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Article
Publication date: 23 April 2018

Jawad Syed, Faiza Ali and Sophie Hennekam

The purpose of this paper is to examine gender inequality in Saudi Arabia by using a relational perspective that takes into account the interrelated nature of the…

3503

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine gender inequality in Saudi Arabia by using a relational perspective that takes into account the interrelated nature of the multilevel factors that influence this phenomenon.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 21 in-depth interviews with female employees in Saudi Arabia were conducted and analysed using a thematic analysis.

Findings

The findings show how the interplay of factors on macro, meso and micro levels influences equal opportunities for women in Saudi Arabia, such as religio-cultural factors, the social power of wasta, the notions of female modesty and family honour and issues related to gender segregation, discrimination and harassment at work. Moreover, Saudi women’s experiences are varied on the basis of social class, family status and other dimensions of individual identity, adding to a growing body of intersectional research. The paper highlights the role of male guardianship system as well as the intersection of gender and class in pushing gender equality forward.

Originality/value

This study stresses the interrelated nature of the multilevel factors that affect gender equality and highlights the important role of individual agency and resilience.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 23 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 24 August 2021

Faiza Ali, Sophie Hennekam, Jawad Syed, Adnan Ahmed and Rabbia Mubashar

This article examines the labour market inclusion of documented and undocumented Afghan refugees in Pakistan using and extending Bourdieu's theory of capital.

Abstract

Purpose

This article examines the labour market inclusion of documented and undocumented Afghan refugees in Pakistan using and extending Bourdieu's theory of capital.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors draw on 22 semi-structured in-depth interviews with both documented and undocumented Afghan refugees in Pakistan.

Findings

The findings show the low capital endowments of refugees. Their economic capital is shaped by low levels of financial resources, and emotional capital is shaped by their psychological distress and traumata and identity capital takes the form of negative perceptions about them. Their low capital endowments are further reduced through different forms of symbolic violence, such as ambiguous and short-term government policies, bribery and abuse by the police as well as unfair treatment by employers. However, refugees do mobilise their capital endowments to enhance their labour market position. The authors identified resilience as emotional capital, their strategic development of who they are as identity capital as well as social and cultural capital in the form of ethnic and linguistic similarities with locals in finding ways to improve their inclusion in the labour market.

Originality/value

The authors provide insights in the dynamics that lead to and sustain the exclusion and inequalities faced by Afghan refugees in Pakistan.

Details

Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, vol. 40 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7149

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 22 March 2013

Faiza Ali

Informed by a relational theorisation of equal opportunity, this paper seeks to focus on multi‐level experiences and observations of women working in Pakistan's formal…

2928

Abstract

Purpose

Informed by a relational theorisation of equal opportunity, this paper seeks to focus on multi‐level experiences and observations of women working in Pakistan's formal employment sector considering issues and challenges facing them at three levels of analysis, i.e. macro‐societal, meso‐organisational and micro‐individual.

Design/methodology/approach

Drawing on in‐depth qualitative interviews with 30 working women in Lahore, the paper examines multi‐level issues of women working in Pakistani organisations.

Findings

The study reveals that focusing exclusively on organisations and holding them solely accountable for equal opportunity may be inadequate as organisational structures and routines of equal opportunity are affected by both macro‐societal factors (e.g. legal, socio‐cultural) and micro‐individual factors (e.g. intersectionality, agency). In particular, the study highlights unique socio‐cultural and structural challenges facing working women in Pakistan and the ways in which these women are able to negotiate and overcome some of these challenges.

Research limitations/implications

The study is based on six Pakistani organisations located in Lahore, Punjab, and may not be generalized to represent issues and challenges of equal opportunity in other provinces of Pakistan.

Practical implications

The paper suggests that employers may pay special attention to socio‐cultural issues facing women to promote gender equality at the workplace.

Originality/value

The study contributes to the equal employment opportunity literature by exploring gender equality issues in a Muslim majority country's context.

Details

Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, vol. 32 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7149

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 7 June 2013

Jawad Syed and Faiza Ali

The aim of this paper is to examine contextual emotional labor, which is a long‐term emotional experience in response to conflicting demands of societal and organizational…

1304

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this paper is to examine contextual emotional labor, which is a long‐term emotional experience in response to conflicting demands of societal and organizational contexts.

Design/methodology/approach

Drawing on qualitative interviews with Muslim female employees in two textile firms in Lahore, Pakistan, the paper explores the nature and extent of contextual emotional labor associated with these women's decision to step into “the male domain”.

Findings

The study identifies contextual emotional labor as an integral part of Muslim female employees' work in the formal employment sector resulting from an ongoing tension between the display rules of the workplace and Islamic female modesty.

Research limitations/implications

Scholars may wish to investigate the nature and form of contextual emotional labor in diverse geographic, cultural and religious contexts in order to refine the findings and theoretical implications of this study.

Practical implications

Organizations may consider placing Muslim women in those roles in which there is lesser likelihood of conflict between their organizational and societal display rules, while not compromising their career. On a societal level, policy makers and religious scholars may consider findings ways to promote an enlightened interpretation of religious principles and their gender egalitarian practices to alleviate the contextual emotional labor experiences by female employees and other relevant groups.

