is an increase in mortality rates from both HIV and AIDS amongst this group of people. Thirdly, the difficulties homeless people experience in gaining access to water, sanitation and health care services also compromises the care of those who are infected or affected by HIV/AIDS. Finally, other barriers to care and determinants of vulnerability to HIV/AIDS are the lack of knowledge, judgemental attitudes of the care providers overcrowding and lack of adequate nutrition amongst the homeless.

Details

Open House International, vol. 33 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0168-2601

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 2 June 2005

Steve Carlton-Ford

The study of war has generally been neglected in sociology, with much of the discussion focusing around military spending or the organization of the military rather than…

Abstract

The study of war has generally been neglected in sociology, with much of the discussion focusing around military spending or the organization of the military rather than war per se. Sociologists have critiqued and investigated the military-industrial complex (Mills, 1959), investigated morale in military units (Durkheim, 1951; Stouffer & DeVinney, 1955), and studied the socialization of soldiers (Cockerham & Cohen, 1980). However, the direct examination of war has been relatively rare. When war has been examined, sociological research has focused on the causes of war, often discussing the preconditions of revolutions (Goldstone, Gurr & Moshiri, 1991; Skopol, 1979), or the reasons for military interventions by core countries in the peripheral countries of the world system (Kowalewski, 1991). Examinations of the sociological impact of war on civilian populations have been even rarer.

Details

Sociological Studies of Children and Youth
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-183-5

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