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Article
Publication date: 21 November 2008

Thomas J. Friedmann, Anthony H. Zacharski, Margaret A. Bancroft, Roger Mulvihill, Susan A. Reading, Robert J. Williams and Alan Rosenblat

The purpose of this paper is to summarize and analyze the SEC's July 9, 2008 roundtable discussion regarding fair value accounting and auditing standards.

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to summarize and analyze the SEC's July 9, 2008 roundtable discussion regarding fair value accounting and auditing standards.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper discusses investor, auditor/accountant/actuary, and corporation views concerning the usefulness of fair value accounting, potential market behavior effects from fair value accounting, challenges in applying fair value standards, possible improvement to the current standards, and working with auditors who provide assurance for fair value accounting.

Findings

Some investor panelists said fair value provides investors with the most current and relevant information of any accounting method and some believe fair valuation is important for market integrity and trust because it is a transparent measure for valuation. Auditors are especially challenged in determining fair values in illiquid or frozen markets. Roundtable participants viewed disclosure as critical for implementation of fair valuation, particularly regarding key inputs and assumptions. Auditors and corporations would like more guidance on applying fair value accounting from the SEC and Public Company Accounting Oversight Board.

Originality/value

The paper provides expert guidance by experienced securities lawyers.

Details

Journal of Investment Compliance, vol. 9 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1528-5812

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Article
Publication date: 10 September 2021

Kathryn Bewley, Cameron Graham and Songlan Peng

This article is a reply to “On theoretical engorgement and the myth of fair value accounting in China” Nobes (2019) from the authors of “Adaptability to fair value

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Abstract

Purpose

This article is a reply to “On theoretical engorgement and the myth of fair value accounting in China” Nobes (2019) from the authors of “Adaptability to fair value accounting in an emerging economy: A case study of China's IRFS convergence” (Peng and Bewley, 2010) and “The Winding Road to Fair Value Accounting in China: A Social Movement Analysis” (Bewley et al., 2018).

Design/methodology/approach

This article engages directly with the arguments of the criticism.

Findings

This article argues that the author of the commentary misunderstands the purpose, content and findings of both papers. By providing only a narrowly focused technical analysis of the new Chinese accounting standards, the author fails to see that their qualitative research approach reveals important, complex social and political factors at play in China's attempts to adopt modern international accounting principles. The commentary expresses a view that accounting is a neutral technology that needs only to be clearly defined and enumerated to be correctly implemented, whereas this research takes a much broader and deeper perspective. The authors seek to understand how China was able to successfully adopt fair value accounting standards in 2006, whereas an earlier attempt to introduce fair value in 1998 had led to abuse of fair value measurements and the eventual repeal of fair value regulations in 2001.

Practical implications

This article helps clarify the purpose of qualitative accounting research, the role of theory in such research and the usefulness of theory in describing and explaining empirical case facts related to changes in accounting standards, particularly in an international context.

Originality/value

This article contributes to a better appreciation of qualitative accounting research.

Details

Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, vol. 34 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-3574

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Article
Publication date: 4 January 2022

Bernadia Linggar Yekti Nugraheni, Lorne Stewart Cummings and Alan Kilgore

This case study aims to investigate the role of actors in the implementation of fair value standards in an emerging country, Indonesia.

Abstract

Purpose

This case study aims to investigate the role of actors in the implementation of fair value standards in an emerging country, Indonesia.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses semi-structured interviews with important actors within the local accounting profession, standard setting and regulatory environment, to analyse fair value accounting implementation. This study also incorporates information from press releases and newspapers, to provide a more comprehensive picture of fair value implementation.

Findings

First, professionals undertake routine actions, cultivate interests and strategically navigate their environment during the process of fair value standard implementation. Second, the role of appraisers becomes more prominent during this process. Third, government involvement is significant in ensuring the successful implementation of global accounting standards.

Research limitations/implications

First, differing localised contexts, including communities and actors, may shape how an emerging country undertakes the diffusion and implementation of global standards, which in turn can also lead to institutional change. Second, government involvement is crucial in supporting the implementation of global accounting standards within emerging economies. Third, implementing market-based measurements within emerging economies characterised by a lack of an active and liquid market may present challenges.

Practical implications

Third, implementing market-based measurements within emerging economies characterised by a lack of an active and liquid market may present challenges.

Originality/value

This study applies the concept of Institutional Work within Institutional Theory to explain how fair value standards are implemented within a localised emerging economy characterised by unique actor roles and goal-directed action.

Details

Qualitative Research in Accounting & Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1176-6093

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Article
Publication date: 8 December 2021

Pinprapa Sangchan, Md. Borhan Uddin Bhuiyan and Ahsan Habib

The paper aims to investigate the value-relevance of changes in fair values of investment property reported under International Accounting Standards (IAS) 40 and…

Abstract

Purpose

The paper aims to investigate the value-relevance of changes in fair values of investment property reported under International Accounting Standards (IAS) 40 and International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) 13.

