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Article
Publication date: 9 April 2019

Faisal L. Kadri

The purpose of this study is to investigate the possibility of soft science measurement of motivation under strict hard science criteria from observations of individual…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to investigate the possibility of soft science measurement of motivation under strict hard science criteria from observations of individual animals and to suggest the conditions under which an observation can be classified as a measurement.

Design/methodology/approach

The methodology starts from reconciling second-order cybernetics/radical constructivism (SOC/RC) understanding of the central role of the observer with physical measurements, which accepts the existence of a mind-independent reality. As a result of the reconciliation, parallels were identified between the SOC/RC experiences of as_is and as_if, on the one hand, and the measurement concepts of accuracy and resolution, on the other hand. The scales of physical measurement are defined by criteria of varying strictness, and the scales that meet the strict criterion of concatenation are generally considered hard science and lead to well-defined accuracy and precision. The similarity between SOC/RC and physical measurement suggests that if accuracy and precision can be computed from observations, then the observations can be classified as measurements in a strict hard science fashion; otherwise, the observations are just observations.

Findings

A nonlinear dynamic model of motivation is reintroduced as an example for reference in measurements of motivation. If there was an agreement on its use among observers (Ethologists), which in reality is not the case, then empirical data may be collected, and the averages and spreads of parameter estimations will define a reference for an animal species. Later, observers with their own data will calibrate with the reference model, so that new observers will have calculated values of accuracy and precision for their data.

Research limitations/implications

Unlike hard science whose scales of measurement are practically unambiguous, measuring the purpose of behaviour of an animal has inherent ambiguity according to the reintroduced model. The ambiguity cannot be resolved from instantaneous readings. The necessary existence of ambiguity renders the criticism of hard science invalid, that of expecting to measure motivation with a static scale as if it were temperature.

Practical implications

Human observers can be treated as measuring devices of motivation from observing behaviour. Each observer can have characteristic accuracy/precision, or validity/reliability, calculated from empirical data.

Social implications

This is an inductive, rather than deductive, study of individual animal behaviour; the author believes it is extensible to individual human behaviour and personality studies. However, group behaviour studies are beyond its scope.

Originality/value

The author believes that the suggestion of ambiguity of scales of animal motivation is original, and the suggested link between SOC/RC and a mainstream hard science is new.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. 48 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 7 September 2015

Faisal L Kadri

The purpose of this paper is to introduce signature analysis to humour research. Signature analysis is not widely used in the fields of humanities, the introduction of a…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to introduce signature analysis to humour research. Signature analysis is not widely used in the fields of humanities, the introduction of a new technique will invite comparison with the long standing factor analysis method.

Design/methodology/approach

A signature presumes the existence of a model with ideal attributes for the purpose of identification. The model derived from types of humour which describe four types of age dependence. Age dependence contrast sharply with factor analysis which usually ignores age differences in humour. The signatures of four types of humour were calculated from the average scores of all line scores of each type. The Cramer-Rao Bounds were also calculated from the same groups, this defines the centre points and the limits of best type estimators. The age profiles of individual lines were plotted against their type signatures. The error distributions were plotted, with and without offset compensation.

Findings

The error plot with offset compensation showed a spike close to the zero error, indicating the existence of significant matching between profiles and signature.

Research limitations/implications

This is an exploratory analysis of responses from 277 participants in an online long survey. More participation is required/hoped for to confirm these findings.

Practical implications

The graphical identification of context in sentences, humorous and non-humorous.

Originality/value

Signature analysis is well known in the physical sciences, the author knows of no application in psychology or humour research.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. 44 no. 8/9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 3 November 2014

Faisal L Kadri

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the conflicting varieties between cognitive linguistics and animal motivation on one hand and between emotions and motivations…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the conflicting varieties between cognitive linguistics and animal motivation on one hand and between emotions and motivations on another, and to show how the construction of an artificial personality led to understanding the differences from a cybernetic perspective, and to reconcile and benefit from them.

Design/methodology/approach

The design of the artificial personality is built on a core of dual regulator structure as a model of motivation and cognition. The regulating core does not address areas of linguistics and emotions, thus the need to interface with functions from well-researched disciplines in these areas as peripheries to the core. Different disciplines were viewed from a cybernetic perspective, where the variety of categories primarily used in these disciplines was compared numerically and the problem was defined as a search for methods to reducing the varieties between disciplines.

Findings

The interfaces between the core of artificial personality and the peripheries are seen as either regulators, which reduce variety, or generators of variety.

Originality/value

The approach to reconcile cross-disciplinary differences based on comparing the numerical variety of categories is understood to be original. The reduction of comparison to numerical counts removes hard-to-reconcile qualitative differences and retains the simplicity of quantitative differences. Qualitative cross-disciplinary differences benefit the specialists and protect them from competition with each other. By reconciling cross-disciplinary differences the artificial personality develops across disciplines and achieves multi-disciplinary transparency. The specialists may not welcome the competition but science, technology and society in general will benefit from reduced duplication, improved information flow and integration. This work is a small step in understanding and learning to reconcile differences between disciplines.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. 43 no. 9/10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 22 March 2013

Faisal L. Kadri

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the statistical link between an artificial personality model and the leading psychometric model.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the statistical link between an artificial personality model and the leading psychometric model.

Design/methodology/approach

An online survey was conducted made of two parts: a 40‐sentence humor appreciation survey corresponding to the artificial personality model, and a 50‐sentence Big 5 psychometric survey. The cross‐correlation between the scales of the two parts was computed, and exploratory factor analysis performed on the Big 5 scores using three different sample age spreads.

