Search results

1 – 10 of 361
To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 March 2006

Philip Gharghori, Howard Chan and Robert Faff

Daniel and Titman (1997) contend that the Fama‐French three‐factor model’s ability to explain cross‐sectional variation in expected returns is a result of characteristics…

Abstract

Daniel and Titman (1997) contend that the Fama‐French three‐factor model’s ability to explain cross‐sectional variation in expected returns is a result of characteristics that firms have in common rather than any risk‐based explanation. The primary aim of the current paper is to provide out‐of‐sample tests of the characteristics versus risk factor argument. The main focus of our tests is to examine the intercept terms in Fama‐French regressions, wherein test portfolios are formed by a three‐way sorting procedure on book‐to‐market, size and factor loadings. Our main test focuses on ‘characteristic‐balanced’ portfolio returns of high minus low factor loading portfolios, for different size and book‐to‐market groups. The Fama‐French model predicts that these regression intercepts should be zero while the characteristics model predicts that they should be negative. Generally, despite the short sample period employed, our findings support a risk‐factor interpretation as opposed to a characteristics interpretation. This is particularly so for the HML loading‐based test portfolios. More specifically, we find that: the majority of test portfolios tend to reveal higher returns for higher loadings (while controlling for book‐to‐market and size characteristics); the majority of the Fama‐French regression intercepts are statistically insignificant; for the characteristic‐balanced portfolios, very few of the Fama‐French regression intercepts are significant.

Details

Pacific Accounting Review, vol. 18 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0114-0582

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 27 November 2017

Hung-Chi Li, Syouching Lai, James A. Conover, Frederick Wu and Bin Li

Lai, Li, Conover, and Wu (2010) propose a four-factor financial distress model to explain stock returns in the U.S. and Japanese markets. We examine this model in the…

Abstract

Lai, Li, Conover, and Wu (2010) propose a four-factor financial distress model to explain stock returns in the U.S. and Japanese markets. We examine this model in the stock markets of Australia, and six Asian markets (Hong Kong, Indonesia, Korea, Malaysia, Singapore, and Thailand). We find broad empirical support for the four-factor financial distress risk asset-pricing model in those markets. The four-factor financial distress asset pricing model improves explanatory power beyond the Fama–French (1993) three-factor asset pricing model in six of the seven Asian-Pacific markets (12 of 14 portfolio groupings), while the Carhart (1997) momentum-based asset pricing model only improves explanatory power beyond the Fama–French model in three of the seven markets (4 of 14 portfolio groupings).

Details

Growing Presence of Real Options in Global Financial Markets
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-838-3

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 15 July 2020

Hakan Aygoren and Emrah Balkan

The aim of this study is to investigate the role of efficiency in capital asset pricing. The paper explores the impact of a four-factor model that involves an efficiency…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this study is to investigate the role of efficiency in capital asset pricing. The paper explores the impact of a four-factor model that involves an efficiency factor on the returns of Nasdaq technology firms.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper relies on data of 147 firms from July 2007 to June 2017 to examine the impact of efficiency on stock returns. The performances of the capital asset pricing model (CAPM), Fama–French three-factor model and the proposed four-factor model are evaluated based on the time series regression method. The parameters such as the GRS F-statistic and adjusted R² are used to compare the relative performances of all models.

Findings

The results show that all factors of the models are found to be valid in asset pricing. Also, the paper provides evidence that the explanatory power of the proposed four-factor model outperforms the explanatory power of the CAPM and Fama–French three-factor model.

Originality/value

Unlike most asset pricing studies, this paper presents a new asset pricing model by adding the efficiency factor to the Fama–French three-factor model. It is documented that the efficiency factor increases the predictive ability of stock returns. Evidence implies that investors consider efficiency as one of the main factors in pricing their assets.

Details

Managerial Finance, vol. 46 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4358

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 25 May 2012

Jinhoo Kim and SooCheong (Shawn) Jang

This study aims to compare the risk‐return characteristics and performance of real estate investment trust (REIT) hotel companies (hotel REITs hereafter) with those of…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to compare the risk‐return characteristics and performance of real estate investment trust (REIT) hotel companies (hotel REITs hereafter) with those of C‐corporation hotel companies (hotel C‐corps hereafter).

Design/methodology/approach

The risk‐return characteristics and performance of hotel REITs and C‐corps were examined by estimating single‐factor and Fama‐French three‐factor asset pricing models for each portfolio. Differences between the hotel REIT and C‐corp estimations were tested using Wald test statistics.

Findings

Little evidence was found that hotel REITs have significantly different risk‐return characteristics and performance than hotel C‐corps, which suggests that hotel REITs and C‐corps are not significantly different in terms of market risk‐return characteristics and performance. The market portfolio had a significantly positive effect on the returns of both hotel REITs and C‐corps. The size and book‐to‐market factors of common stock also had a significant explanatory power for the returns of hotel REITs and C‐corps. Both hotel REITs and C‐corps performed similarly to the market portfolio, on a risk‐adjusted basis, during the 2000s.