Design/methodology/approach

Multivariate regression models are used to regress cumulative market-adjusted stock returns of real estate firms on changes in fair values, along with control variables and corporate governance variables, in order to examine the research question.

Findings

Using hand-collected data from the Australian Real Estate Industry (AREI), the authors find that changes in fair values of investment property are value-relevant for equity investors. The authors further find that using unobservable inputs in an active market (Level 3 inputs) does not diminish the information content of fair values. The authors document that properties valued exclusively by directors have a significantly reduced value-relevance, whereas property valuations made collectively by both directors and independent valuers have superior value-relevance, possibly owing to the combination of inside knowledge and externally imposed monitoring. Collectively, the findings suggest that in the real estate industry, where unobservable inputs are commonly used to determine fair values of properties, the fair values determined subjectively are perceived to be sufficiently informative and relevant.

Research limitations/implications

The authors' findings have important implications for accounting standard-setters in considering whether an external valuation should be required and whether the extensive measurement-related fair value disclosure requirements are useful.

Originality/value

The study extends previous archival evidence and complements prior commentaries on experimental and analytical work in the Australian regulatory environment.

Details

Asian Review of Accounting, vol. 30 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1321-7348

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Book part
Publication date: 15 December 2011

Walid Siam and Modar Abdullatif

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to survey views of bankers in Jordan about the usefulness of fair value accounting and major obstacles facing its implementation in…

Abstract

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to survey views of bankers in Jordan about the usefulness of fair value accounting and major obstacles facing its implementation in practice.

Methodology/Approach – A structured questionnaire was administered to individuals holding high positions in Jordanian banks. The questionnaire covered the respondents' views about the appropriateness of using fair value accounting, the usefulness of fair value figures in terms of their relevance for decision making and the obstacles facing the application of fair value accounting in practice.

Findings – Results of the survey showed that while there was general approval of the use of fair values in financial reporting, there were some reservations about their relevance in terms of predictive value and, more importantly, feedback value. Major obstacles facing the usefulness of fair values in financial reporting included, according to respondents, (1) the possibility of fraud in fair value reporting, (2) the ambiguity of accounting standards on fair value application and (3) the reliability of figures measured using fair value accounting, as opposed to those measured using historical cost accounting.

Social implications – The paper discusses the positive and negative aspects of application of fair value financial reporting in accounting. It discusses how fair value financial reporting may be useful for decision making of users of financial statements and what obstacles may limit this usefulness. The paper also discusses the implications of the findings for Jordan and other emerging economies, including suggested ways to reduce the possible negative effects of fair value accounting.

Originality/Value of paper – Fair value accounting practice is relatively new to Jordan, and the Jordanian context, as a less-developed country with a low-efficiency stock market, is significantly different to the environments in which fair value accounting practices were established. The effects of applying fair value accounting in Jordanian financial reporting practices are under-researched, so this study yields views on the reliability and relevance of fair value measures and the ease of their application in practice that could be specific to the Jordanian environment and differ significantly from results from developed countries. The findings generally support this argument.

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Accounting in Asia
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-445-0

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Article
Publication date: 11 August 2021

K.L. Wasantha Perera, Roshan Ajward and Sisira Dharmasri Jayasekara

The purpose of this paper is to discuss the possible money laundering threats in fair value accounting practices giving particular attention to the list of predicate…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to discuss the possible money laundering threats in fair value accounting practices giving particular attention to the list of predicate offences under recommendations of Financial Action Task Force (FATF).

Design/methodology/approach

This paper discusses case studies related to global accounting scandals and link outcomes of those scandals with the list of predicate offences given in FATF recommendations to build propositions.

Findings

The analysis reveals that legal proceedings on major accounting scandals show that legal proceedings have been restricted owing to a lack of evidence because of the technicality of frauds. Often the authorities have failed to prove cases under the list of current predicate offences which can be linked to accounting malpractices, i.e. fraud. Therefore, policymakers are required to revisit the list of predicate offences and the feasibility of considering accounting malpractices as a predicate offence to strengthen the corporate governance practices in regulated institutions. The adoption of fair value accounting practices provides opportunities to managers to adopt earnings management practices under a fair value accounting regime to maintain stable performance. The fair value practice recognizes unrealized gains which are not based on transactions giving bank managers an opportunity to repeat the outcomes of the discussed accounting scandals. Therefore, it is essential to criminalize accounting malpractices to strengthen the corporate governance practices in the banking industry and prevent possible accounting scandals.

Research limitations/implications

This study was designed to discuss the implications of fair value accounting practices on possible opportunities of money laundering. This paper provides only a viewpoint based on the analysis. Therefore, an empirical analysis is required to establish the authors’ views in a fair value accounting regime.

Originality/value

This paper is an original work done by the authors which discuss the implications of fair value accounting practices on possible money laundering. The views are original ideas of the authors in this context.