Originality/value

The paper offers original empirical research on an under‐explored topic and geographical area.

Details

Gender in Management: An International Journal, vol. 28 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2413

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 13 January 2014

89

Abstract

Details

Gender in Management: An International Journal, vol. 29 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2413

Content available
Article
Publication date: 13 March 2017

Abstract

Details

Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, vol. 36 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7149

Content available
Article
Publication date: 12 April 2011

Fang Lee Cooke

1034

Abstract

Details

Personnel Review, vol. 40 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 29 April 2021

Zainab Mohsin, Arisha Faiq, Tahira Naqvi, Sameen Rehman, Saffia Imtiaz Ahmed, Khadija Farrukh, Faiza Siddiqui, Arifa Ali Asghar and Murk Lakhani

The purpose of this study was to assess the knowledge of head and neck cancers (HNCs), their risk factors, signs and symptoms among the general public of Karachi, Pakistan.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to assess the knowledge of head and neck cancers (HNCs), their risk factors, signs and symptoms among the general public of Karachi, Pakistan.

Design/methodology/approach

Initially, 503 individuals were approached for data collection, out of which 404 fit the inclusion criteria (response rate = 80.03%). Nonprobability convenience sampling was utilized to select participants who fell under the age group of 15–60 years, barring the fields of Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelors of Surgery (MBBS) and Bachelors of Dentistry (BDS). Knowledge was evaluated by a 9-item questionnaire, the scores of which yielded the following interpretations: No (0), low (1–3), moderate (4–6) and high (7–9) knowledge.

Findings

Of the 404 participants who completed the questionnaire, 357 (88.4%) participants claimed to be aware of HNC. The HNC knowledge scores had a statistical relevance with socioeconomic status (p = <0.01) and level of education (p = 0.02). Most participants recognized a “lump or swelling in the throat” (87.1%) as the most common symptom, followed by “bleeding in mouth or throat” (84.7%). Surprisingly, 75.25% of participants thought HNCs were inclusive of brain cancer.

Originality/value

Overall, knowledge of HNCs among the general public of Karachi surpasses the knowledge in other regions around the world. Our study demonstrated that people indulge in unhealthy habits despite having sufficient knowledge and this warrants prompt interventions and counseling of the people.

Details

Journal of Health Research, vol. 36 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0857-4421

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 26 July 2022

Xiyu Chen, Asadullah Khaskheli, Syed Ali Raza, Faiza Hakim and Komal Akram Khan

Combining an online and traditional mode of learning is a significant challenge for third world countries. To face this challenge, educational institutions around the…

Abstract

Purpose

Combining an online and traditional mode of learning is a significant challenge for third world countries. To face this challenge, educational institutions around the world adopted the strategies of blended learning (BL). This research aims to determine the factors affecting readiness to diffuse BL in Pakistani higher education institutions.

Design/methodology/approach

“Partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM)” was used based on a suitable sample of 228 participants in Karachi, Pakistan.

Findings

The results reveal that resource support, management strategies (MSs) and technology infrastructure (TI) are positively and significantly associated with readiness to diffuse BL. However, institutional structure (IS) and ethical consideration (EC) have a positive but insignificant link with readiness to diffuse BL.

Originality/value

The research is reasonably required as research in the Karachi Pakistani context is scarce. Additionally, this study analyses the possibility of modern skills and techniques to diffuse BL in higher education in Pakistan.

Details

International Journal of Educational Management, vol. 36 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-354X

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 21 February 2020

Faiza Ahsan, Abbas Ali Chandio and Wang Fang

This paper aims to examine the effects of CO2 emissions, energy consumption, cultivated area and the labour force on the production of cereal crops in Pakistan from the…

3204

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the effects of CO2 emissions, energy consumption, cultivated area and the labour force on the production of cereal crops in Pakistan from the period 1971-2014.

Design/methodology/approach

The study used the Johansen cointegration test, the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) approach and Granger causality test to estimate the long-run cointegration and direction of the relationship between the dependent and independent variables.

Findings

The outcomes of the Johansen cointegration test confirmed the existence of a long-term cointegrating relationship between the production of cereal crops, CO2 emissions, energy consumption, cultivated area and the labour force. The results of the long-run coefficients of CO2 emissions, energy consumption, cultivated area and labour force have a positive impact on cereal crops production. The long-run relationships reveal that a 1 per cent increase in CO2 emissions, energy consumption, cultivated area and labour force will increase cereal crops production by 0.20, 0.11, 0.56 and 0.74 per cent, respectively. Moreover, the findings show that there is a bidirectional causality running from CO2 emissions and cultivated area to cereal crops production. Moreover, there is a unidirectional causality running from energy consumption to cereal crops production.

Originality/value

The present study also fills the literature gap for applying the ARDL procedure to examine this relevant issue for Pakistan.

Details

International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management, vol. 12 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-8692

Keywords

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