Research limitations/implications

Despite the fact that the three‐factor asset pricing model explains a significantly greater proportion of the variation in the hotel firms' returns than the single‐factor asset pricing model, approximately 30 percent of the total variation still remains unexplained.

Practical implications

The risk‐return characteristics and performance of hotel REITs and C‐corps revealed by this study will render hotel investors' decisions between the two organizational structures less complicated. In addition, the findings can be used by portfolio managers to construct a well‐diversified portfolio.

Originality/value

A multifactor asset pricing model was used for the first time in this article to examine the risk‐return characteristics and performance of hotel companies. In addition, the importance of understanding differences between REIT and C‐corp structures in the lodging industry is emphasized.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 24 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 11 September 2017

Greg Richey

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the return performance of a portfolio of US “vice stocks,” firms that manufacture and sell products such as alcohol, tobacco…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the return performance of a portfolio of US “vice stocks,” firms that manufacture and sell products such as alcohol, tobacco, gaming services, national defense and firearms, adult entertainment, and payday lenders.

Design/methodology/approach

Using daily return data from a portfolio of vice stocks over the period 1987-2016, the author computes the Jensen’s α (capital asset pricing model (CAPM)), Fama-French Three-Factor, Carhart Four-Factor, and Fama-French Five-Factor results for the complete portfolio, and each vice industry individually.

Findings

The results from the CAPM, Fama-French Three-Factor Model, and the Carhart Four-Factor Model show a positive and significant α for the vice portfolio throughout the sample period. However, the α’s significance disappears with the addition of the explanatory variables from the Fama-French Five-Factor Model.

Originality/value

The author provides academics and practitioners with results from a new model. As of this writing, the author is unaware of any articles published in peer-reviewed academic journals that investigate vice stocks within the framework of the Fama-French Five-Factor Model (2015). First, the existing literature does not shed light on the relationship between “profitability” and “aggressiveness” (the fourth and fifth factors of the Fama-French Model) and vice stock returns. Second, within the framework of the Fama-French Five-Factor Model, the author shows results not only from a portfolio of vice stocks, but from various vice industries as well.

Details

Managerial Finance, vol. 43 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4358

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 21 May 2020

Mashukudu Hartley Molele and Janine Mukuddem-Petersen

The purpose of this paper is to examine the level of foreign exchange exposure of listed nonfinancial firms in South Africa. The study spans the period January 2002 and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the level of foreign exchange exposure of listed nonfinancial firms in South Africa. The study spans the period January 2002 and November 2015. Foreign exchange risk exposure is estimated in relation to the exchange rate of the South African Rand relative to the US$, the Euro, the British Pound and the trade-weighted exchange rate index.

Design/methodology/approach

The study is based on the augmented-market model of Jorion (1990). The Jorion (1990) is a capital asset pricing model-inspired framework which models share returns as a function of the return on the market index and changes in the exchange rate factor. The market risk factor is meant to discount the effect of macroeconomic factors on share returns, thus isolating the foreign exchange risk factor. In addition, the study further added the size, value, momentum, investment and profitability risk factors in line with the Fama–French three-factor model, Carhart four-factor model and the Fama–French five-factor model to account for the fact that equity capital markets in countries such as South Africa are known to be partially segmented.

Findings

Foreign exchange risk exposure levels were estimated at more than 40% for all the proxy currencies on the basis of the standard augmented market model. However, after controlling for idiosyncratic factors, through the application of the Fama–French three-factor model, the Carhart four-factor model and the Fama–French five-factor model, exposure levels were found to range between 6.5 and 12%.

Research limitations/implications

These results indicate the importance of controlling for the effects of idiosyncratic facto0rs in the estimation of foreign exchange risk exposure in the context of emerging markets of Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA).

Originality/value

This is the first study to apply the Fama–French three-factor model, Carhart four-factor model and the Fama–French five-factor model in the estimation of foreign exchange exposure of nonfinancial firms in the context of a SSA country. These results indicate the importance of controlling for the effects of idiosyncratic factors in the estimation of foreign exchange risk exposure in the context of emerging markets.

Details

The Journal of Risk Finance, vol. 21 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1526-5943

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 27 February 2009

Anyssa Trimech, Hedi Kortas, Salwa Benammou and Samir Benammou

The purpose of this paper is to discuss a multiscale pricing model for the French stock market by combining wavelet analysis and Fama‐French three‐factor model. The…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to discuss a multiscale pricing model for the French stock market by combining wavelet analysis and Fama‐French three‐factor model. The objective is to examine the relationship between stock returns and Fama‐French risk factors at different time‐scales.

Design/methodology/approach

Exploiting the scale separation property inherent to the maximal overlap discrete wavelet transform, the data set are decomposed into components associated with different time‐scales. This wavelet‐based decomposition scheme allows the three Fama‐French models to be tested over different investments periods.

Findings

The obtained results show that the explanatory power of the Fama‐French three‐factor model becomes stronger as the wavelet scale increases. Besides, the relationship between the portfolio returns and the risk factors (i.e. the market, size and value factors) depends significantly upon the considered time‐horizon.