Details

Journal of Money Laundering Control, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1368-5201

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Book part
Publication date: 14 November 2016

Robert H. Herz

Abstract

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More Accounting Changes
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-629-1

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Article
Publication date: 8 February 2021

Anuradha Pandya, Wayne van Zijl and Warren Maroun

The objective of this research is to explore the challenges being encountered when applying and implementing fair value accounting requirements, focusing specifically on…

Abstract

Purpose

The objective of this research is to explore the challenges being encountered when applying and implementing fair value accounting requirements, focusing specifically on the determination of fair value per International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) 13: Fair value measurement (IFRS 13) in the South African capital market.

Design/methodology/approach

Data are collected from 20 detailed interviews, primarily with preparers and interpretively analysed to identify how individuals internalise the requirements of IFRS 13 and the challenges associated with its application. The researchers focus specifically on South Africa because of its status as a developing economy and, at the same time, its extensive experience in applying IFRS.

Findings

South African preparers appear reluctant to change from a conventional cost-based measurement approach to one grounded in fair value. Primary concerns include the perceived usefulness of fair value accounting and its conceptual appropriateness, given its perceived de-emphasis of the traditional stewardship role of financial reporting. Related challenges to the application of IFRS 13 include concerns about the cost of determining fair value; the inherent subjectivity of fair value measures and the practical difficulty of calculating fair values when markets are not efficient or where business environments are complex and dynamic where Level 1 inputs are not widely available for all assets and liabilities. These challenges encourage preparers to choose accounting policies, which minimise the use of fair value or apply the provisions of IFRS 13 legalistically.

Research limitations/implications

Data are collected from a group of respondents from a single developing economy. Additional research on the application of IFRS 13 in other developing markets will be required to conclude on the relevance of economic, cultural and social factors for the understanding and implementation of new accounting standards by practitioners.

Practical implications

Standard setters and regulators cannot assume that new accounting standards will be interpreted and applied as intended. Even when compliance with IFRS is mandatory, preparers have considerable discretion when it comes to operationalising accounting prescriptions. Unless the challenges raised by preparers are addressed, misapplication of IFRS is likely to continue.

Originality/value

The research makes an important empirical and practical contribution by providing primary evidence on the operationalisation of IFRS 13 in a novel setting. It complements earlier research which has focused primarily on the conceptual/theoretical dimension and on American and European perspectives.

Details

Journal of Accounting in Emerging Economies, vol. 11 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-1168

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2014

Silvia Gardini and Giuseppe Grossi

The paper focuses on the potential benefits of fair value accounting (FVA) in the public sector and the shift towards the entity theory of consolidation supported by…

Abstract

The paper focuses on the potential benefits of fair value accounting (FVA) in the public sector and the shift towards the entity theory of consolidation supported by international accounting standards. The analysis of the Italian cases shows neither adjustments of the assets to their fair value, nor any recognition of intangibles other than goodwill in consolidated financial statement (CFS), maintaining the configuration of a municipal corporate group based on historical costs. These findings suggest a lack of focus on FVA by local governments (LGs), which is in contrast with international accounting standards. Using a combination of sources (such as annual reports and interviews), part of this paper is based on multiple-case studies of Italian LGs on the voluntary adoption of CFS.

Details

Journal of Public Budgeting, Accounting & Financial Management, vol. 26 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1096-3367

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Article
Publication date: 27 January 2020

Babajide Oyewo, Ebuka Emebinah and Romeo Savage

Following the issuance of International Financial Reporting Standard 13 on fair value measurement (which became operational from January 2013), this study aims to…

Abstract

Purpose

Following the issuance of International Financial Reporting Standard 13 on fair value measurement (which became operational from January 2013), this study aims to investigate post-implementation challenges in the audit of fair value measurement and accounting estimates in the Nigerian context.

Design/methodology/approach

Data-collection was through a structured-questionnaire administered on 400 auditors from diverse backgrounds in terms of audit firm size, international affiliation and global presence.

Findings

Empirical data obtained from 277 auditors were analysed using descriptive statistics, factor analysis, one-way ANOVA, cluster analysis, independent sample t-test and one-way multivariate analysis of co-variance. It was observed that the two highest-ranking and most-prevalent challenges of auditing fair value measurement and accounting estimates are the tendency for managers to manipulate earnings owing to the inability of auditor to effectively test fair value estimates; and the difficulty in testing unobservable inputs due to the application of assumptions and judgement in arriving at estimates by preparers of financial reports.

Originality/value

While there is no significant difference in the perception of auditors on the audit challenges associated with fair value measurement and accounting estimates, there is a significant difference in the magnitude of audit challenges faced in verifying fair value measurements and accounting estimates across industry sectors. Concerned stakeholders (including but not limited to accounting regulators, auditing standard setters, audit firms, researchers) are importuned to come up with robust and pragmatic measures to curtain these challenges, as the inability of auditors to rigorously verify fair value estimates may jeopardize the very essence of fair value measurement which is to elevate financial reporting quality.

Details

Journal of Financial Reporting and Accounting, vol. 18 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1985-2517

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