Findings

The cross‐correlation coefficients between the artificial and psychometric personality scores supported the suggestion that there is compatibility between the two, albeit their absolute values were not as high as other studies due to the small sample size. Also, when computing factor analysis on Big 5 scores it was found that the loading of two factors identified as motivational went down systematically with the size of the sample, which empirically supports the suggestion that motivational and cognitive factors are distinct.

Research limitations/implications

The size of sample was not sufficient to reach a conclusive decision but the evidence was supportive and promising for additional research.

Practical implications

The compatibility between the artificial and psychometric personality models means that psychometric scores of real persons can be uploaded into artificial personalities in order to mimic real conversation and behaviour.

Social implications

Improvement of man‐machine interface, facilitating education.

Originality/value

Correlating the scores of different personality scores is not new, but correlating with artificial personality dimensions defined by humor appreciation scores is new. The suggestion that there is qualitative difference between factors of well established psychometric model is new and could have far reaching implications.

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Article
Publication date: 9 August 2011

Faisal L. Kadri

A US patent was recently granted for an artificial psychology dialog player with two artificial personalities and aging simulation. The purpose of this paper is to expose…

Abstract

Purpose

A US patent was recently granted for an artificial psychology dialog player with two artificial personalities and aging simulation. The purpose of this paper is to expose the usefulness and scientific roots and support the commercial viability of the patent based on a new cybernetic model of personality.

Design/methodology/approach

The design of the artificial personality utilizes a new four‐dimensional cybernetic model, where sentences are classified along the dimensions according to their motivational and cognitive content. The model is a dynamic nonlinear system described in box diagram form. The idea behind the model is rooted in the cybernetics concept of requisite variety and the model's characteristics predict systematic variation with age. The model explains phenomena hitherto found vague. Its predictions regarding age dependence of human behaviour over adult age is tested by online humour appreciation surveys. The methodology is to establish the validity of the model by referencing its a priori predictions against a posteriori empirical classification of survey data by applying statistical consistency tests.

Findings

The prediction was tested using score data from three online humour appreciation surveys. The results from all surveys confirm the prediction and validate the personality model. The model is indeed useful and the statistical consistency tests support the validity of the model. A novel formulation of Maturana's closed nervous system based on the model with the possibility of empirical validation was also found.

Research limitations/implications

The media of the analysis was only humorous sentences, while the predictions of the model can be applied to other media such as other types of expressions and semiotic symbols, which are outside the scope of this investigation. Only age‐related changes were investigated. Personality‐related preferences are planned for investigation at a later stage.

Practical implications

A general age link of types of humor was not available until now, the validation of this link brings closer the realization of improvement in man‐machine interaction. Other applications include marketing and the use of the model as an educational tool.

Originality/value

The model of personality has a new structure represented as a stable continuous nonlinear system. It employs a feedback mechanism to describe homeostasis (multiplier feedback), a cybernetic regulator that is not based on the familiar negative feedback control structure. Its value as an alternative tool of analysis and prediction cuts across wide disciplines such as psychology, animal behaviour, physical science, computing, engineering and commerce.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. 40 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 3 November 2014

Tirumala Rao Vinnakota, Faisal L Kadri, Simon Grant, Ludmila Malinova, Peter Davd Tuddenham and Santiago Garcia

The purpose of this paper is to investigate and clarify possible distinctions between the terms “cyberneticist” and “cybernetician” with the intention of helping the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate and clarify possible distinctions between the terms “cyberneticist” and “cybernetician” with the intention of helping the growth of the cybernetics discipline in new directions.

Design/methodology/approach

After the American Society for Cybernetics ALU 2013 conference in Bolton, a small group of conference participants continued the conversations they had begun during the event, focusing on the comparison of the terms “cyberneticist” vs “cybernetician”. The group felt the need for clearer distinctions drawn (or designed) between the terms, in order to sustain the discipline of cybernetics and to support its growth. The aim of providing these distinctions is that theory should feed into practice and practice should feed into theory, forming a cybernetic loop, so that the discipline of cybernetics is sustained while growing. The conference participants had conversations between themselves, and came up with multiple perspectives on the distinction between “cyberneticist” vs “cybernetician”. The distinctions drawn mirror the distinctions between Science and Design: the science of cybernetics contrasted with the design of cybernetics.

Findings

The findings of this paper consist of recommendations to understand and act differently in the field of the discipline of cybernetics. In particular, a clear distinction is suggested between the terms “cyberneticist” and “cybernetician”. It is also suggested that in order for cybernetics to grow and be sustained, there should be a constant flow of developments in theory of cybernetics into the practice of cybernetics and vice-versa.

Originality/value

The authors believe that some people (called “cyberneticists”) should work on the science side of cybernetics, making strong contributions to the understanding and development of cybernetics theory. Others, (called “cyberneticians”) should work on the design side of cybernetics, to contribute through their actions and through the development of cybernetics practice. The result of this will be a self-organization that evolves naturally between theory and practice of cybernetics, leading to better learning of cybernetics, and in the process, sustaining it through continued growth. In this direction, the paper proposes several radical suggestions that may not be to the liking of traditionalists, but may be better received by the scientists and designers of cybernetics who can make a difference to the growth of the discipline of cybernetics.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. 43 no. 9/10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 3 November 2014

Special Issue

Abstract

Details

Kybernetes, vol. 43 no. 9/10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

Content available
Article
Publication date: 9 August 2011

Abstract

Details

Kybernetes, vol. 40 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

Content available
Article
Publication date: 7 September 2015

Abstract

Details

Kybernetes, vol. 44 no. 8/9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

Content available
Article
Publication date: 6 February 2017

Abstract

Details

Personnel Review, vol. 46 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

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