Practical implications

The proposed methodology offers investors the opportunity to construct dynamic portfolio management strategies by taking into account the multiscale nature of risk and return. Moreover, it gives a new insight to fund rating and fund selection issues in relation to heterogeneous investments periods.

Originality/value

The paper uses wavelets as a relatively new and powerful tool for statistical analysis that allows a new understanding of pricing models. The paper will be of interest not only for academics in the field of asset pricing but also for fund managers and financial market investors.

Details

The Journal of Risk Finance, vol. 10 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1526-5943

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 3 June 2019

Salman Ahmed Shaikh, Mohd Adib Ismail, Abdul Ghafar Ismail, Shahida Shahimi and Muhammad Hakimi Mohd. Shafiai

This paper aims to study the cross section of expected returns on Shari’ah-compliant stocks in Pakistan by using single- and multi-factor asset pricing models.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to study the cross section of expected returns on Shari’ah-compliant stocks in Pakistan by using single- and multi-factor asset pricing models.

Design/methodology/approach

To estimate cross section of expected returns of Shari’ah-compliant stocks, the study uses capital asset pricing model (CAPM), Fama-French three-factor model and Fama-French five-factor model. Data for the period 2001-2015 on 217 companies are used. For the market portfolio, PSX-100 and Dow Jones Islamic Index for Pakistan are used.

Findings

The study could not find empirical support for CAPM using Lintner (1965), Black et al. (1972) and Fama and Macbeth (1973) approach. Nonetheless, the relation between beta and returns is positive in up-market and negative in down-market. The results of Fama-French three-factor and five-factor models suggest that size premium is positive and significant for explaining the cross section of stock returns of small size stocks, whereas value premium is positive and significant for explaining the cross section of returns of high value stocks.

Practical implications

The results suggest that fund managers can use Shari’ah-compliant stocks for portfolio diversification and for offering specialized investments given the positive market excess returns and the existence of size and value premium on Shari’ah-compliant stocks.

Originality/value

This is the first study on Fama-French (2015) five-factor model for Islamic capital markets in Pakistan.

Details

International Journal of Islamic and Middle Eastern Finance and Management, vol. 12 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8394

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 9 November 2015

Nicholas Addai Boamah

The purpose of this study is to explore the applicability of the Fama–French and Carhart models on the South African stock market (SASM). It examines the ability of the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to explore the applicability of the Fama–French and Carhart models on the South African stock market (SASM). It examines the ability of the models to capture size, book-to-market (BM) and momentum effects on the SASM. The paper, additionally, explores the ability of the Fama–French–Carhart factors to predict the future growth of the South African economy.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper relies on data of 848 firms from January 1996 to April 2012 to examine the size, BM and momentum effects on the SASM. The paper constructs the test assets from a 3 × 3 sort on size and BM and a 3 × 3 sort on size and momentum. The paper estimates momentum as the past six-months’ cumulative return. The momentum portfolios are monthly rebalanced. Additionally, the size and BM portfolios are formed annually at the end of each June.

Findings

Evidence is provided that size, BM and momentum effects exist on the SASM; also, the small- and high-BM firm portfolios, respectively, appear riskier than the big- and low-BM firm portfolios. The paper provides evidence of past winners outperforming past losers aside from the small-firm group. Additionally, the models only partially capture the size and value effects on the SASM. The Carhart model partly captures the momentum effects, but the Fama–French model is unable to describe the returns to the momentum-sorted portfolios. The evidence shows that the models’ factors predict future gross domestic product growth.

Originality/value

The models do not fully describe returns on the SASM; any application of the models on the SASM should be done with caution. The Carhart model better describes returns than the Fama–French model on the SASM. The Fama–French–Carhart factors may relate to the underlying economic risk of the South African economy.

Details

Review of Accounting and Finance, vol. 14 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1475-7702

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 18 June 2021

Mehak Jain and Ravi Singla

Asset pricing revolves around the core aspects of risk and expected return. The main objective of the study is to test different asset pricing models for the Indian…

Abstract

Purpose

Asset pricing revolves around the core aspects of risk and expected return. The main objective of the study is to test different asset pricing models for the Indian securities market. This paper aims to analyse whether leverage and liquidity augmented five-factor model performs better than Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM), Fama and French three-factor model, leverage augmented four-factor model and liquidity augmented four-factor model.

Design/methodology/approach

The data for the current study comprises records on prices of securities that are part of the Nifty 500 index for a time frame of 14 years, that is, from October 2004 to September 2017 consisting of 183 companies using time series regression.

Findings

The results indicate that the five-factor model performs better than CAPM and the three-factor model. The model outperforms leverage augmented and liquidity augmented four-factor models. The empirical evidence shows that the five-factor model has the highest explanatory power among the entire asset pricing models considered.

Practical implications

The present study bears certain useful implications for various stakeholders including fund managers, investors and academicians.

Originality/value

This study presents a five-factor model containing two additional factors, that is, leverage and liquidity risk along with the Fama-French three-factor model. These factors are expected to give more value to the model in comparison to the Fama-French three-factor model.

Details

Vilakshan - XIMB Journal of Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0973-1954

Keywords

1 – 10 of 361